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AI: A Key Enabler for Sustainable Development Goals

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the fastest growing fields of technology thanks to its strong and increasingly diversified commercial revenue stream. The anticipated benefits of the next wave of AI encouraged politicians, economists and policy makers to pay more attention to AI. The next wave of strong/general AI and superintelligence will open the doors to create machines able to behave cognitively like a super human at both individual level and group level in unstructured, dynamic and partially observable environments. This may represent a significant existential risk to humanity if not regulated and smartly directed toward the benefit of humanity. Aligned with 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by UN Member States, next wave of AI can play instrumental roles in achieving these goals. This talk highlights the role of AI as an enabler for achieving the SDGs.

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AI: A Key Enabler for Sustainable Development Goals

  1. 1. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 1/221 AI: A Key Enabler for Sustainable Development Goals Alaa Khamis, PhD, SMIEEE Senior Advanced Technology Specialist, General Motors http://www.alaakhamis.org/ BVA 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis
  2. 2. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 2/222 2 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis SHORT BIO • Associate Professor and Head of Engineering Science Department at Suez University • Founder and Chair of IEEE RAS Egypt Chapter • Adjunct Professor - Autonomous Vehicles at Zewail City of Science and Technology • Adjunct Professor - Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center - Nile University • Head of Advanced Development Division at Sypron Solution • Associate Professor and Director of Robotics and Autonomous Systems Research Group at German University in Cairo • M.Sc. Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University in 1998 • B.Sc. Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University in 1993 • Senior AI/ML Specialist at General Motors Canada, July 2017-present • Research Assistant Professor, AI Lecturer and Smart Mobility Group Coordinator at University of Waterloo • Senior Research Scientist at Vestec, Inc. • AI Consultant, MenyaSolutions • Director of Engineering R&I - Canada Marques Aviation Ltd • Visiting Professor Université de Sherbrooke Distinguished Scholar at FH Ravensburg-Weingarten, Germany Visiting Researcher at University of Reading, UK • Visiting Professor at Carlos III University of Madrid • Post-doctoral Fellow at Carlos III University of Madrid • M.Sc. in 2010 and Ph.D. in 2003, Carlos III University of Madrid
  3. 3. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 3/223 3 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis OUTLINE AI Power and Limitations A Closer Look at Machine Learning (ML) AI for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Summary
  4. 4. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 4/224 4 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS
  5. 5. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 5/225 5 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS Robotics Self-Driving Voice Assistants Healthcare Consumer Electronics Financial Advisor
  6. 6. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 6/226 6 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS Photo: Neota Logic
  7. 7. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 7/227 7 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS Topic High-level Functions • Partially understood • Not fully localized o Perception o Situation awareness o Decision making under uncertainty o Learning o Adaptation o etc. There is more we do NOT know about the brain, than what we do know Low-level Functions • Fully understood • Localized o Sensory functions (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch) o Motor functions (object grasping) o Sensorimotor functions (obstacle avoidance) • i-level Intelligence
  8. 8. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 8/228 8 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS Collective behavior is NOT simply the sum of each participant’s behavior, as others emerge at the society level. Low-level Functions o Cooperative data gathering o Information Exchange o Cooperative object detection o Cooperative Manipulation High-level Functions o Shared situation awareness o Consensus finding o Cooperative decision making o Group formation o Multiagent learning • g-level Intelligence
  9. 9. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 9/229 9 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS • Weak/Narrow AI versus Strong/AGI and ASI AI Wave Domain Brain Power Artificial Narrow Intelligence (AI) Domain-specific (image recognition, speech recognition, text mining, etc.) Looks similar but not at the same level (supresses brainpower of mouse) Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) Cross-domain capability (i-level) Supresses brainpower of human Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) Cross-domain capability (i-level and g-level) Supresses brainpower equivalent to all human brains combined Mouse brain Human brain . . . . . . Super brain
  10. 10. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 10/2210 10 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis A CLOSER LOOK AT ML
  11. 11. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 11/2211 11 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI POWER AND LIMITATIONS Source: Vishakha Jha, "Machine Learning Algorithm - Backbone of emerging technologies", TechLeer, 2017.
  12. 12. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 12/2212 12 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis A CLOSER LOOK AT ML • Datafication: Data is the new oil
  13. 13. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 13/2213 13 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis A CLOSER LOOK AT ML • Robustness
  14. 14. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 14/2214 14 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis A CLOSER LOOK AT ML • Trends in 2018
  15. 15. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 15/2215 15 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS
  16. 16. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 16/2216 16 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS Benefits to the humanity Sebastian Thrun Ray Kurzweil Bill GatesStephen Hawking Elon Musk Andrew Ng Significant existential risk to humanity • AI: Benefits or Risks?
  17. 17. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 17/2217 17 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS
  18. 18. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 18/2218 18 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS Sharing economy as a business model Mapping poverty with big data analytics Job increase in non-routine cognitive jobs Source: US Population Survey; Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  19. 19. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 19/2219 19 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS Satellite images analytics and Agro-meteorological monitoring In-field monitoring, harvesting and picking, weed control, autonomous mowing, sorting and packing, etc. Predict crop/animal diseases, pesticide planning, livestock management, etc. Assessing Soil/Crop/Livestock Health
  20. 20. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 20/2220 20 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS Preventive Healthcare (Discover measures to disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment) Predictive Healthcare (analyzes historical data to prevent future target events Cognitive Healthcare (automates decisions using human-like analysis) Personalized Healthcare (Right patient, right drug, right dose and the right time)
  21. 21. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 21/2221 21 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS Personalized Learning • Interactive Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) • Intelligent tutoring system (ITS) • Machine Teaching . . . Challenge- based Learning (CBL) Global Classroom (Mixed reality, computer vision and monitoring performance)
  22. 22. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 22/2222 22 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • Monitoring and track gender bias and provide actionable insights to the decision makers to drive balanced hiring • Women economic empowerment (innovative technologies for skill development and training women in vocational trades)
  23. 23. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 23/2223 23 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • Smart water monitoring and management systems • Smart renewable energy grids
  24. 24. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 24/2224 24 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • AI keeps humans away from inhumane jobs (4D tasks: Dangerous, Dull, Dirt and Dumb). • AI creates new products and services resulting in economic growth. Source: US Population Survey; Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  25. 25. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 25/2225 25 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • AI plays instrumental role in the 4th industry revolution Industry 4.0 that relies on digitalization, automation, connectivity and analytics. • It’s a key enabler for smart factories. Better Quality Increased Productivity Sharing Economy Improved Decision Making Mass Customization Faster Production Industry 4.0
  26. 26. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 26/2226 26 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • Robotic assistive systems will empower elderly and physically challenged leading to more equal and inclusive society. MIT AgeLabUCL wiredPinterest
  27. 27. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 27/2227 27 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • Multimodal smart sensors to monitor different aspects in the city/community and manage assets and resources efficiently • Smart cities to bring in efficiency and bottom-line benefits as well as environmental improvements. • Monitor consumption levels • Predict optimal production levels to reduce waste. • Global Earth Observation System of Systems • Track stratospheric ozone depletion • Model climate change to predict disasters such as windstorms
  28. 28. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 28/2228 28 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis AI FOR SDGS • Track illegal fishing activities through pattern recognition • Track marine-life migration • Underwater exploration using submarine robots (example: Stanford OceanOne). • Monitor airborne, marine, water pollutants, species health, land-use change, food security and nutrition, noise levels, weather-related stresses and disease vectors. • Predict population trends, desertification trends, epidemics, etc. • Better surveillance, reconnaissance, demining, counter- IEDs, planning and decision making technologies • Enable efficiencies, transparency, engagement, personalized and responsive intelligent services via Smart Governance.
  29. 29. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 29/2229 29 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis SUMMARY
  30. 30. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 30/2230 30 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis SUMMARY • The next wave of strong/general AI and superintelligence will open the doors to create machines able to behave cognitively like a super human at both individual level and group level in unstructured, dynamic and partially observable environments. • Like any other technology, superintelligence is a double- edged sword. It may represent a significant existential risk to humanity if not regulated and smartly directed toward the benefit of humanity. • Aligned with 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by UN Member States, next wave of AI can play instrumental roles in achieving these goals.
  31. 31. MUSES_SECRET: ORF-RE Project - © PAMI Research Group – University of Waterloo 31/2231 31 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis Thank you for your attention! Questions? BVA 2018 © Dr. Alaa Khamis

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