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The Knowledge Economy:Wherefore Libraries


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Discusses possible roles and business models for libraries in the knowledge economy

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The Knowledge Economy:Wherefore Libraries

  1. 1. The Knowledge Economy: Wherefore Libraries Albert Simard Presented to: Eastern Canada Chapter Special Libraries Association Nov. 22, 2007 Ottawa, Ontario 1
  2. 2. Libraries have a long history… Librarians have been managing knowledge for about 2,500 years Library at Alexandria established in 283 BC Capture and store the worlds knowledge Library of Alexandria – artist’s concept But… 2
  3. 3. Tradition is not enough… “While they all make varying use of corporate libraries and information systems, few knowledge workers feel that these groups can be relied on for more than a modest amount of their information needs.” James McGee and Lawrence Prusak Managing Information Strategically (1993) 3
  4. 4. Knowledge Economy Success based on what you know, not what you own Value of goods based on knowledge, not material Creating and using knowledge is the key Organizations must evolve or become irrelevant 4
  5. 5. Outline Knowledge Assets Preserving Knowledge Knowledge Markets Social Networking 5
  6. 6. The Evolution of Knowledge Management KM Knowledge Type of Implications Generation Carrier Knowledge 1st Artifacts Explicit Infrastructure for acquiring, organizing, sharing & reusing knowledge 2nd Individuals Tacit Individual behavior, capturing & exchanging knowledge 3rd Networks Emergent Network connectivity, group collaboration & synergy (Patti Anklam, 2007) 6
  7. 7. Knowledge Attributes Knowledge is increasing; half-life is decreasing Knowledge can be in many places at one time Knowledge may be permanent or time sensitive Knowledge is used without being consumed Selling does not reduce supply nor ability to resell Once disseminated, knowledge cannot be recalled Thomas Stewart (1997) 7
  8. 8. Explicit Knowledge Books, publications, reports Photos, diagrams, illustrations Computer code, decision-support systems Presentations, speeches, lectures Stories, lessons learned, recordings Laws, regulations, procedures, policies Embedded into products 8
  9. 9. Tacit Knowledge Awareness Skills Mental models Expertise Judgement Wisdom Corporate memory The Thinker - Rodin 9
  10. 10. Transferring Knowledge Conversations, discussions, dialogue Questions & answers Knowledge extraction Advice, briefings, recommendations Mentoring, teaching, examples Presentations, lectures, stories Documents, books, manuals Education, training, demonstration Meetings, workshops, conferences 10
  11. 11. Outline Knowledge Assets Preserving Knowledge Knowledge Markets Social Networking 11
  12. 12. Knowledge Preservation Value Chain Codifier Custodian Provider Manager Specialist Capture Organize Store Retrieve Maintain inventory map capacity access continuity 12
  13. 13. Capturing Knowledge Assets • Objectives • Identification • Evaluation • Document • Codify • Digitize • Enter 13
  14. 14. Briefing Note Database 14
  15. 15. Organizing Knowledge Epistemology Cognitive approaches Automated methods Classification systems Thesauri, taxonomies Interdisciplinary issues Linguistic issues 15
  16. 16. Storing Knowledge Assets • Information technology infrastructure • Systems for archiving and managing knowledge • Interface for entry and administration • Data warehouse, distributed databases • Information repository, records management • Knowledge repository, knowledge map • Digital libraries, traditional libraries 16
  17. 17. Retrieving Knowledge Assets Access to knowledge Browser interface Search engine Extraction tools Manipulation tools Assembly tools Retrieval system Relativity - Escher 17
  18. 18. Maintaining Knowledge Assets • Content integrity • System and content security • Access to content • Service standards • Migrate technology • Life cycle management 18
  19. 19. Migrating Knowledge Assets Paper Punch cards Paper tape Magnetic tape Computer disks Floppy disks Tape cassettes Diskettes CD-ROMS Gone With the Wind 19
  20. 20. Outline Knowledge assets Preserving Knowledge Knowledge Markets Social Networking 20
  21. 21. A Transactional Knowledge Market Supply (Providers) Providers and users connect through a virtual marketplace facilitated by knowledge brokers Government On-Line; Demand (Users) Global Disaster Information Network 21
  22. 22. Knowledge Market: Attributes Price – reciprocity, repute, altruism Trust – visible, ubiquitous, top-down Signals – position, education, reputation Inefficiencies – incomplete information, asymmetry, localness Pathologies – monopolies, artificial scarcity, trade barriers Adapted from Davenport (1998) 22
  23. 23. Knowledge Brokers Assist with search and retrieval Assist in adapting knowledge to user needs Maintain information repositories Provide digital infrastructure for exchange Manage the market infrastructure Assist with knowledge dissemination Increase awareness of knowledge availability 23
  24. 24. Knowledge Sharing: Mechanisms Talking (real, virtual) E-mail (individuals, list servers, distribution lists) Chat rooms, forums, discussion groups Communities of interest, social networks Groupware (teams, working groups) Symposia, conferences, workshops Data, information, & knowledge repositories Libraries (repositories, access, search, retrieval) 24
  25. 25. CAB International 25
  26. 26. National Library of Canada 26
  27. 27. Canadian Forest Service Libraries - MetaFore 27
  28. 28. A Digital Library 28
  29. 29. Digital Libraries: Characteristics Documents are assembled on the fly Large collection of digital objects All types of digital material Stored in electronic repositories May be centralized or distributed Accessible through national networks 29
  30. 30. Protecting Common E-Documents Organizations (provider & user under one organizational mandate) Providers (generally not aligned with common good, societal needs and long-term preservation) Users (preservation tends to be user-centric) Community archives (most complex) Purpose (historical, cultural, scholarly record) Legal protection (from liability from open access) Access rights & restrictions (sustainable business model) (Donald Waters, 2007) 30
  31. 31. Outline Knowledge assets Preserving Knowledge Knowledge Markets Social Networking 31
  32. 32. Network Governance Charter – Members agree to participate in achieving common objectives, within a network structure, with participant records and accountability and common rights and responsibilities to property. Nature: Flexible, dynamic, opportunistic, synergistic, unpredictable. (unstructured, self-organized, maximizes reward) 32
  33. 33. Network scale Group: few participants; elicit knowledge; unstructured; aggregating knowledge (knowledge services task group) Communities: many participants; share knowledge; self-directed; common interest (organizational IM community) Networks: massive participants; peer production; emergent processes; common ownership (Linux developers) 33
  34. 34. Network Structure 34
  35. 35. Network Principles Openness – collaboration based on candor, transparency, freedom, flexibility, and accessibility. Peering – horizontal voluntary meritocracy, based on fun, altruism, or personal values. Sharing – increased value of common products benefits all participants. Acting Globally – value is created through very large knowledge ecosystems. 35
  36. 36. Network - Examples Blogs – Individuals can easily publish anything on the Web without specialized knowledge. YouTube – enables easy publishing and viewing of video clips on the Web. SlideShare – Enables easy publishing and sharing of PowerPoint presentations on the Web. Innocentive – A global “Ideagora” where those who need solutions and those with solutions can meet. Wikis – Rapid collaborative development of products; anyone can revise anything 36
  37. 37. Network Successes Wikipedia –2 Million English entries; 165 Languages; 10 times larger then Encyclopedia Britannica Linux – open-source operating system developed by thousands of programmers around the world GoldCorp – released geological data in an open contest to find gold; increased reserves by factor of 4. Procter & Gamble – uses network of 90,000 external scientists to leverage internal research capacity. Leggo – uses imagination and creativity of worldwide toy owners to create new products. 37
  38. 38. Natural Resources Canada Wiki 38
  39. 39. Capturing Value Bring it inside the organization Stabilize it; make it work 39
  40. 40. Knowledge As a Commons Prerequisites Virtual (digitized, on an Internet server) Economic (no cost to user; who pays cost?) Legal (flexible copyright, license restrictions) Primacy of authors Facilitate (digitize, metadata, administration) Remove disincentives (prepublication, no reward) Create incentives (OA recognition, prestige) Intellectual property Constrictive (excludes imitation, restricts entry) Facilitating (protects disclosure, dissemination) Irrelevant (not air tight, grey areas) (Hess and Ostrom, 2007) 40
  41. 41. Knowledge Commons Principles An open, collective, and self-governed knowledge ecosystem is more sustainable than restricted knowledge held as a resource and property. Imitation is important for transmitting social and cultural knowledge. Markets are important for organizing a knowledge commons, but need to be well regulated to maintain open access. Open systems of recording and preserving knowledge are important to democratic societies. Hess and Ostrom (2007) 41
  42. 42. A final thought… “The Internet allows users to become their own librarians, able to research, study, and investigate anything with nothing more than a mouse and a keyboard.” Francis Cairncross The Death of Distance (1997) 42