Information and Knowledge Services: finding Structure in Complexity


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Describes a service framework for providing knowledge services (2006): knowledge aservices, knowledge services system, framework dimensions, service framework; report available

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Information and Knowledge Services: finding Structure in Complexity

  1. 1. Information and Knowledge Services: Finding Structure in Complexity Albert Simard presented to GTEC Ottawa, ON, Oct. 23, 2006
  2. 2. An opening thought… “ One of the saddest features of the real world is that goods do not spontaneously present themselves for distribution” The Economist (Nov. 5, 1994)
  3. 3. NRCan Knowledge Services Task Group Mandate “ Examine the nature of science-related programs in Natural Resources Canada, describe appropriate elements in the context of Government of Canada Service Transformation, and submit a report.” Background Understanding Knowledge Services NRCan (2006)
  4. 4. Orders of Knowledge Adapted from Snowden (2002) Background 1. Routine <ul><li>Standards, manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucrats, administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize, process </li></ul>2. Specialized <ul><li>Technical documents </li></ul><ul><li>Experts, consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Design, develop systems </li></ul>3. Complex <ul><li>Tacit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists, experience </li></ul><ul><li>Find patterns, understand </li></ul>4. Chaotic <ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Explorers, innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Explore, test </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Business Perspective <ul><li>Describe Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>+ Measure Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>+ Manage Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>= Effective Strategy </li></ul>Adapted from Kaplan and Norton (2004) Background
  6. 6. Outline <ul><li>Knowledge Services </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services System </li></ul><ul><li>Framework Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Service Framework </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Content ? <ul><li>Collections – objects, artifacts: books, documents, rocks, minerals, insects, plant materials, diseased tissue, seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Data – facts, observations : elements, files, records, datasets, databases, statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Information – meaning, context: records, documents, reports, photos, maps, brochures, presentations, recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge – understanding, predictability : equations, models, scientific publications, experience, know-how </li></ul>Services
  8. 8. Content Value Chain “ Flow of content through sequential stages, each of which changes its form and increases its usefulness and value.” (NRCan, 2006) “ Embedded value in the form of the message or signal contained within all elements of the content value chain.” Services Objects Data Information Knowledge Wisdom
  9. 9. Knowledge Services Services Direction Plans Operations Positions Coordination Accomplishments Answers Advice Teaching Facilitation Support Laboratory Database Scientific article Technical report Outreach material Geospatial products Statistical products Standards Policies Regulations Systems Devices Objects Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Solutions Services Products Content
  10. 10. Service Value Chain 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Services Use Internally Use Professionally Use Personally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Extract Advance Embed Legend Organization Sector / Society
  11. 11. Knowledge Services - Stages <ul><li>Generate (start Knowledge Services value chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Transform (goods & services increase utility, value) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage (permit transfer) </li></ul><ul><li>Use Internally (accomplish organizational objectives) </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer (enable external use) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance (increase availability, utility, value) </li></ul><ul><li>Use Professionally (sector derives benefits) </li></ul><ul><li>Use Personally (individuals derive benefits) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate (organizational mandate, resources) </li></ul>Services
  12. 12. Knowledge Market Services (Performance / Supply) (Market / Demand) 6. Add Value 7. Use Professionally 8. Use Personally Evaluate Natural Resources Forestry Metals & Minerals Earth Sciences Energy 1. Generate 2. Transform 3. Enable 4. Use Internally 5. Transfer Organization
  13. 13. Outline <ul><li>Knowledge Services </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services System </li></ul><ul><li>Framework Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Service Framework </li></ul>..
  14. 14. Knowledge Services System System Indirect Outputs Sector Outcomes Canadians Intelligence Organization Mandate Body of Knowledge (Knowledge cycle) Direct Outputs Evaluators Recommendations Benefits (tertiary) (secondary) (primary) Knowledge
  15. 15. Knowledge Services System Structure Elements of Zachman (1992) System Component… Component f Component c Component… Component e Component b Purpose… Purpose 2 Purpose 1 Component… Component d Component a Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage … Knowledge Services Value Chain Benefits Who Work What Why
  16. 16. System Stages * = essential System Organization Society / Nature Interme-diaries Add Value Enhanced Outputs Developers Transform Products / Services Users Use Internally Solutions Evaluators Evaluate Performance/ Markets Recommend Clients Use Profession-ally Outcomes / Societal B. Canadians Use Personally Personal Benefits Originators Generate Content * Providers Transact / Transfer Outputs Knowledge * Other Services Lost Managers Preserve / Enable Existing / Available Inventory *
  17. 17. Management Sub-System System to Content from Production Existing Inventory Managers Lost Value Preserve Enable Accessible Inventory Organization Mandate to Sharing
  18. 18. Manage Content System Existing: Content Products Services Accessible: Content Products Services Establish programs Implement programs Persevere Manage: IT infrastructure libraries collections data records information knowledge Inventory Prioritize Capture Record Organize Store Senior manager Manager IT manager Champion Curator Data manager Information manager Knowledge manager Inventory Enable Preserve Managers
  19. 19. Services System - Attributes <ul><li>Independent of content or issues </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a sound logic model </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses real-world complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all organizational “Infostructure” </li></ul><ul><li>Supports performance measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Helps identify important questions. </li></ul>Services
  20. 20. Outline <ul><li>Knowledge Services </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services System </li></ul><ul><li>Framework Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Service Framework </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is a Framework? “ Structural outline of the components of an organization, system, or process and the relationships among them.” Dimensions Understanding Knowledge Services NRCan (2006)
  22. 22. Why a Framework? <ul><li>Provides structure in a complex world </li></ul><ul><li>Shows what the picture looks like </li></ul><ul><li>Describes how things are related </li></ul><ul><li>Lists everything that is included </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for planning and action. </li></ul>Dimensions
  23. 23. Framework Dimensions Content Service Scale Infrastructure Dimensions
  24. 24. Scale <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Society - sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Government - mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Department - authority </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors – resources </li></ul><ul><li>Branches - coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Programs - services </li></ul><ul><li>Projects - deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks - results </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Business Case – role </li></ul><ul><li>Vision – goals </li></ul><ul><li>Charter - existence </li></ul><ul><li>Governance – decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Framework – structure </li></ul><ul><li>Policies - outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy – approach </li></ul><ul><li>Plans – procedures </li></ul>Dimensions Content / Services
  25. 25. Management Infrastructure Dimensions <ul><li>Collections mgt. </li></ul><ul><li>Data management </li></ul><ul><li>Information mgt. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge mgt. </li></ul>Processes <ul><ul><li>- Staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Learning </li></ul></ul>People <ul><li>Mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>Organization Content, Services Technology <ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>-Networks </li></ul>
  26. 26. Content Focus Dimensions Policy Executive Operational Statistics Communication Science C Industry
  27. 27. Service Focus Dimensions S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Use Internally Use Professionally Use Personally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Organization Sector / Society
  28. 28. Primary Dimension ? Infrastructure <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>organization </li></ul><ul><li>management </li></ul><ul><li>supply </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>clients </li></ul><ul><li>markets </li></ul><ul><li>demand </li></ul>Scale Cost of running the business Investing in the business Dimensions
  29. 29. Services Framework - Attributes <ul><li>Horizontal flow rather than vertical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Links science to policy and other outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Supports organizational mandate and business </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes sector outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes benefits for clients and Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>Helps identify important questions </li></ul>Dimensions
  30. 30. Outline <ul><li>Knowledge Services </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Services System </li></ul><ul><li>Framework Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Service Framework </li></ul>
  31. 31. Service Framework Framework Information Services System Model Serviced-Based Framework Management Plans Programs Content Strategy Business Mandate Business Model Establishment Direction Priorities Organization (implement) People (culture change) Process (inventories) Technology (systems) DM / IM / KM / RM / Lib. / Coll. Recommendations Direction Coordination Reports
  32. 32. Important Questions Framework Access Interoperability Privacy Security Information Rights Reach Richness Communication Strategy Knowledge Markets Role, Approach
  33. 33. Organizational Role in Knowledge Markets? <ul><li>Content - provider, user, intermediary </li></ul><ul><li>Participant - owner, manager, developer, member </li></ul><ul><li>Support - champion, facilitator, funding, infrastructure </li></ul>Framework
  34. 34. Approach to knowledge markets? <ul><li>Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate different types of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure system performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve system productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey market wants & needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transform surveys into market intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt outputs to market wants & needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolve capacity to reflect shifting markets </li></ul></ul>Framework
  35. 35. Information Rights and Policies Government of Canada Framework Mandate Information Rights Information Policies Management Plans Programs Content Strategy Business Serviced-Based Framework Service Vision
  36. 36. Distribution of outputs among user groups? <ul><li>Internal users – leaders, managers, planners, advisors, coordinators, knowledge workers </li></ul><ul><li>Body of knowledge – national & international science & technology communities </li></ul><ul><li>Other services – transaction, intervention, interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries – governments, business, practitioners, trainers, researchers, media, NGOs, international groups </li></ul><ul><li>Clients - governments, business, practitioners, trainers, researchers, NGOs, international groups </li></ul><ul><li>Canadians – e.g., community, well being, safety, employment, education, consumerism, environment… </li></ul>Framework
  37. 37. Richness Spectrum – Transfer & Use Framework Rich Reach Forms Self-help Consultation Specification Paper Conversation Transfer All residents Canadians Practitioner Intermediary Knowledge Other service Service Destination Transaction Fool-proof Mandatory Interests Popular Simplified Management Professional Specialized Enhance Complicated Technical Research Conceptual Complex Particular Complex Unique Example of Use Content Difficulty Region
  38. 38. Richness Spectrum - Processes Framework Distribution Interaction High Low Rich Reach Middle
  39. 39. Richness Spectrum – Interaction & Distribution Framework Reach Rich Provide Advertise Explain Promote Support Intervene Interaction Common Mass All Mandatory Standards Categories Many Simplified Domain Sector Some Specialized Specification Tailored Few Technical Formats Specialized Few Complex None Customized One Unique Architecture Market Segment Audience Size Region
  40. 40. Audience Characteristics <ul><li>What are their triggers? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do they listen to – opinion leaders? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they partners? Clients? Stakeholders? </li></ul><ul><li>How often do they need content? </li></ul><ul><li>What format do they need? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their level of understanding? </li></ul>Framework
  41. 41. Channels <ul><li>On-line </li></ul><ul><li>On-site </li></ul><ul><li>Off-site </li></ul><ul><li>Kiosk </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Fax </li></ul>Framework How will outputs and services be provided? One way or many? Push or pull? Synchronous or asynchronous?
  42. 42. Why a Service Framework? <ul><li>Direct link to organization’s business </li></ul><ul><li>Supports strong business case for IM </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on clients & Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>In sync with GoC service transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes a shift from supply to demand </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s what we have / What do you want? </li></ul>IM should be more successful with a service focus! Framework
  43. 43. A Final Thought… “ The first task of any theory is to clarify terms and concepts that are confused… Only after agreement has been reached regarding terms and concepts can we hope to consider the issues easily and clearly and expect to share the same viewpoint.” Karl Von Clausewitz (1780-1831)