Science & Technology in a Wired World

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Explains to a science audience why creating knowledge is not enough in a digital exonomy

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  • Today, I'd like to talk about how the transformation from an industrial society to an information society is likely to affect science and technology – particularly in the Canadian Forest Service. It’s not that the methods of science (hypothesis, experiment, proof) will change significantly, but more that the role of science will be different in the new society. This revolution presents both tremendous opportunities for the Canadian Forest Service as well as significant challenges.
  • Science & Technology in a Wired World

    1. 1. Science and Technology in a Wired World “ Since it is axiomatic that a firm’s greatest asset is its knowledge, then the firm that fails to generate new knowledge will probably cease to exist.” Thomas Davenport (1998) Canadian Forest Service - S&T Forum – June 26, 2001
    2. 2. Creating Knowledge is not Enough <ul><li>Palo Alto Research Center developed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical User Interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-oriented programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser Printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook computer (concept) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Xerox stuck to it’s core business (photocopying) </li></ul><ul><li>Apple, Hewlett Packard, 3COM became rich </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese photocopiers nearly destroyed Xerox </li></ul>
    3. 3. Knowledge-Based Economy <ul><li>Success based on what you know; not what you own </li></ul><ul><li>Value of goods based on knowledge content </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and using knowledge is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Internet runs two ways; Canada must participate </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations must change or become irrelevant </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Rate of change is accelerating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life of knowledge approaching zero by 2035 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confluence of technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication, computers, networks, information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moore’s Law (technology) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity doubles every 12-18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metcalf’s Law (networks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is proportional to users 2 </li></ul></ul>In a Wired World
    5. 5. An Information Society <ul><li>Fundamental socioeconomic revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>societies, economies and organizations must adapt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consequences of a global nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information desert to information jungle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasingly complex issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainable development, climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing expectations of users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility, timeliness, transparency </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Knowledge Organization Internal Knowledge Nature External Knowledge Applied Knowledge Creation Sharing Management Preservation Lost Knowledge
    7. 7. Knowledge 101 <ul><li>Data - What are the Facts? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(observations and measurements) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information - What do they mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(interpretation within a context) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - How does it work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(relations between things, cause & effect) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wisdom - What should I do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(experience and judgment) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Creating Knowledge Process Data Information Knowledge Application Production Stage Value Drivers (problems, issues, government) Organization (mandate, resources, culture) People (analyze, reason, decide) Content (facts, meaning, understanding) Systems (information processes) Technology (computers, communication)
    9. 9. Creating Knowledge - Steps <ul><li>Search for existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire content </li></ul><ul><li>Manage databases </li></ul><ul><li>Transform data into information </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Produce knowledge products </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminate knowledge products </li></ul><ul><li>Use knowledge to solve problems </li></ul>
    10. 10. Enabling Knowledge Creation <ul><li>Descriptive - program descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Static - reports, publications </li></ul><ul><li>Updated - inventories, statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic - information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive - decision-support systems </li></ul>
    11. 11. Creating Knowledge on the Web User Perspectives
    12. 12. Creating Knowledge on the Web Provider Perspectives
    13. 13. Knowledge Management <ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resources, infrastructure, content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>governance, culture, learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertical, horizontal, external </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Framework Capacity Building Organizational Context Resources Infra - structure Co n tent Gover-nance Culture Learning Funds People Time Technology Systems Management Acquisition Production Dissemination Vision Direction Commitment Change Sharing Controlling Education Skills Experience
    15. 15. Autonomous, distributed databases & information repositories Integrating Knowledge Land use Resource inventories Resource statistics Census Data Environmental data Remote sensing Integrated data, information, and knowledge Internet Internet Diverse horizontal issues Sustainable Development Climate change Rural Communities Health & Safety Economic competitiveness Aboriginal Issues
    16. 16. Preserving Knowledge <ul><li>Capture - document, codify, digitize, enter </li></ul><ul><li>Organize - classification, thesauri, metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Store - libraries, repositories, data warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieve - browser, search engine, access </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain - security, integrity, access </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate - evolve technology </li></ul><ul><li>Manage - value, life cycle, capacity </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sharing Knowledge Agency 1 Information Agency 2 Information Internal flow regulators Internal flow regulators External flow regulators Attributes Technology Infrastructure
    18. 18. Knowledge Flow Regulators <ul><li>Context - issues, social, economic, nature </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional - organization, national, international </li></ul><ul><li>Content - domain, provider, user </li></ul><ul><li>Technology - computers, communication, networks </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure - interoperability, metadata, systems </li></ul>
    19. 19. None High Restricted Unrestricted Desired general state Specific cost circumstances Specific restriction circumstances Specific cost and restriction circumstances Goal of proposed policy NRCan Access to Knowledge Policy Access Cost
    20. 20. Adapting Content to Users <ul><li>Scientific (concepts, process, correctness) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical (details, precision, manuals) </li></ul><ul><li>Business (profits, competition, case studies) </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesized (integration, generalities) </li></ul><ul><li>General (usability, understandability) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning (education, training, skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Youth (curiosity, fun) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Using Knowledge <ul><li>Solve problems (experience, complex) </li></ul><ul><li>Support decisions (quantitative, defensible) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce work (automation, systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Speed response (efficiency, effectiveness) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze issues (horizontal, multi-dimensional) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop policies (negotiate, conflicting) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve materials (stronger, use less) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance technology (functionality, reliability) </li></ul><ul><li>Predict outcomes (plan, anticipate) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Knowledge Management Division <ul><li>Steering Committee established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected DGs, Directors from all Regions, Branches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundation documents being drafted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(business case, governance, strategic plan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerable activity under way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International (2), national (5), departmental (7), CFS (22) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CFS-KM Web site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cfsintranet.nrcan.gc.ca/KM/ </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. In the final analysis… “ Knowledge of the universe would somehow be…defective were no practical results to follow.” Cicero (106-43 BC)

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