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Mobilizing Disaster Content: From Source to Use


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Describes the flow of disaster-related content from its source to end use through five processes: monitoring, decision support, integration, transactional knowledge markets, and sequential service markets

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Mobilizing Disaster Content: From Source to Use

  1. 1. Mobilizing Disaster Content: Pre-ICIS SIG DSS Workshop Montreal, Dec. 9, 2007 Albert Simard From Source to Use
  2. 2. Content Value Chain “ Flow of content through sequential stages, each of which changes its form and increases its usefulness and value.” (NRCan, 2006) Objects Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Measurement Analysis Synthesis Experience
  3. 3. Content Flow - Source to Use Environment Disaster Occurrence Organization Economy Society Decision-Support Models Outputs Outcomes Actions Environment Events Knowledge Organization Economy Society Decision Making Mobilizing Transforming Inputs Availability Reliability Timeliness Channels Networks Markets Information System
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Environmental Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Support </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Markets </li></ul>
  5. 5. Monitoring - Inputs <ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Trump </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Monitoring - Transformation Fire Behavior Prediction ( FBP ) System Outputs GIS Products Reports & Statistics Rate of Spread Fuel Consumption Fire Intensity Type of Fire Crown Fraction Burned Fire Load Area Burned Fire Size Classes Fuel Consumption Greenhouse Gases Foliar Moisture Content Fuels Weather Topography Remote Sensing Fire Masks Inputs FBP System Fuel Type Fuel moisture Wind Speed & Direction Slope & Aspect Elevation, Latitude, Longitude & Date Hot Spot Location, Time & Date
  7. 7. Monitoring - Outputs
  8. 8. Monitoring - Use <ul><li>Relative indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Must be interpreted </li></ul><ul><li>Risk awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness levels </li></ul><ul><li>Permits & restrictions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Decision Support - Planning <ul><li>Suppression models </li></ul><ul><li>Time to escape </li></ul><ul><li>Control effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Response planning </li></ul><ul><li>Resource deployment </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Specific event </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed fire </li></ul><ul><li>Land owner calls </li></ul><ul><li>District fills form </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs: go/no-go </li></ul><ul><li>3 Minutes </li></ul>Decision Support - Regulation Florida Division of Forestry Smoke Dispersion Prediction
  11. 11. Decision Support - Response <ul><li>Wildfire </li></ul><ul><li>Initial attack </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression time </li></ul><ul><li>Attack strength </li></ul><ul><li>Resource type </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize fires </li></ul>
  12. 12. Integration – National Mosaic <ul><li>AVHRR images </li></ul><ul><li>Daily, low resolution </li></ul><ul><li>National mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>Identify “hot spots” </li></ul><ul><li>Geocorrect points </li></ul><ul><li>Plot on GIS map </li></ul><ul><li>National situation </li></ul><ul><li>Drill-down capability </li></ul>Fire M3 Internet Products, May 5, 1999 CANADA CENTRE FOR REMOTE SENSING Applications Division CANADIAN FOREST SERVICE Fire Research Network
  13. 13. Integration - Mapping <ul><li>Landsat images </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic, high resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Less costly </li></ul><ul><li>Unburned islands </li></ul><ul><li>Daily advance </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior by fuel type </li></ul>Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
  14. 14. Integration – Smoke Dispersion <ul><li>Smoke detection </li></ul><ul><li>Production & dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>Community evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gasses </li></ul><ul><li>National carbon budget </li></ul>
  15. 15. Integration – Fire Load <ul><li>Counting hot spots = Area with large fire </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of work & resources needed </li></ul><ul><li>National mobilization </li></ul>Source: Canadian Forest Service 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Number of Hot Spots 27-May 29-May 31-May 2-Jun 4-Jun 6-Jun 8-Jun 10-Jun 12-Jun 14-Jun 16-Jun 18-Jun 20-Jun 22-Jun 24-Jun 26-Jun 28-Jun 30-Jun Date Daily Fire Load Statistics (Canada: May 27 - June 30 1995)
  16. 16. Transactional Market <ul><li>National disaster portals </li></ul><ul><li>Global Disaster Information Network </li></ul>Supply (Providers) Demand (Users) Providers and users connect through a virtual marketplace facilitated by brokers
  17. 17. Market - Attributes <ul><li>Autonomous - providers and users </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity - mandates, jurisdictions, roles </li></ul><ul><li>Legal - accountability, responsibility, liability </li></ul><ul><li>Certification - inclusion, authenticity, reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Quality - completeness, timeliness, accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure - standards, networks, systems </li></ul>
  18. 18. Market Mechanisms <ul><li>Price – reciprocity, repute, altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Trust – visible, ubiquitous, top-down </li></ul><ul><li>Signals – position, education, networks </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficiencies – incomplete information, asymmetry, localness </li></ul><ul><li>Pathologies – monopolies, artificial scarcity, trade barriers </li></ul>Adapted from Davenport (1998)
  19. 19. Market Services <ul><li>Facilitate search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Help adapt content to user needs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain content repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Provide infrastructure for exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Increase awareness of content availability </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with content dissemination </li></ul>
  20. 20. National Fire Portal <ul><li>General information </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations & FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>National content </li></ul><ul><li>Agency content </li></ul><ul><li>Used by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practitioners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sequential Market - Value Chain 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Use Professionally Use Personally Use Internally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Extract Advance Embed Legend Organization Sector / Society
  22. 22. Sequential Market (Performance / Supply) (Market / Demand) 6. Add Value 7. Use Professionally 8. Use Personally Evaluate Natural Resources Forestry Metals & Minerals Earth Sciences Energy 1. Generate 2. Transform 3. Enable 4. Use Internally 5. Transfer Organization
  23. 23. A Tale of Two Cities 5 cases 44 deaths 350 cases Information Services Vancouver BC Toronto ON
  24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Mobilizing disaster content from source to use involves the environment, events, organizations, knowledge, the economy, and society </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems must acquire, transfer and process reliable and timely content through diverse channels, networks, and markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support systems depend on how well: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process models represent situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management models relate to actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic models are relevant to outcomes </li></ul></ul>