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Information Services: Breaking down Departmental Silos


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Describes elemental social networking concepts on a base of content management and knowledge services, focusing on interactions among government agencies.

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Information Services: Breaking down Departmental Silos

  1. 1. Information Services: Breaking Down Departmental Silos Albert Simard presented to Information Management in the Public Sector Oct. 18-19, 2007, Ottawa, Ontario
  2. 2. A Tale of Two Cities 5 cases 44 deaths 350 cases Information Services Vancouver BC Toronto ON
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Content Management (inside a department) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services (departmental outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Networks (many departments) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Content ? <ul><li>Collections – objects, artifacts: books, documents, rocks, minerals, insects, plant materials, diseased tissue, seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Data – facts, observations : elements, files, records, datasets, databases, statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Information – meaning, context: records, documents, reports, photos, maps, brochures, presentations, recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge – understanding, predictability : equations, models, scientific publications, experience, know-how </li></ul>Content
  5. 5. Content Value Chain “ Flow of content through sequential stages, each of which changes its form and increases its usefulness and value.” (NRCan, 2006) Content Objects Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Domain Department Admin. Data Records Know how Experience
  6. 6. Managing Content Content to Content from Production Existing Inventory Managers Lost Value Preserve Enable Accessible Inventory Organization Mandate to Sharing
  7. 7. Content Management Content Existing: Content Products Services Accessible: Content Products Services Establish programs Implement programs Persevere Manage: IT infrastructure libraries collections data records information knowledge Inventory Prioritize Capture Record Organize Store Senior manager Manager IT manager Champion Curator Data manager Information manager Knowledge manager Inventory Enable Preserve Managers
  8. 8. Organizational Infrastructure Content, Services Content People <ul><ul><li>Individual behavior, communities, culture </li></ul></ul>Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Processes Collections, data, libraries, records, information, knowledge Forestry, energy, metals, earth sciences Tools Hardware, software, systems, networks
  9. 9. Content Flow Content Executive Operational C Programs Industry Admin Science Policy
  10. 10. Using Content Content Result Work Knowledge worker Integration Coordinate Coordinator Position Advise Advisor Plan Prepare plans Planner Operations Manage program Program Manager Direction Lead Leader What Work Who
  11. 11. Outline <ul><li>Content Management (inside a department) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services (departmental outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Networks (many departments) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Knowledge Services Services Programs that produce or provide content- based departmental outputs to meet user needs Direction Plans Operations Positions Coordination Accomplishments Answers Advice Teaching Facilitation Support Laboratory Database Scientific article Technical report Outreach material Geospatial products Statistical products Standards Policies Regulations Systems Devices Objects Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Solutions Assistance Products Content
  13. 13. Knowledge Services System Services Indirect Outputs Sector Outcomes Canadians Intelligence Organization Mandate Body of Knowledge (Knowledge cycle) Direct Outputs Evaluators Recommendations Benefits (tertiary) (secondary) (primary) Knowledge
  14. 14. Knowledge Services System - Attributes <ul><li>Independent of content or issues </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a sound logic model </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses real-world complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all organizational “Infostructure” </li></ul><ul><li>Supports performance measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Helps identify important questions. </li></ul>Services
  15. 15. Information Market Services Government On-Line Global Disaster Information Network Demand (Users) Providers and users connect through an Information Market Supply (Providers)
  16. 16. Knowledge Services Value Chain 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Services Use Internally Use Professionally Use Personally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Extract Advance Embed Legend S Organization Sector / Society
  17. 17. Knowledge Market Services Tale of Two Cities (Performance / Supply) (Market / Demand) 6. Add Value 7. Use Professionally 8. Use Personally Evaluate Natural Resources Forestry Metals & Minerals Earth Sciences Energy 1. Generate 2. Transform 3. Enable 4. Use Internally 5. Transfer Organization
  18. 18. Why A Service Framework ? <ul><li>Horizontal flow rather than vertical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Links science to policy and other outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Supports organizational mandate and business </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes sector outcomes and benefits for clients and Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies Important questions, </li></ul><ul><li>such as… </li></ul>Services
  19. 19. Knowledge Markets - Approach <ul><li>Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate different types of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure system performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve system productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey market wants & needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transform surveys into market intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt outputs to market wants & needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolve capacity to reflect shifting markets </li></ul></ul>Services
  20. 20. Information Policy - Context Government of Canada Services Mandate Information Rights Information Policies Management Plans Programs Content Strategy Business Serviced-Based Framework Service Vision
  21. 21. Delivery Strategy -Richness Spectrum Rich Reach Services Provide Advertise Explain Promote Support Intervene Interaction All Many Some Few Few One Audience Size Forms Self-help Consultation Specification Paper Conversation Transfer All residents Canadians Practitioner Intermediary Knowledge Other service Content Destination Fool-proof Popular Professional Complicated Conceptual Complex Content Difficulty
  22. 22. Outline <ul><li>Content Management (inside a department) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services (departmental outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Networks (many departments) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Strategy <ul><li>“ We must aggressively break down the barriers that stand in the way of more strategic S&T collaborations among federal departments and agencies and between the federal S&T Community and universities, industry, and the non-profit sector.” </li></ul>(Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada’s Advantage, in: Neish, 2007) Networks
  24. 24. Formal Agreement <ul><li>Charter - Legal agreement to jointly achieve common objectives, within a management framework , with duplicate records and accountability and joint rights and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature: Clearly specified roles, rights, responsibilities, authorities, accountabilities, and reporting. (structured, bureaucratic, minimizes risk). </li></ul>Networks
  25. 25. Types of Formal Agreements <ul><li>Contractors: One-on-one; superior/ subordinate; single ownership of IP </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships: Two or more; among equals; joint ownership of IP </li></ul><ul><li>Consortiums: Multiple members; apportioned membership; common ownership of IP </li></ul>Networks A B A B A B C
  26. 26. Benefits of Formal Agreements <ul><li>Contractors: Using external expertise for one-time applications; no staffing, rapid delivery, no program. </li></ul><ul><li>Partners : Mutually leveraging external expertise for ongoing activities; augment core capacity with partner’s capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Consortiums : Creating value through synergy across all member’s expertise; accessing broad knowledge base. </li></ul>Networks
  27. 27. Partnership Value Chain Partner A Partner B Networks Joint Content Generate Generate Joint Products & Services Transform Transform Joint Inventory Manage Manage Joint Solutions Use Internally Use Internally Joint Outputs Transfer Transfer
  28. 28. Informal Agreements <ul><li>Charter - Mutual agreement to participate in achieving common objectives, within a network structure , with participant records and accountability and common rights and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature: Flexible, dynamic, opportunistic, synergistic, unpredictable. (unstructured, self-organized, maximizes reward) </li></ul>Networks
  29. 29. Types of Informal Agreements <ul><li>Group: few participants; elicit knowledge; unstructured; aggregating knowledge (NRCan knowledge services task group) </li></ul><ul><li>Communities: many participants; share knowledge; self-directed; common interest (departmental IM community) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks: massive participants; peer production; emergent processes; common ownership (Linux developers) </li></ul>Networks
  30. 30. Group Dialogue <ul><li>Dialogue is NOT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion, deliberation, negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee, team, task or working group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority wins, minority dominance, groupthink </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialogue IS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-flowing exchange of ideas among equals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All ideas are solicited and are considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best ideas rise to the top </li></ul></ul>Networks ( Sunstein, 2006)
  31. 31. Network Relationships Department Networks Businesses Governments Canadians Practitioners NGOs Educators Agreements, Outputs, Inputs
  32. 32. Network Structure Networks
  33. 33. Social Network Principles <ul><li>Openness – collaboration based on candor, transparency, freedom, flexibility, and accessibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Peering – horizontal voluntary meritocracy, based on fun, altruism, or personal values. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing – increased value of common products benefits all participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting Globally – value is created through planetary knowledge ecosystems. </li></ul>Networks
  34. 34. Social Network - Examples <ul><li>Blogs – Individuals can easily publish anything on the Web without specialized knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis – Rapid collaborative development of products; anyone can revise anything, experts are passionate </li></ul><ul><li>Innocentive – A global “Ideagora” in which those who need and those who have solutions can meet. </li></ul><ul><li>You Tube – enables easy publishing and viewing of video clips on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide Share – Enables easy publishing and sharing of PowerPoint presentations on the Web. </li></ul>Networks
  35. 35. Social Networks – SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Strengths – rapid development, world-class solutions, emergent properties, creative synergies, vibrant collaboration, openness </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses – constant change, unknown quality, less used by mature individuals, need to motivate participants, cannot be forced </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities – leverage internal capacity, provides creative solutions, easy to implement, low cost, can monitor emerging trends </li></ul><ul><li>Threats – undesirable knowledge leaks, free expression poses risk, is the crowd wise, documents subject to ATIP, compatibility with mandate </li></ul>Networks
  36. 36. Capturing Value Bring it inside the organization Stabilize it; make it work Networks
  37. 37. Challenges <ul><li>Legislative </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property </li></ul>(Neish, 2007) Networks
  38. 38. Road to Success <ul><li>Support from senior management </li></ul><ul><li>Clear understandable statement of what you want to do and why </li></ul><ul><li>Good working relationships with corporate and legal enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to compromise on issues that are not mission critical </li></ul><ul><li>Perseverance and persistence </li></ul>(Neish, 2007) Networks
  39. 39. Social Network Successes <ul><li>Wikipedia –2 Million English entries; 165 Languages; 10 times larger then Encyclopedia Britannica </li></ul><ul><li>Linux – open-source operating system developed by thousands of programmers around the world </li></ul><ul><li>GoldCorp – released geological data in an open contest to find gold; increased reserves by factor of 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Procter & Gamble – uses network of 90,000 external scientists to leverage internal research capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Leggo – uses imagination and creativity of worldwide toy owners to create new products. </li></ul>Networks
  40. 40. Implementing Social Networks <ul><li>They have both promise and peril </li></ul><ul><li>Consider both strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze both opportunities and threats </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a tool in search of a problem, or does it solve a recognized problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What will it do (or do better) that we can’t do now (or do well)? </li></ul>Networks
  41. 41. Conclusions <ul><li>Content is the life-blood of an organization: managing content is essential to organizational efficiency and effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Services are the interaction between an organization and its environment: providing services is essential to organizational relevance. </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking is the collaborative development of intellectual property: networking is essential to sustainability in the 21 st century. </li></ul>
  42. 42. A Final Thought… “ A particle can be understood only in terms of its activity – of its interaction with the surrounding environment – and that particle, therefore, cannot be seen as an isolated entity, but has to be understood as an integrated part of the whole.” Fritjof Capra The Tao of Physics (1979) [email_address]