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Introduction to
Operations
Management
1-1
www.vishaljohri.com
@vjohri17
 What is operations?
 The part of a business organization that is responsible
for producing goods or services
 How can we define operations management?
 The management of systems or processes that create
goods and/or provide services
1-3
Goods are physical items that include raw materials, parts, subassemblies, and
final products
•Automobile
•Computer
•Oven
•Shampoo
Services are activities that provide some combination of time, location, form or
psychological value
•Air travel
•Education
•Haircut
•Legal counsel
1-4
Automobile Assembly, Steelmaking
Products are typically neither purely service- or purely goods-
based
Goods Services
Home Remodeling, Retail Sales
Computer Repair, Restaurant Meal
Songwriting, Software Development
Surgery, Teaching
1-5
Suppliers’
suppliers
Direct
suppliers
Producer Distributor
Final
customers
Supply chain – a sequence of activities and
organizations involved in producing and delivering
a good or service
1-6
External/internal
Inputs
•Land
•Labor
•Capital
•Information
Outputs
•Goods
•Services
Transformation/
Conversion
Process
Control
Measurement
and Feedback
Measurement
and Feedback
Measurement
and Feedback
Value-Added
Feedback = Measurements taken at various points in the transformation process
Control = The comparison of feedback against previously established standards
to determine if corrective action is needed
1-7
1-8
1. Degree of customer contact
2. Labor content of jobs
3. Uniformity of input
4. Uniformity of output
5. Measurement of productivity
6. Production and delivery
7. Quality assurance
8. Amount of inventory
9. Evaluation of work
10. Ability to patent design
1-9
1-10
1-11
Operations Finance
Marketing & Sales
Organization
1-12
 Finance & operations
 Budgeting
 Economic analysis of investment
proposals
 Provision of funds
 Marketing & operations
 Demand data
 Product and service design
 Competitor analysis
 Lead time data
1-13
 Every aspect of business affects or is affected by
operations
 Through learning about operations and supply chains
you will have a better understanding of:
 The world you live in
 The global dependencies of companies and nations
 Reasons that companies succeed or fail
 The importance of working with others
1-14
Process - one or more actions that transform inputs into outputs
Three Categories of Business Processes:
Upper-management processes These govern the operation of the entire
organization.
Operational processes These are core processes that make up the
value stream.
Supporting processes These support the core processes.
1-15
Supply Demand
>
Supply Demand
<
Supply Demand
=
Wasteful
Costly
Opportunity Loss
Customer
Dissatisfaction
Ideal
Operations &
Supply Chains
Sales & Marketing
1-16
Four Sources of Variation:
Variety of goods or services
being offered
The greater the variety of goods and services
offered, the greater the variation in production
or service requirements.
Structural variation in demand These are generally predictable. They are
important for capacity planning.
Random variation Natural variation that is present in all
processes. Generally, it cannot be influenced by
managers.
Assignable variation Variation that has identifiable sources. This
type of variation can be reduced, or eliminated,
by analysis and corrective action.
Variations can be disruptive to operations and supply chain processes.
They may result in additional costs, delays and shortages, poor quality,
and inefficient work systems.
1-17
The operations function includes many interrelated
activities such as:
 Forecasting
 Capacity planning
 Locating facilities
 Facilities and layout
 Scheduling
 Managing inventories
 Assuring quality
 Motivating employees
 And more . . .
The scope of operations management ranges across
the organization.
1-18
The Operations function consists of all activities
directly related to producing goods or providing
services.
A primary function of the operations manager is to
guide the system by decision making.
 System design decisions
 System operation decisions
1-19
• System design
– Capacity
– Facility location
– Facility layout
– Product and service planning
– Acquisition and placement of equipment
• These are typically strategic decisions that
• usually require long-term commitment of resources
• determine parameters of system operation
1-20
• System operation
• These are generally tactical and operational decisions
– Management of personnel
– Inventory management and control
– Scheduling
– Project management
– Quality assurance
• Operations managers spend more time on system operation
decision than any other decision area
• They still have a vital stake in system design
1-21
 Most operations decisions involve many alternatives that can
have quite different impacts on costs or profits
 Typical operations decisions include:
 What: What resources are needed, and in what amounts?
 When: When will each resource be needed? When should the work be
scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered?
 Where: Where will the work be done?
 How: How will the product or service be designed? How will the work be
done? How will resources be allocated?
 Who: Who will do the work?
1-22
 Modeling is a key tool used by all decision makers
 Model - an abstraction of reality; a simplification of something
 Common features of models:
 They are simplifications of real-life phenomena
 They omit unimportant details of the real-life systems they
mimic so that attention can be focused on the most important
aspects of the real-life system
 Physical Model – miniature airplane
 Schematic Model – drawing of a city
 Mathematical Model – Inventory optimization
1-23
 Keys to successfully using a model in decision
making
 What is its purpose?
 How is it used to generate results?
 How are the results interpreted and used?
 What are the model’s assumptions and limitations?
1-24
1. Generally easier to use and less expensive than dealing with the real
system
2. Require users to organize and sometimes quantify information
3. Increase understanding of the problem
4. Enable managers to analyze “What if?” questions
5. Serve as a consistent tool for evaluation and provide a standardized
format for analyzing a problem
6. Enable users to bring the power of mathematics to bear on a problem
1-25
 Quantitative information may be emphasized at the
expense of qualitative information
 Models may be incorrectly applied and the results
misinterpreted
 This is a real risk with the widespread availability of
sophisticated, computerized models placed in the hands
of uninformed users
 The use of models does not guarantee good decisions
1-26
 A decision-making approach that frequently seeks to
obtain a mathematically optimal solution
 Supported by computer calculations
 Often work together with qualitative approaches
1-27
 Performance metrics
 All managers use metrics to
manage and control operations
 Profits
 Costs
 Quality
 Productivity
 Flexibility
 Inventories
 Schedules
 Forecast accuracy
 Analysis of trade-offs
 A trade-off is giving up one
thing in return for
something else
 Carrying more inventory
(an expense) in order to
achieve a greater level of
customer service
1-28
 System - a set of interrelated parts that must work together
 The business organization is a system composed of subsystems
 Marketing subsystem
 Operations subsystem
 Finance subsystem
 The systems perspective
 Emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems
 Main theme is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
 The output and objectives of the organization take precedence over those
of any one subsystem
1-29
 In nearly all cases, certain issues or items are more
important than others
 Recognizing this allows managers to focus their attention
to those efforts that will do the most good
 Pareto Phenomenon - a few factors account for a high percentage of
occurrence of some event(s)
 The critical few factors should receive the highest priority
 This is a concept that is appropriately applied to all areas and
levels of management
1-30
 Industrial Revolution
 Scientific management
 Human relations movement
 Decision models and management science
 Influence of Japanese manufacturers
1-31
 Pre-Industrial Revolution
 Craft production - System in which highly skilled workers use simple,
flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods
 Some key elements of the industrial revolution
 Began in England in the 1770s
 Division of labor - Adam Smith, 1776
 Application of the “rotative” steam engine, 1780s
 Cotton gin and interchangeable parts - Eli Whitney, 1792
 Management theory and practice did not advance appreciably
during this period
1-32
 Movement was led by efficiency engineer, Frederick
Winslow Taylor
 Believed in a “science of management” based on observation,
measurement, analysis and improvement of work methods, and
economic incentives
 Management is responsible for planning, carefully selecting and
training workers, finding the best way to perform each job,
achieving cooperation between management and workers, and
separating management activities from work activities
 Emphasis was on maximizing output
1-33
 The human relations movement emphasized the
importance of the human element in job design
 Lillian Gilbreth – applications of psychology
 Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies on worker motivation, 1930
 Abraham Maslow – motivation theory, 1940s; hierarchy of needs,
1954
 Frederick Hertzberg – Two Factor Theory, 1959
 Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y, 1960s
 William Ouchi – Theory Z, 1981
1-34
 F.W. Harris – mathematical model for inventory management, 1915
 Dodge, Romig, and Shewart – statistical procedures for sampling and
quality control, 1930s
 Tippett – statistical sampling theory, 1935
 Operations Research (OR) Groups – OR applications in warfare
 George Dantzig – linear programming, 1947
1-35
 Refined and developed management practices that
increased productivity
 Credited with fueling the “quality revolution”
 Just-in-Time production
1-36
1-37
 Technology Management
 Product and service Technology (Apple, 3 M)
 Process Technology
 Information Technology (IT)
 Global competition
 Working with fewer resources
 Revenue management
 Agility
1-38
 Economic conditions
 Innovating
 Quality problems
 Risk management
 Cyber-security
 Competing in a global economy
1-39
 Sustainability
 Using resources in ways that do not harm ecological
systems that support human existence
 Sustainability measures often go beyond traditional
environmental and economic measures to include measures
that incorporate social criteria in decision making
 All areas of business will be affected
 Product and service design
 Consumer education programs
 Disaster preparation and response
 Supply chain waste management
 Outsourcing decisions
1-40
Given questionable practices in several companies, this
becomes quite important
Utilitarian Principle: The good done by an action should
outweigh the harms it causes or might cause
Rights Principle: Actions should respect and protect the
moral rights of others.
Fairness Principle: Equals should be held to, or evaluated
by, the same standards
Common Good Principle: Common good of the
community
Virtue Principle: Actions should be consistent with certain
ideal virtues like compassion, honesty, generosity, tolerance,
integrity, self-control, etc.
1-41
Ethical issues that may arise in many aspects of
operations management:
 Financial statements
 Worker safety
 Product safety
 Quality
 The environment
 The community
 Hiring and firing workers
 Closing facilities
 Workers’ rights
1-42
 In the past, organizations did little to manage the
supply chain beyond their own operations and
immediate suppliers which led to numerous
problems
 Oscillating inventory levels
 Inventory stockouts
 Late deliveries
 Quality problems
1-43
1. The need to improve operations
2. Increasing levels of outsourcing
3. Increasing transportation costs
4. Competitive pressures
5. Increasing globalization
6. Increasing importance of e-business
7. The complexity of supply chains
8. The need to manage inventories
1-44
 Operations manager
 Supply chain manager
 Production analyst
 Schedule coordinator
 Production manager
 Industrial engineer
 Purchasing manager
 Inventory manager
 Quality manager
1-45
 APICS - The Association for Operations Management
 American Society for Quality (ASQ)
 Institute for Supply Management (ISM)
 Institute for Operations Research and Management Science
(INFORMS)
 The Production and Operations Management Society (POMS)
 The Project Management Institute (PMI)
 Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP)
1-46

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APRIL2024_UKRAINE_xml_0000000000000 .pdf
 

F39DE55A-835C-4860-8C9A-68C333E21936.Chap001_PPT.pptx

  • 3.  What is operations?  The part of a business organization that is responsible for producing goods or services  How can we define operations management?  The management of systems or processes that create goods and/or provide services 1-3
  • 4. Goods are physical items that include raw materials, parts, subassemblies, and final products •Automobile •Computer •Oven •Shampoo Services are activities that provide some combination of time, location, form or psychological value •Air travel •Education •Haircut •Legal counsel 1-4
  • 5. Automobile Assembly, Steelmaking Products are typically neither purely service- or purely goods- based Goods Services Home Remodeling, Retail Sales Computer Repair, Restaurant Meal Songwriting, Software Development Surgery, Teaching 1-5
  • 6. Suppliers’ suppliers Direct suppliers Producer Distributor Final customers Supply chain – a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service 1-6 External/internal
  • 7. Inputs •Land •Labor •Capital •Information Outputs •Goods •Services Transformation/ Conversion Process Control Measurement and Feedback Measurement and Feedback Measurement and Feedback Value-Added Feedback = Measurements taken at various points in the transformation process Control = The comparison of feedback against previously established standards to determine if corrective action is needed 1-7
  • 8. 1-8
  • 9. 1. Degree of customer contact 2. Labor content of jobs 3. Uniformity of input 4. Uniformity of output 5. Measurement of productivity 6. Production and delivery 7. Quality assurance 8. Amount of inventory 9. Evaluation of work 10. Ability to patent design 1-9
  • 10. 1-10
  • 11. 1-11
  • 12. Operations Finance Marketing & Sales Organization 1-12
  • 13.  Finance & operations  Budgeting  Economic analysis of investment proposals  Provision of funds  Marketing & operations  Demand data  Product and service design  Competitor analysis  Lead time data 1-13
  • 14.  Every aspect of business affects or is affected by operations  Through learning about operations and supply chains you will have a better understanding of:  The world you live in  The global dependencies of companies and nations  Reasons that companies succeed or fail  The importance of working with others 1-14
  • 15. Process - one or more actions that transform inputs into outputs Three Categories of Business Processes: Upper-management processes These govern the operation of the entire organization. Operational processes These are core processes that make up the value stream. Supporting processes These support the core processes. 1-15
  • 16. Supply Demand > Supply Demand < Supply Demand = Wasteful Costly Opportunity Loss Customer Dissatisfaction Ideal Operations & Supply Chains Sales & Marketing 1-16
  • 17. Four Sources of Variation: Variety of goods or services being offered The greater the variety of goods and services offered, the greater the variation in production or service requirements. Structural variation in demand These are generally predictable. They are important for capacity planning. Random variation Natural variation that is present in all processes. Generally, it cannot be influenced by managers. Assignable variation Variation that has identifiable sources. This type of variation can be reduced, or eliminated, by analysis and corrective action. Variations can be disruptive to operations and supply chain processes. They may result in additional costs, delays and shortages, poor quality, and inefficient work systems. 1-17
  • 18. The operations function includes many interrelated activities such as:  Forecasting  Capacity planning  Locating facilities  Facilities and layout  Scheduling  Managing inventories  Assuring quality  Motivating employees  And more . . . The scope of operations management ranges across the organization. 1-18
  • 19. The Operations function consists of all activities directly related to producing goods or providing services. A primary function of the operations manager is to guide the system by decision making.  System design decisions  System operation decisions 1-19
  • 20. • System design – Capacity – Facility location – Facility layout – Product and service planning – Acquisition and placement of equipment • These are typically strategic decisions that • usually require long-term commitment of resources • determine parameters of system operation 1-20
  • 21. • System operation • These are generally tactical and operational decisions – Management of personnel – Inventory management and control – Scheduling – Project management – Quality assurance • Operations managers spend more time on system operation decision than any other decision area • They still have a vital stake in system design 1-21
  • 22.  Most operations decisions involve many alternatives that can have quite different impacts on costs or profits  Typical operations decisions include:  What: What resources are needed, and in what amounts?  When: When will each resource be needed? When should the work be scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered?  Where: Where will the work be done?  How: How will the product or service be designed? How will the work be done? How will resources be allocated?  Who: Who will do the work? 1-22
  • 23.  Modeling is a key tool used by all decision makers  Model - an abstraction of reality; a simplification of something  Common features of models:  They are simplifications of real-life phenomena  They omit unimportant details of the real-life systems they mimic so that attention can be focused on the most important aspects of the real-life system  Physical Model – miniature airplane  Schematic Model – drawing of a city  Mathematical Model – Inventory optimization 1-23
  • 24.  Keys to successfully using a model in decision making  What is its purpose?  How is it used to generate results?  How are the results interpreted and used?  What are the model’s assumptions and limitations? 1-24
  • 25. 1. Generally easier to use and less expensive than dealing with the real system 2. Require users to organize and sometimes quantify information 3. Increase understanding of the problem 4. Enable managers to analyze “What if?” questions 5. Serve as a consistent tool for evaluation and provide a standardized format for analyzing a problem 6. Enable users to bring the power of mathematics to bear on a problem 1-25
  • 26.  Quantitative information may be emphasized at the expense of qualitative information  Models may be incorrectly applied and the results misinterpreted  This is a real risk with the widespread availability of sophisticated, computerized models placed in the hands of uninformed users  The use of models does not guarantee good decisions 1-26
  • 27.  A decision-making approach that frequently seeks to obtain a mathematically optimal solution  Supported by computer calculations  Often work together with qualitative approaches 1-27
  • 28.  Performance metrics  All managers use metrics to manage and control operations  Profits  Costs  Quality  Productivity  Flexibility  Inventories  Schedules  Forecast accuracy  Analysis of trade-offs  A trade-off is giving up one thing in return for something else  Carrying more inventory (an expense) in order to achieve a greater level of customer service 1-28
  • 29.  System - a set of interrelated parts that must work together  The business organization is a system composed of subsystems  Marketing subsystem  Operations subsystem  Finance subsystem  The systems perspective  Emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems  Main theme is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts  The output and objectives of the organization take precedence over those of any one subsystem 1-29
  • 30.  In nearly all cases, certain issues or items are more important than others  Recognizing this allows managers to focus their attention to those efforts that will do the most good  Pareto Phenomenon - a few factors account for a high percentage of occurrence of some event(s)  The critical few factors should receive the highest priority  This is a concept that is appropriately applied to all areas and levels of management 1-30
  • 31.  Industrial Revolution  Scientific management  Human relations movement  Decision models and management science  Influence of Japanese manufacturers 1-31
  • 32.  Pre-Industrial Revolution  Craft production - System in which highly skilled workers use simple, flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods  Some key elements of the industrial revolution  Began in England in the 1770s  Division of labor - Adam Smith, 1776  Application of the “rotative” steam engine, 1780s  Cotton gin and interchangeable parts - Eli Whitney, 1792  Management theory and practice did not advance appreciably during this period 1-32
  • 33.  Movement was led by efficiency engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor  Believed in a “science of management” based on observation, measurement, analysis and improvement of work methods, and economic incentives  Management is responsible for planning, carefully selecting and training workers, finding the best way to perform each job, achieving cooperation between management and workers, and separating management activities from work activities  Emphasis was on maximizing output 1-33
  • 34.  The human relations movement emphasized the importance of the human element in job design  Lillian Gilbreth – applications of psychology  Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies on worker motivation, 1930  Abraham Maslow – motivation theory, 1940s; hierarchy of needs, 1954  Frederick Hertzberg – Two Factor Theory, 1959  Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y, 1960s  William Ouchi – Theory Z, 1981 1-34
  • 35.  F.W. Harris – mathematical model for inventory management, 1915  Dodge, Romig, and Shewart – statistical procedures for sampling and quality control, 1930s  Tippett – statistical sampling theory, 1935  Operations Research (OR) Groups – OR applications in warfare  George Dantzig – linear programming, 1947 1-35
  • 36.  Refined and developed management practices that increased productivity  Credited with fueling the “quality revolution”  Just-in-Time production 1-36
  • 37. 1-37
  • 38.  Technology Management  Product and service Technology (Apple, 3 M)  Process Technology  Information Technology (IT)  Global competition  Working with fewer resources  Revenue management  Agility 1-38
  • 39.  Economic conditions  Innovating  Quality problems  Risk management  Cyber-security  Competing in a global economy 1-39
  • 40.  Sustainability  Using resources in ways that do not harm ecological systems that support human existence  Sustainability measures often go beyond traditional environmental and economic measures to include measures that incorporate social criteria in decision making  All areas of business will be affected  Product and service design  Consumer education programs  Disaster preparation and response  Supply chain waste management  Outsourcing decisions 1-40
  • 41. Given questionable practices in several companies, this becomes quite important Utilitarian Principle: The good done by an action should outweigh the harms it causes or might cause Rights Principle: Actions should respect and protect the moral rights of others. Fairness Principle: Equals should be held to, or evaluated by, the same standards Common Good Principle: Common good of the community Virtue Principle: Actions should be consistent with certain ideal virtues like compassion, honesty, generosity, tolerance, integrity, self-control, etc. 1-41
  • 42. Ethical issues that may arise in many aspects of operations management:  Financial statements  Worker safety  Product safety  Quality  The environment  The community  Hiring and firing workers  Closing facilities  Workers’ rights 1-42
  • 43.  In the past, organizations did little to manage the supply chain beyond their own operations and immediate suppliers which led to numerous problems  Oscillating inventory levels  Inventory stockouts  Late deliveries  Quality problems 1-43
  • 44. 1. The need to improve operations 2. Increasing levels of outsourcing 3. Increasing transportation costs 4. Competitive pressures 5. Increasing globalization 6. Increasing importance of e-business 7. The complexity of supply chains 8. The need to manage inventories 1-44
  • 45.  Operations manager  Supply chain manager  Production analyst  Schedule coordinator  Production manager  Industrial engineer  Purchasing manager  Inventory manager  Quality manager 1-45
  • 46.  APICS - The Association for Operations Management  American Society for Quality (ASQ)  Institute for Supply Management (ISM)  Institute for Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS)  The Production and Operations Management Society (POMS)  The Project Management Institute (PMI)  Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) 1-46

Editor's Notes

  1. 17:47 What are operations? Wherever you look, if you go to market, retail store, restaurant, supermarket, movie, hospital… everywhere there are operations… What would a company want? Productivity, money, profits,…. Backbone of a company is operations.
  2. Restaurant Airlines – service Buy a product – cellphone/automobiles/cars
  3. Chain like structure Interdependence of each element with each other Each link is a customer of the previous entity What if any link fails?
  4. Interdependence between three functions Marketing gets info on competitors, customer preferences, pulling customers
  5. All three processes are interrelated Every business would have several operations and processes, and success of each process adds up to create success of the overall process and organization at large.
  6. Ideally the capacity of a process should be such that supply and demand meet
  7. Example of airlines in the above points
  8. Take example of C1 from entrepreneurship
  9. Managers need to weigh pros and cons while dealing in trade off situations. They would assign weightages to different items on their list and do analysis around it.
  10. .
  11. IN 1911, his seminal work, The Principles of Scientific Management, was published. A number of other pioneers also contributed heavily to the movement, one among them being Henry Ford
  12. Continued focus on operational processes, quality and excellence.