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Hindu literature copy


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Hindu literature copy

  1. 1. Hindu Literature
  2. 2. India  World’s 7th largest country located in South Asia  Second most populous country. [1,336,286,256 (July 2016 est.)] (17.50%)  About 3,000 km(1,865 mi) wide, shoreline about 7000 km (4,350 mi) along Bay of Bengal  India and Bharat are both official names.  Derives from Indus river used by Greek  India civilization grew up in the Indus Valley 4000 to 2500 BC.
  3. 3. People  It is impossible to find out the exact origin of Indian People.  The 6 main ethnic groups are as follows. Negrito Proto - Australoids or Austrics Mongoloids Mediterranean or Dravidian Western Brachycephals Nordic Aryans
  4. 4. Language  More than 200 languages are spoken in India  2 official languages at the national level [English and Hindi (spoken by 40% of Indians)]  Regional Level South India - Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam West India - Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani, Sindhi East India - Oriya, Bengali, Maithili, Assamese, Bodo, Manipuri, Santhali North India - Dogri (in Jammu & Kashmir), Kashmiri, Nepali, Punjabi
  5. 5. Religion  As per the religious census data released by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India:  Hindu (79.8%)  Islam (14.2%)  Christian (2.3%)  Sikh (1.7%)  Buddhist (0.7%)  Jain (0.4%)  Other religions and persuasions (ORP) (0.7%)  religion not stated (0.2%)
  6. 6. Caste system Indian Caste system – major social system that groups people according to birth ◦ Brahmins: priests, the highest caste ◦ Kshatriyas: warriors and kings ◦ Vaishyas: merchants ◦ Shudras: manual labourers  Some people do not fall into any caste; these are called dalits, or untouchables
  7. 7. Caste system  Untouchables also known as Harijans ◦ Dalits have traditionally been tasked with work such as cleaning streets and working with human and animal corpses and waste  Caste-based discrimination is now illegal in India, and affirmative-action policies aim to improve standards of living in lower castes
  8. 8. Education  Literacy is higher on man than woman  Male literacy rate is 82.14% and Female literacy rate is 65.46%  Literacy rate of India is 74.04%  Has four levels:  lower primary (age 6 to 10)  upper primary (11 and 12)  high (13 to 15)  higher secondary (17 and 18)
  9. 9. Government  Federal system with parliamentary form of government  Parliament consist of two houses ◦ The Raiya Sabha (Council of states) ◦ The Lok Sabha (House of the People) Elected directly by eligible voters and sit 5 years unless Parliament is dissolved Indian National Congress- party most identified remained control of the central government
  10. 10.  November 1989 election - Discontent with India’s leadership caused Congress to lose its parliamentary  1991 election- P.V Narasimha Rao succeeded Ravid Gadhi as party leader became prime minister in June 1991
  11. 11. Literature  Sanskrit Literature – Oral Tradition produced the Vedic holy text.  Mahabharata and Ramayana – two great books of Hindu Literature  400 B.C. – PANINI produced his Sanskrit grammar  Middle Ages Sanskrit – used in religious context by priesthood  History of Indian literature falls into 2 periods; 1. The Vedic Period 2. Sanskrit Period
  12. 12. Religious works  Poetry ◦ The Rig Veda: a book of sacred hymns ◦ The Yajur Veda: a book of knowledge and melodies for the hymns ◦ The Sama Veda: descriptions of the materials for sacrifice ◦ The Atharva Veda: contains magic spells and other folk knowledge  The Brahmanas  The Upanishads  Maya  The Sutras
  13. 13. Secular works  Epics ◦ The Mahabharata ◦ Bhagavad gita ◦ Nala and Damayanti ◦ The Ramayana  Dramas  The toy clay cart  Sakuntala or the fatal ring  The Jatakas  The Panchatantra  Romanorum  The Hitopdesa  The Sukasaptati
  14. 14. Ganesh Brahma Shiva Vishnu
  15. 15. Karma and Reincarnation  Reincarnation is the belief that the soul repeatedly goes through a cycle of being born into a body, dying, and being reborn again in a new body.  Karma, a force that determines the quality of each life, depending on how well one behaved in a past life.  Hinduism says we create karma by our actions on earth. If you live a good life, you create good karma. If you live a bad life, you create bad karma.
  16. 16. Moksha  Each time a Hindu soul is born into a better life, it has the opportunity to improve itself further, and get closer to ultimate liberation.  This liberation is called Moksha.  One attains Moksha when one has "overcome ignorance", and no longer desires anything at all.  The ones who reach this state no longer struggle with the cycle of life and death.
  17. 17. Sacred Writings  The Vedas collections of Sanskrit hymns (written down 1200-900BCE, but based on older oral versions).  The Upanishads which means the inner or mystic teaching that were passed down from guru (teacher) to disciple (student).
  18. 18. Mahabharata  Mahabharata, Sanskrit for Great Story, is one of the great epic poems of ancient India.  It was written between 300 BC and 300 AD.  The story is about the battle of one family over a kingdom in northern India.  The Bhagavad Gita (Song of God) is contained in the Mahabharata. It is dialogue between Krishna and the hero Arjuna on the meaning of life.
  19. 19. Ramayana  Ramayana was written in 3rd century BC, and tells story of Rama, and his wife, Sita.  Rama and Sita are generally seen as ideal examples of great manly heroism and wifely devotion.  Reciting the Ramayana is considered a religious act, and scenes from the epic are portrayed throughout India and Southeast Asia.
  20. 20. Hindu Life Goals  Hinduism is about the sort of life one should lead in order to be born into a better life next time and ultimately achieve liberation. There are 4 legitimate goals in life:  dharma (appropriate living)  artha (the pursuit of material gain by lawful means)  kama (delight of the senses)  moksha (release from rebirth).
  21. 21. Hindu Duties  Each Hindu has 4 daily duties:  Revere the deities  Respect ancestors  Respect all beings  Honor all humankind
  22. 22. Thank You! ^_^