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P3-Report-Quebec-NewEngland

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P3-Report-Quebec-NewEngland

  1. 1. A"PROJECT"REPORT"" On" Hydro&Quebec&–&New&England&Multi&Terminal& HVDC&Transmission&line& By& Ramakrishnan&Ravikumar& Sai&Kiran&Nukala& Akshay&Nerurkar& Ravi&Teja&Yerraguntla& & EEG516& HVDC&Transmission& Professor&Dr.&Beshir& & & & USC&MING&HSEIH&DEPARTMENT&OF&ELECTRICAL&ENGINEERING& VITERBI&SCHOOL&OF&ENGINEERING& UNIVERSITY&OF&SOUTHERN&CALIFORNIA&
  2. 2. & INDEX& 1. Introduction55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"1" 2. Physical"Characteristics"55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"1" 2.1 Type" 2.2 Location" 2.3 Size"(length)" 2.4 Manufacturer" 2.5 Other"Characteristics" 3. Technical"Specifications"55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"3" 3.1 Volt/Amp/Power"ratings" 4. Control"Strategy/Parameters"5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"4" 4.1 Parallel"MTDC"configuration" 4.2 Series"MTDC"configuration" 4.3 Control"Parameters" 4.4 Control"system"of"the"project" 4.5 DC"Voltage"Control" 4.6 Reactive"Power"Control" 4.7 Reactive"Power"Requirement" 4.8 Control"functions" 5. Operations"5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"8" 5.1 Scheduling"and"Configurations" 5.2 Normal"Configurations" 5.3 Hybrid"Configurations" 5.4 Advantages"of"Hybrid"Configuration" 5.5 Reliability"and"Maintainability" 5.6 Interconnection"Issues5Contingency"Analysis:"Impact"of"Quebec5New" England"on"PJM"Transmission"system" 5.7 Protection"of"the"HVDC"line" 5.8 Operational"Limitations:"Frequency"Coupling" 5.9 Results"and"field"measurements" 6. Economics"55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"16" 6.1 Capital"Construction"Cost" 6.2 Cost"of"Money" 6.3 Net"Benefits" 6.4 Economic"Justification" 6.5 Different"Losses" 7.""""""""Environmental"Considerations"55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"20" """"""""7.1"Right5of5Way"Issues" """"""""7.2"Emissions"and"other"offsets" """"""""7.3"New"England"environmental"challenges"and"the"possible"actions" """"""""7.4"Impact"of"Integrated"Actions"on"New"England"Goals" """"""""7.5"Harmonics/Interferences"
  3. 3. """"""""7.6"Ground"Electrode" 8."""""""""Contractual"and"Policy"Considerations"5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"23" 9."""""""""Future"Scope"and"Proposed"changes"for"the"Project"555555555555555555555555555"24" 10."""""""Conclusions,"Unique"Features"and"Project"Benefits"555555555555555555555555555"24" 11."""""""System"Modeling"5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"24" 12."""""""References"55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555"26" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
  4. 4. " List&of&Tables:& " Table"3.1:"Volt/Amp/Power"ratings" Table"3.2:"AC"substation"ratings" Table"6.1:"Project"Costs" Table"6.2:"Cost"of"money" Table"6.3:"Net"benefits" " List&of&Figures:& " Figure"2.1:"Location" Figure"2.2:"One"line"diagram"of"the"HVDC"line" Figure"4.1"Parallel"MTDC"configurations" Figure"4.2:"series"MTDC"configurations" Figure"4.4:"Control"system"arrangement"of"the"HVDC"line" Figure"4.5:"DC"Voltage"Control" Figure"4.6"DC"Voltage"limit"control"–"Reactive"power"control" Figure"4.7:"Reactive"Power"requirement" Figure"5.1:"Different"configurations"of"the"Hydro"Quebec5New"England"operation" Figure"5.2:"Normal"Configurations" Figure"5.3:"Hybrid"Configurations" Figure"5.4:"Total"Transfer"capability"for"the"New5England"on"11/24/2015" Figure"5.5:"The"magnitude"of"power"flow"on"an"hourly"basis"for"a"three5year" period"is"indicated"as"per"the"figure"shown"above" Figure"5.6:"MACH"protection"system" Figure"5.7:"Different"sections"of"the"HVDC"project" Figure"6.1:"Break5even"distance"compared"to"the"HVAC"costs" Figure"6.2:"Different"losses"in"the"project" Figure"7.1:"Environmental"impact" Figure"7.2:"Emission"reduction"actions" Figure"11.1:"Matlab"system"model"for"mode"1"configuration" Figure"11.2:"Output"on"the"inverter"side"(Sandy"Pond)"mode"1"configuration" Figure"11.3:"Power"flow"of"the"Quebec5New"England"HVDC"project" "
  5. 5. ! 1! 1.#Introduction:# ! The!project!we!have!chosen!is!“Quebec6New!England!HVDC!transmission!line”,! which! has! a! capacity! of! 2690MW.! ! This! project! came! into! operation! in! two! phases,! phase61! in! 1987,! phase62! in! 1992.! This! line! travels! all! the! way! from! northern! part! of! Quebec,! Canada! passes! the! Canada6USA! border! and! finally! reaches!the!New6England!area!ending!up!at!Sandy!Pond,!Massachusetts.!This!line! is! a! Multi6terminal! HVDC,! which! has! three! terminals! namely! Radisson,! Nicolet! and!Sandy!Pond!that!can!operate!in!two6terminal!mode!and!also!in!hybrid!mode.! In!this!report!we!will!be!discussing!more!details!about!this!project!as!we!move! forward.! ! 2.#Physical#Characteristics:# # 2.1#Type:# This! project! is! a! point6to6point! connected,! bipolar,! multi6terminal! HVDC! with! metallic!return.!Each!terminal!has!two!converters,!which!makes!it!each!converter! per! pole.! The! converter! stations! are! built! of! mercury! valves! when! it! was! commissioned,! later! the! mercury! valves! were! replaced! by! thyristors! due! to! advancements!in!the!technology.!Each!converter!station!has!a!126pulse!bridge! converter,!which!is!similar!to!many!of!the!existing!projects.! ! The!Quebec6New!England!HVDC!is!the!first!large6scale!multi6terminal!designed! and!installed!in!the!world.!It!was!constructed!in!two!phases:! • Phase!1:!1986!(690!MW)! • Phase!2:!1992!(2000MW)! In!phase61!two!terminal!stations!namely!Radisson!(Quebec,!CA)!and!Sandy!Pond! (Massachusetts,!USA)!were!built.!In!phase62!the!power!capacity!is!increased!by! 2000MW!and!also!a!new!terminal!‘Nicolet’!came!into!existence.! ! 2.2#Location:# # ! Figure!2.1:!Location! !
  6. 6. ! 2! As!shown!in!the!figure!2.1,!it!can!be!seen!that!the!line!starts!at!Radisson!terminal! in!Quebec,!Canada.!The!input!power!to!the!terminal!and!in!turn!the!line!comes! from! the! La! Grande! 2! hydroelectric! power! station.! The! line! reaches! Nicolet! terminal!at!the!Canada6USA!border!and!then!ends!up!at!Sandy!Pond!terminal!in! Massachusetts,! USA.! There! were! two! other! terminals! Des! Cantons,! Comerford! between!Nicolet!and!Sandy!Pond!but!were!decommissioned!due!to!dissatisfying! results,!which!will!be!discussed!in!this!report!under!configurations.! ! 2.3#Size#(Length):# ! ! Figure!2.2:!One!line!diagram!of!the!HVDC!line! ! The!total!length!of!the!line!is!1500Km,!the!length!between!Radisson!to!Nicolet!is! 1022Km,!the!length!between!Nicolet!and!Des!Cantons!is!105Km!and!the!length! from!Des!Cantons!to!Sandy!Pond!is!383Km.!In!the!online!diagram,!it!can!be!seen! that!the!La!Grande!station!feeds!the!Radisson!terminal.!The!stations!Nicolet!and! Comerford!were!decommissioned!as!discussed!before.!! ! 2.4#Manufacturer:! ! The! works! of! this! project! were! carried! out! by! ABB! group.! This! project! was! world’s! first! Multi6terminal! HVDC! system.! After! this! project! ABB! has! installed! and!operated!many!MTDC!systems!through!out!the!world.!ABB!and!National!Grid! celebrated!25!years!for!the!project!on!November!3rd,!2015.!ABB!has!planned!to! make! its! impact! through! its! new! protective! system! scheme! namely! MACH! –! Modular!Advanced!Control!for!HVDC!at!the!Sandy!Pond!terminal!in!2013.!ABB!
  7. 7. ! 3! has!pioneered!and!is!a!leader!in!HVDC!technology!for!the!last!60!years.!ABB!has! done!over!100!HVDC!projects!and!is!planning!to!setup!Ultra6HVDC!in!its!future! projects.! ! 2.5#Other#Characteristics:# ! The! line! also! crosses! the! Saint! Lawrence! River! between! Grondines! and! Lotbiniere,!Quebec,!Canada.!This!power!line!crossing!initially!was!an!overhead! crossing!and!then!later!they!replaced!it!by!a!cable!tunnel.!The!negative!visual! impact! of! the! large! towers! of! the! overhead! lines! was! the! reason! behind! the! change.!The!length!of!the!cable!tunnel!is!3954!meters.! ! ! 3.#Technical#Specifications:! ! 3.1#Volt/Amp/Power#ratings:! ! The! HVDC! line! is! operated! at!±450!"!through! out! its! length.! Coming! to! the! individual!terminal!ratings,!it!can!be!tabulated!as!follows:! ! Terminal! Power!rating! Voltage!rating! Radisson! 2250!MW! ±500!"! Nicolet! 2138!MW! ±475!"! Sandy!Pond! 2000!MW! ±450!"! Table!3.1:!Volt/Amp/Power!ratings! ! The!calculated!DC!current!at!±450!"!transferring!a!power!of!1500!MW!will!be! around!1670!Amperes.!The!line!is!rated!at!2690!MW!but!it!is!always!operated!at! some!stable!value!satisfying!the!contingency!specifications!of!the!New!England! region.!This!will!be!further!discussed!under!operations!of!the!line!in!this!report.! ! The!AC!substation!voltages!connected!to!these!terminals!are!rated!as!follows:! ! Terminal! Voltage!ratings! Radisson! 735kV/315kV! Nicolet! 735kV/230!kV! Sandy!Pond! 345!kV! Table!3.2:!AC!substation!ratings! ! ! !
  8. 8. ! 4! 4.#Control#Strategy/Parameters:# ! The! converter! stations! are! operated! in! CSC6Current! source! converter! mode,! which!is!also!the!Line!commutated!converter!mode.!The!converter!switches!were! initially!mercury!valve!based!but!recently!they!have!changed!valves!to!thyristor6 based!converters.!! ! A!multi!terminal!HVDC!can!be!connected!either!in!series!or!parallel!way,!both! have!their!advantages!in!various!aspects.! ! 4.1#Parallel#MTDC#Configuration:# ! ! Figure!4.1!Parallel!MTDC!configurations! ! The! parallel! configuration! allows! DC! terminals! to! operate! around! a! common! rated!voltage!Vdc.!If!parallel!configurations!is!used!in!an!MTDC!system!based!on! CSC,!because!of!voltage!source!nature!of!CSCs!in!the!DC6side,!a!precise!voltage! balancing! between! converters! are! required! through! a! special! and! complicated! switching.! This! even! gets! worse! when! the! CSCs! are! far! away! from! each! other! since! fast! communication! channels! are! also! required.! Therefore,! thee! control! technique!that!should!be!adopted!in!a!parallel6CSC6MTDC!system!will!be!tough! and!complicated!task.!This!is!why!it!is!practically!impossible!to!form!a!parallel6 CSC6MTDC!system!with!more!than!5!terminals.!The!Hydro!Quebec6New!England! MTDC!system!was!initially!planned!to!construct!a!five!terminal!MTDC!system.! However! due! to! the! performance! problems! predicted! to! happen! they! stop! installing!the!other!two!stations!which!was!intended!to!connect!Des!Cantons!to! Comerford.! ! !
  9. 9. ! 5! 4.2#Series#MTDC#configurations:! ! ! Figure!4.2:!series!MTDC!configurations! ! In!the!series!connection!where!one!of!the!converter!controls!the!current!around! a! common! rated! current! and! the! rest! of! converters! controls! the! power.! This! configuration!is!well!suited!for!CSC!MTDC!systems!since!CSCs!in!the!DC!side!are! functioning!as!a!voltage!source,!which!can!be!connected!in!series!without!need! for! special! switching.! However! this! configuration! has! several! drawbacks! as! compared! to! other! configuration! such! as! higher! losses,! more! complicated! insulation.! Most! importantly,! if! one! of! the! DC! lines! is! disconnected! due! to! the! fault! occupance! the! current! in! the! entire! DC! grid! will! be! cut! off.! Due! to! aforementioned!disadvantages,!series!configuration!is!not!recommended!to!be! used!and!hence!in!practice!only!parallel!configuration!has!been!considered.!But# for# the# Hydro# QuebecONew# England# project# series# configuration# is# implemented# since# there# were# disadvantages# like# special# switching,# fast# communications#in#parallel#operation.! ! ! 4.3#Control#Parameters:! ! The!different!parameters!that!are!responsible!for!the!control!of!this!line!are!as! follows:! ! 1. Voltage!control:!Tap!Changer!control!(on!AC!side),!Converter!control!on! Inverter!side!(for!DC!voltage)! 2. Current!control:!Converter!control!on!Rectifier!side! 3. Reactive!power!control:!AC!Voltage!limitation!control,!AC!Filters! 4. Firing! angle! control:! Fixed! firing! angle! with! trigger! set! and! with! or! without!PI!controller! 5. Extinction!angle!control! ! ! ! ! ! !
  10. 10. ! 6! 4.4#Control#System#of#the#project:! ! ! Figure!4.4:!Control!system!arrangement!of!the!HVDC!line! ! The!above!figure!is!the!general!overview!of!the!control!system!represented!in! blocks!for!the!given!project.!As!discussed!in!the!control!parameters,!we!have!the! tap! changer! control,! Converter! control! on! both! inverter! and! rectifier! side! and! also!the!AC!filter.!!The!AC!Voltage!Limitation!Control!does!the!Reactive!power! control!with!the!help!of!the!AC!Filters.! ! 4.5#DC#Voltage#control:# ! ! Figure!4.5:!DC!Voltage!Control! The!firing!angle!of!the!thyristors!controls!the!DC!Voltage!output!at!both!rectifier! and!inverter!ends.!For!the!rectifier!operation!the!firing!angle!alpha!′ ∝ ′!is!varied! from!zero!to!90!degrees,!for!the!inverter!operation!alpha!is!varied!from!90!to!
  11. 11. ! 7! 180! degrees.! The! direction! of! current! is! changed! if! the! voltage! polarity! of! the! converters!is!changed.!! ! 4.6# Reactive# Power# controlODC# Voltage# limit# control# through# different# controls:! ! ! Figure!4.6!DC!Voltage!limit!control!–!Reactive!power!control! ! This!control!is!used!for!the!Reactive!power!control!through!Voltage!limitation,! the! Alpha! is! also! varied! through! the! PI! controller! and! the! trigger! set! on! both! inverter!and!rectifier!side.!The!trigger!set!controls!current!on!the!rectifier!side! and!controls!voltage!on!the!inverter!side.!!The!extinction!angle!is!also!controlled! here!on!the!inverter!side.! ! 4.7#Reactive#power#requirement:! !! The! general! reactive! power! requirement! in! this! HVDC! line! is! 50660%! of! the! active! power! flow.! This! can! be! achieved! through! shunt! capacitances! and! harmonic!filter!banks.! ! Figure!4.7:!Reactive!Power!requirement!
  12. 12. ! 8! 4.8#Control#Functions:! ! Control!functions!at!the!rectifier:! 1. DC!current!Control!(main!control!mode)! 2. DC!Voltage!limitation!control!(backup!control!mode)! Control!functions!at!the!inverter:! 1. DC!Voltage!control!(main!control!mode)! 2. DC!current!control!(backup!control!mode)! 3. Extinction!Angle!control!(backup!control!mode)! ! ! 5.#Operations:! ! 5.1#Scheduling#and#Configuration:! ! The! Radisson,! Nicolet! and! Sandy! Pond! terminals! have! two! converters! each,! therefore! we! have! six! converters! in! total,! one! operating! for! each! pole.! Each! terminal! has! three! modes! of! operation! the! rectifier,! inverter! and! the! no! operation!mode.!Therefore!the!total!possible!outcomes!for!configuration!would! be!3×3×3 = 27.!Out!of!which!eight#configurations!are!used!prominently:! ! 1. Two!three6terminal!MTDC!configurations! 2. Four!two6terminal!configurations! 3. Two!hybrid!configurations!(one!Radisson!or!Sandy!Pond!pole!out)! ! The!different!configurations!can!be!shown!as!follows:! ! ! Figure!5.1:!Different!configurations!of!the!Hydro!Quebec6New!England!operation! !
  13. 13. ! 9! 5.2#Normal#Configurations:# # The!Configurations!1,!4,!16,!22!are!the!two!terminal!mode!operations,!while!the! 9,! 25! are! the! Multi! terminal! operation! and! the! 964,! 25622! are! the! hybrid! configurations.! Let! us! analyze! the! configuration! 1,! the! Radisson! operates! as! rectifier! while! the! Sandy! Pond! operates! in! Inverter! mode! and! the! Nicolet! terminal!is!in!no!operation!mode.!Here!the!power!is!generated!in!La!Grande!and! then!transferred!from!Radisson!to!the!loads!near!Sandy!Pond!terminal.!Also!the! terminals!can!operate!either!in!monopole!or!bipolar!mode.! ! Let! us! analyze! a! multi! terminal! mode! 9,! in! this! configuration! Radisson! and! Nicolet!act!as!Rectifiers!while!the!Sandy!Pond!act!as!inverter!sucking!power!from! the!other!two!stations.# ! Figure!5.2:!Normal!Configurations! ! 5.3#Hybrid#Configurations:# # The!hybrid!configuration!is!a!combination!of!two!normal!configurations!where! Power!is!transferred!in!two!ways,!involving!all!three!terminals!and!also!one!of! the! terminals! operating! in! monopole! mode.! In! configuration! 469! (or! 964),! the! Radisson!terminal!has!one!pole!in!rectifier!operation!while!the!other!pole!being! off!for!various!other!reasons!like!schedule!maintenance,!outage.!The!terminals! Nicolet! and! Sandy! Pond! work! in! bipolar! inverter! mode! getting! power! from! monopole!Radisson!terminal.!! # ! Figure!5.3:!Hybrid!Configurations! !
  14. 14. ! 10! 5.4#Advantages#of#Hybrid#Configurations:# ! There! are! various! advantages! of! the! hybrid! configurations! in! this! HVDC! transmission,!which!are!beneficial!in!many!aspects.!Hybrid!Configurations!in!this! project! are! characterizes! by! the! multi! terminal! Radisson6Nicolet6Sandy! Pond! operation!of!five!converters,!three!on!the!first!pole!and!two!on!the!second.!More! flexibility! is! attained! in! the! case! of! unavailability! of! one! pole! for! planned! maintenance!or!outage!at!Radisson!or!Sandy!Pond.!No!hybrid!configuration!has! been!developed!yet!for!outage!of!one!pole!at!Nicolet.!In!this!hybrid!configuration,! one! line! section! is! operated! bipolar! while! the! other! section! is! monopole! with! metallic!return.! ! 5.5#Reliability#and#Maintainability:# 5.5.1#Open#Access#Transmission#Tariff#(OATT):## Section! II! of! the!ISO! New! England! Inc.! Transmission,! Markets,! and! Services! Tariff!(ISO!Tariff)!is!known!as!the!Open!Access!Transmission!Tariff!(OATT).!The! OATT:! • Helps! ensure! that! all! transmission! owners! and! transmission! customers! have!fair!and!open!access!to!transmission!service!in!New!England! • Details! the! rights! and! responsibilities! of!transmission! owners! and! transmission!customers!as!well!as!the!procedures!they!must!follow!and!the!fees! transmission!customers!must!pay!to!access!the!transmission!system! • Sets!out!the!transmission!system!planning!process!for!the!region! • Sets! out! the! cost! recovery! and! allocation! mechanisms! for! transmission! and!ancillary!services!in!the!region!! Total#Transfer#Capability#(TTC):# The!amount!of!electric!power!that!can!be!moved!or!transferred!reliably!from!one! area!to!another!area!of!the!interconnected!transmission!systems!by!way!of!all! transmission! lines! (or! paths)! between! those! areas! under! specified! system! conditions.!The!Total!Transfer!Capability!for!the!New!England!(on!11/24/2015)! system!has!been!obtained!as!follows:# ! Figure!5.4:!Total!Transfer!capability!for!the!New6England!on!11/24/2015!
  15. 15. ! 11! Available#Transfer#Capability#(ATC):! a) Capacity#Benefit#Market#(CBM):## !!!!!The!use!of!Capacity!Benefit!Margin!(CBM)!on!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!is!governed! by! the! overall! ISO! New! England! approach! to! capacity! planning! requirements.! Load!Serving!Entities!(LSEs)!operating!in!the!New!England!Balancing!Authority! Area!are!required!to!arrange!their!Installed!Capability!requirements!prior!to!the! beginning! of! any! given! month! in! accordance! with! New! England! Wholesale! market!rules.!As!such,!CBM!on!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!for!use!in!ATC!calculations!is! zero!and!will!not!be!included!in!the!calculations!of!ATC.!As!long!as!this!market! design!is!in!place!in!New!England!the!CBM!is!set!to!zero.! b) Transmission#Reliability#Margin#(TRM):# The!Transmission!Reliability!Margin!(TRM)!is!the!portion!of!TTC!that!cannot!be! used!for!reservation!of!Firm!Transmission!Service!because!of!uncertainties!in! system!operation.!These!calculated!TRM!values!shall!not!be!applied!to!non6firm! transmission!service.! ! Phase!I/II!Import!TRM!=!TTC!–!1200!MW! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Phase!I/II!Export!TRM!=!TTC!–!500!MW! ! c) Existing#Transmission#Commitment#(ETC):# !!!!!A! Transmission! Provider’s! existing! transmission! capacity! obligations! which! may! include! grandfathered! transmission! contracts,! Tariff! transmission! reservations!(including!rollover!rights!for!extensions)!and!other!obligations!that! impact!firm!ATC.! ! Calculation#of#Firm#ATC:# # a) Firm#ATC:# ! Firm!Available!Transfer!Capability!(Firm!ATC)!for!an!interface!is!the!capability! for!Firm!transmission!reservations!that!remain!after!allowing!for!CBM!and!Firm! Existing!Transmission!Commitments!(ETC).!Firm!Transmission!Service!over!the! Phase! I/II! HVDC6TF! that! is! available! in! the! Planning! Horizon! (PH)! includes:! Yearly,! Monthly,! Weekly,! and! Daily.! Phase! I/II! HVDC6TF! transmission! reservations!with!any!other!status!are!not!included!in!this!Firm!ATC!calculation.! Netting!of!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!transmission!reservations!is!not!considered!in!the! ATC! calculation.! Mathematically,! Firm! ATC! in! the! PH! is! calculated! using! the! equation:! Firm!ATC!=!TTC!–CBM!–Firm!ETC! ! b) NonOFirm#ATC:# Non6Firm! ATC! in! the! PH! for! an! interface! is! the! capability! for! N6n6Firm! transmission!reservations!that!remain!after!allowing!for!CBM,!TRM!and!Firm!and! Non6Firm! ETCs.! As! discussed! above,! the! CBM! for! Phase! I/II! HVDC6TF! is! zero.! Non6Firm!ATC!over!the!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!that!is!available!in!the!PH!includes:! Monthly,!Weekly,!Daily!and!Hourly.!Firm!and!Non6Firm!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!ETCs!
  16. 16. ! 12! are! only! those! Firm! and! Non6Firm! transmission! reservations! with! a! status! of! Confirmed.!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!transmission!reservations!with!any!other!status! are!not!included!in!this!Non6Firm!ATC!calculation.!Netting!Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF! transmission!reservations!is!not!considered!in!this!calculation.!Mathematically,! Non6Firm!ATC!in!the!PH!is!calculated!using!the!equation:!! ! Non6Firm!ATC!=!TTC!–!CBM!–!TRM!–!Firm!and!Non6Firm!ETCs! # 5.6# Interconnection# IssuesOContingency# Analysis:# Impact# of# QuebecONew# England#on#PJM#Transmission#System## Phase!2!interface!has!been!in!service!since!1991!with!a!nominal!transfer!capability! of!2000!MW!in!both!directions.!!Due!to!the!large!transfer!capability!of!this!interface! and!the!geographic!location!of!the!New!England!Control!Area!with!respect!to!the! rest! of! the! Eastern! Interconnection,! the! loss! of! this! facility! can! have! a! substantial! impact! on! the! New! York! and! Pennsylvania,! New! Jersey! and! Maryland! (“PJM”)! transmission!systems.!The!impact!of!the!loss!of!this!interface!on!the!New!York!and! PJM!transmission!systems!is!dependent!upon!the!simultaneous!loading!on!critical! internal!interfaces!in!both!of!these!external!transmission!systems!at!the!time!of!the! contingency.!The!unique!geographic!location!of!the!New!England!Control!Area!with! respect!to!the!rest!of!the!Eastern!Interconnection!bounds!the!amount!of!energy!that! can!flow!between!New!England!and!Hydro!Quebec!over!Phase!2.!! ! Predefined! procedures! and! the! exchange! and! coordination! of! real6time! data! between! the! three! affected! Reliability! Coordinators! is! required! to! allow! Hydro! Quebec! to! New! England! real6time! flows! to! be! greater! than! 1200! MW,! which! is! referred!to!as!the!“largest!source!contingency!limit”.!There!are!instances!where!real6 time!system!conditions!exist!per!the!established!procedures!that!allow!the!flow!from! Hydro!Quebec!to!New!England!to!reach!the!facility!rating!of!2000!MW.!Therefore!the! import! TTC! (Hydro! Quebec! to! New! England)! is! 2000! MW.! The! export! TTC! (New! England!to!Hydro!Quebec)!has!been!limited!to!1200!MW!since!the!facility!went!into! service.!Comparable!procedures!would!have!to!be!developed!and!approved!by!the! affected! Reliability! Coordinators! before! the! flow! from! New! England! to! Hydro! Quebec!can!exceed!1200!MW;!to!date,!there!has!not!been!a!request!to!consider!the! development!of!such!procedures.!! ! Figure!5.5:!The!magnitude!of!power!flow!on!an!hourly!basis!for!a!three!year!period! is!indicated!as!per!the!figure!shown!above.!
  17. 17. ! 13! ! 5.7#Protection#of#the#HVDC#line:# For!High!Voltage!Direct!Current!(HVDC)!applications,!the!control!and!protection! system! plays! an! essential! role! in! the! overall! performance! of! the! transmission! system.!The!control!and!protection!system!adopted!by!ABB!Power!Systems!uses! the!latest!technology!from!the!fields!of!electronics!and!microprocessors.!MACH!is! a!fully!computerized!control!and!protection!system.!The!main!characteristics!of! the! MACH! are! the! high! degree! of! functional! integration! and! the! open! systems! interface!approach.! The! open! systems! strategy! is! reflected! both! in! the! use! of! industrial! standard! serial! and! parallel! communication! buses,! as! well! as! in! the! use! of! standard! formats!for!all!collected!data!(such!as!events,!alarms!and!disturbance!data).!This! makes! it! possible! to! take! advantage! of! the! latest! achievements! in! electronic! engineering,!thus!ensuring!timely!development!of!more!advanced!functions!and! enhancement!of!performance!for!a!long!time!to!come.!Integrated!with!the!MACH! control!and!protection!equipment!is!the!Station!Control!and!Monitoring!(SCM)! system.! Work! stations! (PCs)! are! interconnected! by! an! Ethernet! local! area! network.!A!field!bus!network!builds!up!the!distributed!system!for!remote!I/O,!for! control!as!well!as!for!process!interfacing!with!the!SCM!system.! Each!pole!control!and!protection!cubicle!includes,!in!one!framework,!all!controls;! from!the!interstation!telecommunication!system!and!operator!control!interface! to!the!converter!firing!control.!A!second!framework!houses!a!double!set!of!DC! protections.! The! system! is! built! using! state6of6the6art! microprocessors! and! digital! signal! processors! (DSPs),! connected! by! high! performance! industry! standard!buses!and!fiber!optic!communication!links.!! The! principle! of! the! workflow! is! shown! in! Fig.! 5.6! In! the! DPS! (Dynamic! Performance!Study)!the!pole!control!functions!are!tested!against!an!analogue!or! a!real6time!digital!HVDC!simulator.!The!software!released!for!the!DPS!is!identical! with!the!software!in!the!system!design!stage,!and!revision!orders!are!used!from! the! start! of! the! DPS.! Functional! tests! or! bench! tests! are! made! for! control! and! protection!functions!using!simplified!simulators.!The!debugging!is!done!at!this! stage.! The!schematic!representation!of!the!HVDC!protection!system!is!shown!below:! ! Figure!5.6:!MACH!protection!system! ! Integrated! with! the! MACH! control! and! protection! equipment! is! the! Station! Control! and! Monitoring! (SCM)! system,! a! fully! computerized! and! redundant! system.!The!solution!with!operator!workstations!in!local!area!networks!(LAN)!is! very! cost6effective,! and! is! also! in! perfect! agreement! with! the! open! systems! interface! strategy.! Very! high! performance! is! achieved! mainly! because! all! data!
  18. 18. ! 14! collection! and! ordering! are! implemented! in! software! functions! in! distributed! control! units! (DCUs)! integrated! into! the! control! and! protection! system.! These! DCUs!are!single!board!computers!from!the!MACH!family.! 5.8#Operational#Limitations:#Frequency#coupling#of#HVDC#and#HVAC#system# in#the#Hydro#QuebecONew#England#system:# ! An! HVDC! line! running! in! parallel! with! an! HVAC! line! will! be! exposed! to! a! fundamental! frequency! coupling.! The! coupling! effects,! if! strong! enough,! have! been! recognized! as! an! important! subject! concerning! the! performance! and! the! design! of! an! HVDC! system.! Equipment! both! on! the! AC! and! DC! sides! of! the! converter! station! can! be! affected! by! this! phenomenon.! Induced! fundamental! frequency!current!can!lead!to!saturation!of!the!converter!transformer!core!due! to!unsymmetrical!magnetization.!Saturation!leads!to!an!increased!noise!level!and! increased!heating!in!the!transformer.!The!commutation!in!the!converter!and!the! saturation!of!the!transformer!may!also!generate!higher!order!harmonic!currents! in!the!AC!and!DC!networks,!which!will!influence!the!filter!design.! ! The! superimposed! AC! current! on! an! HVDC! transmission! line! is! based! on! two! effects:! ! • The!coupling!between!AC!and!DC!lines! • The! dynamic! characteristic! of! the! HVDC! converter! with! its! terminating! impedance,!responding!to!the!fundamental!frequency!current!on!the!DC!line.!! ! These! two! effects! must! be! added,! thus! complicating! the! calculation! and! evaluation!of!the!actual!coupling!to!the!DC!line.!The!analysis!must!therefore!be! performed!both!with!and!without!the!converters!in!operation! ! The!field!measurements!were!carried!out!on!the!northern!part!of!the!Quebec6 New!England!Phase!II!multi6terminal!HVDC!system.!This!part!of!the!system!is!a! bipolar! 450! kV! overhead! transmission! line.! It! is! spanning! from! the! Radisson! converter! station! (2,250! MW),! in! the! James! Bay! area,! to! the! Des! Cantons! converter!station!(690!MW)!near!the!US!border.!The!length!is!1120!km.!A!third! converter! station,! Nicolet! (2,138! MW),! is! located! between! the! two! previously! mentioned! stations,! 90! km! north! of! Des! Cantons.! At! the! time! of! the! field! measurements,! all! converter! terminals! and! their! associated! equipment! were! disconnected.!Hence,!the!transmission!line!was!passive!and!measurements!were! not!amplified!by!resonances!with!the!line!terminating!impedances.! ! Three!sections!of!the!HVDC!line!were!exposed!to!AC!line!couplings,!as!shown!in! Fig.!1!and!detailed!in!Table!1.! • Section!I:!Radisson!6!Némiscau! • Section!II:!Trenche/La!Tuque!6!Trois!Rivières/Des!Hêtres! • Section!III:!Bécancour6!Nicolet! !
  19. 19. ! 15! # Figure!5.7:!Different!sections!of!the!HVDC!project! ! The!measurements!were!carried!out!for!two!configurations!of!the!DC!line:! a)!Configuration#1:!both!poles!of!the!DC!line!were!grounded!at!the!southern!end! (Des!Cantons)!but!left!open6circuited!at!Radisson!where!the!pole!voltages!were! measured.! b)!Configuration#2:!both!poles!of!the!DC!line!were!grounded!at!both!ends!and! the!pole!currents!were!measured!at!Radisson.! ! A! nine6cycle! acquisition! of! the! DC! line! voltages! or! currents! was! taken! every! minute!via!a!digital!oscilloscope!and!the!data!was!processed!to!obtain!the!first! ten! harmonics.! While! the! above! DC! line! measurements! were! ongoing,! voltage! and!currents!of!735!kV!line!L7063!and!of!230!kV!lines!L2370!and!L2380!were! being! monitored! continuously! via! power! analysers! to! also! obtain! the! first! ten! harmonics!about!ever!seven!minutes.!735!kV!line!L7062!was!not!monitored!as!it! was!not!in!service!during!that!time!period!and!was!open6circuited!at!both!ends.! Also,!since!the!third!coupling!section!is!relatively!short,!230!kV!lines!L2381!and! L2382!were!not!specially!monitored!and!the!data!came!from!the!hourly!records! of!the!system!control!center.! ! 5.9#Results#of#the#field#measurements:# ! A.#Configuration#1# ! On!the!DC!line,!the!recordings!lasted!for!about!24!hours!and!indicate!that!about!1! kV!was!induced!on!each!pole.!A! Strong!correlation!was!noticed!between!these!induced!voltages!and!the!positive! sequence!current!on!line!L2380.!This!is!the!AC!line!running!closest!to!the!DC!line! and!for!the!longest!coupling!section.! ! B.#Configuration#2# ! The! measurements! for! DC! line! configuration! 2! lasted! only! 90! minutes! and! showed!fundamental!frequency!currents!of!1.05!and!1.20!A!rms!for!pole!1!and!
  20. 20. ! 16! pole!2,!respectively.!The!coupling!factor!in!configuration!2,!where!the!DC!lines! are!short6circuited!to!ground!in!Radisson,!is!different!from!configuration!1.!The! inductive!coupling!is!dominating!and!gives!a!higher!value!for!the!current!of!pole! 2,!due!to!its!closer!location!to!the!AC!lines.!Considering!also!the!coupling!lengths! and! the! relative! position! of! the! lines! given,! it! can! be! confirmed! that! pole! 2! is! exposed!to!a!stronger!inductive!coupling!compared!to!pole!1.!The!voltage!and! currents!of!735!kV!line!L7063!and!230!kV!lines!L2370!and!L2380!are!presented! in!Table!1.!The!table!lists!the!average!magnitudes!of!the!positive6,!negative6!and! zero6sequence!components,!calculated!from!the!continuously!monitored!ones!in! configuration! 2.! From! the! hourly! records,! the! average! value! of! the! positive! sequence! magnitudes! for! 230! kV! lines! L2381! and! L2382! are! calculated.! The! negative!and!zero!sequences!for!these!lines!have!not!been!monitored.! ! The!values!recorded!are!tabulated!as!shown!below:! ! ! Figure!5.8:!Field!results!of!the!configurations! ! 6.#Economics:# The!various!economic!aspects!of!the!Quebec6New!England!project!have!been! listed!below! 6.1#Capital#Construction#Cost:!!!!!!!!!!! The!total!cost!incurred!for!the!phase62!of!the!project!is!calculated!to!be!585!million! dollars.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ITEM# COST#ESTIMATE#(in#Millions# of#Dollars)# (As#of#1990)# 133.2!miles!of!∓450!kV!DC!Transmission!Line! 182! One!1800!MW!converter!station!connected!to!Sandy! Pond! 252! 36!miles!of!345!kV!AC!Transmission!Line!connecting! Sandy!Pond!and!Millbury!No.3!Substations! 40.5! 16.1!miles!of!345!kV!AC!Transmission!Line!connecting! 17.7!
  21. 21. ! 17! Millbury!No.3!and!West!Medway!Substations! 3456kV!AC!circuit!breakers!and!miscellaneous! equipment!at!Sandy!Pond,!Millbury!No.3!,!and!West! Medway!substations! 18.3! Remove!and!rebuild!two!sections!of!two!1156kV!AC! transmission!lines!and!remove!and!rebuild!portions! of! two! 69! 6kV! AC! transmission! lines! and! support! structures!on!the!Sandy!Pond!to!Millbury!right6of6 way;! install! 1156kV! AC! circuit! breakers! and! miscellaneous!substation!equipment! 46.5! Other!miscellaneous!facilities! 28! Total! 585! Table!6.1:!Project!Costs! # 6.2#Cost#of#Money:# # DC#Facilities# 60%!Debt!@!11.0!%! 40%!Equity!@!14.0!%! Weighted!Total!12.2%# AC#Lines# 45%!Debt!@!11.0%! 10%!Preferred!Stock!@10.0%! 45%!Equity!@!14.0%! Weighted!Total!12.25%! Present#Worth#Rate# 10.4%! Property#Taxes# a) Converters! b) AC!and!DC!Lines! c) Escalation!Rate! ! 1.0%!of!Project!Capital!Cost! 2.5%!of!Project!Capital!Cost! 2.5%!per!year! O&M#Costs# • !!Converters! • AC!! • DC!Lines! • Escalation!Rate# • Land!/!Right!Of!Way!Lease!Charges# # 1.9%!of!Project!Capital!Cost! 0.6%!of!Project!Capital!Cost! 0.7%!of!Project!Capital!Cost! 5.0%!per!year! 2.3%!of!Project!Capital!Cost#
  22. 22. ! 18! List#of#Facilities# a) Tax! ! b) Book! ! c) Normalized! ! 15!years!for!personal!property! 18!years!for!real!property! 10!years!for!DC!Line!and!Converter! 30!years!for!AC!Lines! 10!years!for!DC!Line!and!Converter! 30!years!for!AC!Lines! Tax#Income# a) Federal!Income! b) Massachusetts!Income! c) New!Hampshire!Income! d) Investment!Tax!Credit! ! 46.0%! 6.5%!(70%!subject!to!Income!Tax)! 9.03%!(30%!subject!to!Income!Tax)! 10%!deferred!and!amortized!over!book!life! Depreciation# a) Book:! b) Tax:! ! Straight!Line! Rate!Set!by!Accelerated!Cost!Recovery! System!Tax!Laws! In!Service!Date! December!1990! Table!6.2:!Cost!of!money! ! 6.3#Net#Benefits:# # Fossil#Fuel#Prices# Gross#Savings# Project#Costs# Net# Benefits# Capital#Costs# Cumulative# Present#Worth# ! 660%! ! 886! +25%! Base! 625%! 1119! 897! 675! 6233! 611! 211! ! 625%! ! 1369! +25%! Base! 625%! 1119! 897! 675! 250! 472! 694! ! Base! ! 1729! +25%! Base! 625%! 1119! 897! 675! 610! 832! 1054! ! +25%! ! 2069! +25%! Base! 625%! 1119! 897! 675! 950! 1172! 1394! Table!6.3:!Net!benefits!
  23. 23. ! 19! 6.4#Economic#Justification:# Despite!the!Net!benefits!of!the!project!under!section!6.3,!a!break!even!analysis!of! the!project!costs!when!compared!to!HVAC!is!done!in!excel!sheets!and!the!results! are!drawn!as!follows:! ! ! figure!6.1:!Break!even!distance!compared!to!the!HVAC!costs! The!scale!of!the!graph!is:!1unit!on!X6axis!=!10!miles,!1unit!on!Y6axis!=!100million! dollars! After!considering!all!the!relative!costs!the!break!even!distance!is!calculated!to!be! “152!miles”!(for!phase!62only)! This!project!is!economically!viable!and!profits!are!expected!high!when!compared! to!HVAC!also.! ! 6.5#Different#Losses:# # Figure!6.2:!Different!losses!in!the!project!
  24. 24. ! 20! The! figure! 6.2! resembles! the! different! losses! in! this! project,! the! transformer! losses!being!the!highest!of!losses!accounting!for!57%,!the!next!being!thyristor! losses! of! 24%.! The! other! losses! are! from! filters,! smoothing! reactors! and! line! losses.! # 7.#Environmental#Considerations:# # 7.1#RightOofOWay#Issues:! As! necessary,! transmission! line! rights6of6way! would! be! cleared! of! trees! to! facilitate!(1)!staking,!access,!assembly,!and!erection!of!structures;!(2)!installation! of!conductors;!and!(3)!maintenance.!This!would!also!provide!adequate!clearance! for!energized!lines.!The!clearing!program!would!be!planned!and!implemented!to! stabilize! the! rights6of6way! against! erosion! and! provide! for! natural! vegetation! control.! • Access#and#Maintenance#Roads# To! the! extent! possible,! existing! roads! would! be! used! to! gain! access! to! project!sites.!Some!new!access!roads!would!be!required!both!within!the! rights6of6way! and! from! existing! roads! to! the! rights6of6way! .! Off6road! access!may!be!pursued!in!special!cases.! • Support#Structure#Installation,#Framing,#and#Stringing# In! upland! area! setting! for! the! support! structure! might! include! a! foundation! with! steel! pole! angle! support! structure! for! instance! would! either! require! concrete! cylindrical! caisson! foundations,! concrete! cylindrical!caisson!foundations,!spread6footing!foundation,!steel!grillage! foundation!structure.! In!Wetland!areas!the!method!for!placement!would!be!wetlands.!(1)!Direct! embedment! within! an! excavation.! (2)! Drive! piles! into! underlying! firm! ground! and! attach! the! structures! to! the! piles.! (3)! Install! a! concrete! foundation!and!set!the!structure!on!the!foundation.! • Converter#Terminal# Construct!ion!of!the!proposed!converter!terminal!would!include!(1)!site! preparation,! (2)! foundation! work,! (3)! erection! of! buildings! and! structures,! (4)! installation! of! power! equipment,! and! (5)! testing! and! commissioning.! • Expansion#of#the#Ground#Electrode# The!Ground!electrode!for!the!phase!II!will!be!an!extension!of!the!phase!I! ground! electrode! it! would! necessitate! the! improvement! of! the! existing! logging!road.!Additionally,!a!short,!1!56m!(506ft)!wide!corridor!would!be! cleared!for!the!proposed!ground!electrode!feeder!connector.! # 7.2#Emissions#and#other#offsets# • Air#Quality6No!serious!air6quality!impacts!are!anticipated!if!the!project!is! implemented.! • Land#Features,#Hydrology,#Water#Quality,#and#Water#Use6!Despite!the! use!of!mitigate!measures!to!control!erosion,!some!unavoidable!increases! of!soil!erosion!and!sedimentation!within!creeks!and!rivers!would!result! from!construction!activities,!particularly!during!the!thunderstorm!season.!
  25. 25. ! 21! Construction!activities!would!result!in!temporarily!increased!suspended! solids!and!turbidity!in!surface!water!bodies!of!the!project!area.! • Land# Features# and# Use6Impacts! related! to! unstable! slopes! would! be! mitigated! through! the! use! of! careful! siting! of! structures! and! use! of! thoroughly!supervised!construction!practices.!Judicious!siting!of!project! facilities! would! be! employed! to! minimize! the! impacts! associated! with! geological! instability,! such! as! landslides,! slumping,! mass! wasting,! and! earthquakes.! • Ecology6! About! 147! ha! (364! acres)! of! forest! habitat! at! the! proposed! converter! station,! ground! electrode! site,! and! along! the! proposed! route! would!be!cleared,!but!it!is!not!anticipated!that!this!would!result!in!serious! effects! upon! local! wildlife! populations.! Indeed,! some! species! would! benefit!from!the!clearing!of!the!wooded!habitat.!Disturbance!of!aquatic! and! wetland! habitats! and! their! associated! biota! would! be! an! environmental!impact!of!the!proposed!project!and!would!primarily!occur! during!construction!activities.! • Socioeconomics# and# Cultural# Resources6! No! unavoidable! adverse! effects!to!socioeconomics!and!cultural!resources!currently!are!identified.! • Health# and# Safety6! A! conservative! interpretation! of! the! available! data! leads!to!the!conclusion!that!electrostatic!fields!and!air!ion!concentration!s! in!the!right6of6way!have!the!potential!in!very!infrequent!circumstances!of! inducing! insignificant! and! transient! physiological! and! psychological! alterations!in!persons!frequenting!this!area!.! • Historical#Structures6!Al!though!prehistoric!sites!may!contain!structures! and!historic!sites!may!lack!them!,!historic!structures!may!be!considered! separately! because! the! methods! employed! for! inventory! and! impact! assessment!differ!from!those!applied!to!other!cultural!resources!.! • Electric#and#Magnetic#environment6!Due!to!the!presence!of!AC!and!DC! lines!there!will!be!electric!and!magnetic!field!in!the!surrounding!and!it! will!be!maximum!near!the!conductors!but!as!the!clearance!height!of!the! conductor!is!high!it!would!not!affect!the!surrounding!environment.! 7.3#New#England#environment#challenges#and#the#possible#actions# !
  26. 26. ! 22! ! Figure!7.1:!Environmental!impact! # 7.4#Impact#of#Integrated#Actions#on#New#England#Goals# # # Figure!7.2:!Emission!reduction!actions! ! 7.5#Harmonics/Interferences# • A!typical!Harmonics!Disturbances!in!the!system!is!the!11th!and!the!13th! Harmonics!due!to!which!was!reduced!by!the!proper!ST!filter!but!due!to! the!increase!in!the!effect!of!the!harmonic!current!in!the!system!newer!C6 Type!filter!are!being!used!to!replace!the!old!one.! • The!Coupling!effect!between!the!HVAC!and!HVDC!line!were!calculated!to! be!between!162.5!A!as!per!the!worst6case!scenario.!And!a!distance!of!1.5! KM!was!measured!to!avoid!this!effect.! • During!the!spring!of!1991,!several!severe!geomagnetic!disturbances!were! recorded!in!North!America,!and!particularly!in!Northern!Quebec,!where! Hydro6Quebec's!La!Grande!generation!complex!and!transmission!system! are!located.!As!a!result!of!these!disturbances,!the!Quebec6New!England!
  27. 27. ! 23! Phase! 1! HVDC! system! was! affected! by! transformer! saturation! and! harmonic!voltage!distortion!due!to!geomagnetic!induced!current!(GIC).! ! 7.6#Ground#Electrode# • The!ground!electrode!would!correct!for!current!imbalance!between!the! positive! and! negative! halves! of! the! HVDC! interconnection! and! accommodate!abnormal!operating!conditions.! • During! normal! operation! of! the! proposed! DC! line,! approximately! 20! amperes! of! electricity! at! less! than! 500! volts! would! flow! over! the! electrode!feeder!and!through!the!ground!electrode.! • In! cases! of! abnormal! operating! conditions,! the! maximum! voltage! to! ground! would! not! exceed! 15! kV! at! a! current! of! 2450! amperes.! The! ground!electrode!is!designed!to!operate!at!this!level!for!15!minutes.!The! ground! electrode! is! expected! to! be! used! for! abnormal! operating! conditions!20!to!30!times!per!year.! 8.#Contractual#and#Policy#Considerations.# Quebec! segment! ownership! by! HQ6TransEnergie! and! US! segment! ownership! jointly!between!NU!and!NSTAR.! Relevant!Considerations! • Project!is!not!a!merchant!project! • Project!is!participant!funded,!with!cost6based!rates! • Transmission!Service!Agreement!to!be!filed!with!FERC!for!approval! • Power!Purchase!Agreement!to!be!approved!by!state!regulators! • Project!to!be!vetted!through!ISO6NE!planning!process! • Project!to!be!turned!over!to!ISO6NE!for!operation! • Project!is!subject!to!state!siting!requirements! ! 1. Joint#Development#Agreement# • NU! and! HQ6Trans! Energie! for! the! design! and! construction! of! the! HVDC!line! • Des!Cantons!is!the!expected!northern!terminus! • Southern!terminus!has!several!viable!alternatives!identified! 2. Transmission#Services#Agreement# • Firm!transmission!services!for!HQ6US!under!this!bilateral!agreement! • HQ!will!pay!for!the!HVDC!line!–participant!funded! • Negotiated,!cost!based!rates!with!FERC!filing!for!approval! • Not!merchant!and!no!market6based!pricing! 3. Purchase#Power#Agreement# • Available!to!NU,!NSTAR!and!other!qualified!New!England!buyers! • No!less!than!20!year!term! • All6in!priced!power!(including!the!costs!of!the!transmission!line)! • State!regulators!will!have!approval!for!the!power!purchase!by!their! respective!utilities!
  28. 28. ! 24! 9.#Future#Scope#and#Proposed#Changes#for#the#Project:# • ABB!will!now!replace!the!206yearold!control!and!protection!systems!with! the! newest! modular! advanced! control! systems! (MACH)! for! HVDC! equipment.! • The! project! scope! also! includes! refurbishment! of! two! cable! transition! stations!and!a!control!and!protection!system!replica!for!a!test!center!in! Canada,! which! will! be! operational! by! 2016.! Apart! from! the! Protection! system!the!Automatic!reclosure!system!is!going!to!be!replaced.! 10.##Conclusions,#Unique#Features#and#Project#Benefits:# • Only! MTDC! System! in! North! America! and! also! links! two! asynchronous! Systems.! • CO2! Emissions:! Injecting! 1,200! MW! of! new! hydro! power! would! reduce! CO2emissions!by!up!to!6!million!tons!representing!30%!of!the!2025!“gap! to!target”! • Other! environmental! benefits:! Power! will! displace! marginal! fossil! generation! and! associated! environmental! impacts! –frees! up! enough! natural!gas!to!heat!1!million!homes! • Fuel! Diversity:! Increase! in! hydro! power! to! New! England! significantly! increases!the!region’s!fuel!diversity,!reducing!the!dependence!on!oil!and! gas! • Market!Power!Prices:!The!scale!of!the!project!is!expected!to!lower!market! prices!for!power!for!all!customers! • PPA!benefits:!A!pricing!structure!that!will!be!competitive!with!the!market! • Participant! Funded:! The! required! investment! in! HVDC! facilities! will! be! borne!by!the!parties!without!regional!cost!allocation! ! 11.#System#Modelling:# The MATLAB modelling of Mode 1 Configuration as discussed under 5.1 section of the Quebec – New England HVDC Project is as shown below:# ! ! Figure!11.1:!Matlab!system!model!for!mode!1!configuration!
  29. 29. ! 25! The!ouput!result!on!the!Sandy!Pond!inverter!side!simulated!is!as!follows:! ! Figure!11.2:!Ouput!on!the!inverter!side!(Sandy!Pond)!mode!1!configuration! Power!world!simulation!for!the!project!has!also!been!performed!which!can!be! shown!as!follows:! ! Figure!11.3:!Power!flow!of!the!Quebec6New!England!HVDC!project! ! In!this!simulation!we!have!the!three!terminals!Radisson,!Nicolet!and!Sandy!Pond! with!their!corresponding!generators,!loads!and!the!reactive!power!requirement.! All!the!three!terminals!are!connected!through!DC!transmission!lines!available!in! the! Power! world.! There! are! also! supporting! generators! at! buses! 3! and! 5! to! support!the!contingency!when!the!Radisson!generator!is!lost.!The!rectifier!and!! inverter! of! the! DC! lines! are! inbuild! within! the! line,! the! parameters! can! be! changed!accordingly!depending!on!the!control!strategy!and!configuration!type.! ! !
  30. 30. ! 26! 12.#References:# ! 1.!"Phase!I/II!HVDC6TF!TTC,!CBM,!TRM!and!ATC!METHODOLOGY"! 2.! "Proposed! economic! study! to! assess! potential! regional! benefits! for! increased! operating!limit!on!New!England/Quebec!Interconnector"! 3.!"ISO!New!England!Available!Transfer!Capability!Implementation!Document! !!!!!Version!1.0"! 4."ISO!NEW!ENGLAND!OPEN!ACCESS!TRANSMISSION!TARIFF"! 5.! "Environment! Impact! Statement! 6! New! England/Hydro6Quebec! ±! 450! kv! Transmission!Line!Interconnection66!Phase!II"! 6."Fundamental!frequency!coupling!between!HVAC!and!HVDC!lines!in!the!Quebec6! !!!!New!England!multi!terminal!system!6!Comparison!between!field!measurements! !!!!and!EMTDC!simulations"! 7.!"MODERN!CONTROL!AND!PROTECTION!SYSTEM!FOR!HVDC"! 8.!Environmental!impact!statement6!US!department!of!Energy!(publication)! 9.! NU! /! NSTAR! Proposed! HVDC! Transmission! Line6! Allen! W.! Schindler! NPCC! 2009! General!Meeting!Cambridge,!MA!September!23,!2009! 10.!Interconnection!and!operators!agreement!2012!(publication)! 11.! ! “Feedback! on! the! Quebec6New! England! MTDC! line! 20! years! of! operation”! by! Danielle!McNabb,!Hydro!Quebec!TransEngergie! 12.! “Planning! HVDC! and! FACTS! in! New! England”! by! Michael! I.Henderson,! Director,! Regional!Planning!&!Coordination,!ISO!New!England! ! !

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