Second Language Acquisition Theories

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There are many theories in terms of second language acquisition. However, I have chosen only three.

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Second Language Acquisition Theories

  1. 1. Language Acquisition & Learning Second
  2. 2. Exposed to 2 languages from birth Speaker is fluent in 2 languages
  3. 3. Categories Simultaneous •L1 and L2 learned at the same time Early Sequential •L1 learned first, but L2 learned relatively early in childhood Late •L2 learned later, in adolescence or later
  4. 4. Young children can quickly forget (within __ months) the old language and pick up a new one if they move to another country.
  5. 5. 6
  6. 6. Language Processing • Separate lexicons for each language Separate store • Words from both languages stored and connected directly Common store • Mixture of S and CCognates
  7. 7. Are women really better at [learning] language?
  8. 8. Methods to teach a second language Immersion Method Learner taught exclusively through medium of L2 Submersion Method Learner is surrounded exclusively by speakers of the L2 usually in a social setting or foreign country Traditional Method Direct translation from L1 to L2; Lectures in grammar in L1 Direct Method All teaching done in L2 with emphasis on conversational skills Audiolingual Method Speaking and listening are emphasized rather than reading and writing
  9. 9. Second Language Acquisition ‘…learning of a subsequent language to that learnt in childhood and processes involved and learners.’
  10. 10. Inter-language (IL) intermediate states [or interim grammar] from L1 to L2 (IL – introduced by Selinker)
  11. 11. Inter-language (Rod Ellis) 1st One form for multi-functions: I live in Manchester, last year I live in London, next year I live in Amman. 2st Some forms have been acquired: I live in Manchester, last year I lived in London, next year I lived in Amman.
  12. 12. Inter-language (Rod Ellis) 3rd The various forms start to be used systematically. The student may write the forms correctly but still use the incorrect forms when speaking. 4th The student uses the forms correctly and consistently.
  13. 13. Transfer • Conceptual Mediation • First to SecondForward • Word Association • Second to FirstBackward
  14. 14. The Monitor Model Theory 1. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis 2. Monitor Hypothesis 3. Natural Order Hypothesis 4. Input Hypothesis 5. Affective Filter Hypothesis Stephen Krashen
  15. 15. Acquisition- Learning Hypothesis Sub-conscious vs Conscious LEARNING ACQUISITION Acculturation vs. Formal Learning
  16. 16. • It is pointless spending a lot of time learning grammar rules. • There are many that know the rules but are unable to apply them whilst speaking.
  17. 17. Monitor Hypothesis Conscious editor Conscious monitor
  18. 18. Over-users Under-users Optimal-users appropriate count all the time speak too fast with errors
  19. 19. • Most normal conversations simply do not provide enough time to do self- correction. • Acquired language skills can lead to improved fluency but overuse of the monitor can lead to a reduction in fluency.
  20. 20. Natural Order Hypothesis ComplexSimple ComplexSimple
  21. 21. • The natural order of acquisition cannot be influenced by direct teaching of features that the learner is not yet ready to acquire. • FRUSTRATION ALERT: Inculcate a grammatical form which the learner is not yet ready to acquire.
  22. 22. Input Hypothesis i 1current state or stage of proficiency makes sense of the messages received in language
  23. 23. • We acquire language in one way only when we are exposed to input (written or spoken language) that is comprehensible to us. • Given comprehensible input at i+1, acquisition will take place effortlessly and involuntarily.
  24. 24. Affective Filter Hypothesis anxiety self-esteem motivation
  25. 25. • Learners who are highly motivated, self- confident and less anxious are better equipped for success in SLA. • If the filter is high, the input will not pass through and subsequently there will be no acquisition
  26. 26. Teacher, British and American accents. Which one is better?
  27. 27. There’s always a Jerry in anybody. Allen
  28. 28. ….. a Jerry who roars like a lion
  29. 29. References • Altarriba, J. & Soltano, E. G. (1996). Repetition Blindness and Bilingual Memory: Token Individuation for Translation Equivalents. Memory and Cognition • Buck, M., Lambert, W. E. & Tucker, G. R. (1976). Cognitive and Attitudinal Consequences of Bilingual Schooling: The Saint Lambert Project Through Grade Six. International Journal of Psycholinguistics • Carroll, J. B. (1981). Twenty-Five Years of Research on Foreign Language Aptitude. Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude. Rowley, MA: Newbury House • Dörnyei, Z. (1990). Conceptualizing Motivation in Foreign Language Learning. Language Learning • Duskova, L. (1969). On Sources of Errors in Foreign Language Learning. International Review of Applied Linguistics
  30. 30. • Ellis, R. (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press • Ellis, N. C. & Beaton, A. (1993). Factors Affecting the Learning of Foreign Language Vocabulary: Imagery Keyword and Phonological Short-Term Memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology • Gass, S.M. and Selinker, L. (1994). Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. Hillsdale, NJ/ London: Lawrence Erlbaum • Harley, T. A. (2008). The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory (3rded).UK: Ashford Colour Press Ltd • Kersten, A. W. & Earles, J, L. (2001). Less Really is More for Adults Learning a Miniature Artificial Language. Journal of Memory and Language
  31. 31. • Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and Practices in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon • Krashen, S. D. (1988). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. HemelHempstead: Prentice Hall • McLaughlin, B. & Heredia, R. (1996). Information- Processing Approaches to Research on Second Language Acquisition and Use. London: Academic Press • Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories London: Edward Arnold • Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. (2004). Second Language Learning Theories (2nded).London: Edward Arnold
  32. 32. • Newmar, L. (1966). How Not to Interfere with Language Learning. Cognitive Science • Papagno, C., Valentine, T. & Baddeley, A. (1991). Phonological Short-Term Memory and Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning. Journal of Memory and Language • Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press • Sharpe, K. (1992). Communication, Culture, Context, Confidence: The Four Cs of Primary Modern Language Teaching. Language Learning Journal • Robinson, P. (2001). Individual Differences, Cognitive Abilities and Aptitude Complexes. Second Language Research • White, L. (2003). Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  33. 33. Salamat!

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