Name -Akshat Saxena
Topic : Organic Chemistry and Organic
• What is Chemistry?
• Origin of Organic Chemistry
• Earlier Theories.
• Modern Defination.
• Why Organic chemistry a separate branch?
• Classification of Organic Compounds.
What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the branch of science which
deals with matter,its composition,its
structure,its property and its
transformation from one form to another
Main Branches of Chemistry
Based on their source, chemical
compounds are classified into
three types by Lemery:
i) Mineral sourced.
ii) Vegetable sourced.
iii) Animal sourced.
Lavoiser founded that the compounds from
vegetable and animal sources contain similar
Then Berzelius classified the above three
types into two types and he coined the new
terms Organic and Inorganic.
i) Organic compounds: These are present in
living beings (plants, animals etc.)
ii) Inorganic compounds: These are present in
Origin of Organic Chemistry
• Scheele extracted tartaric acid from grapes
and citric acid from lemons.
• Roulle isolated urea from human urine.
• Serturner prepared morphine from opium.
• This discoveries led to increment of
interest among the scientists towards
Vital Force Theory
• This theory is also known as Bio-force
• ‘Vital Force Theory’ was given by
‘Jons Jacob Berzelius’ in 1808.
• Therefore, he is known as
‘Father of Organic Chemistry’.
• According to him, “We can not
prepare Organic Compounds in the laboratory
because ‘vital force’ is absent there.”
Organic Compounds can only be Prepared by
living things because they have vital force.
• Other scientist supported Berzelius and he
suggested that we should study Organic
Chemistry separately because they have
• Then introduced a new branch of chemistry
known as ‘Organic Chemistry’.
Break-down of Vital Force
• In 1828,Friedrich Wohler
,a German Chemist, prepared
Urea as the first organic
compound in laboratory and
broke Vital force Theory.
• He was actually preparing
from ammonium Chloride (NH4CL).
The reaction is
NH4CL + KCNO NH4CNO + KCL
But , he heated it much and then rearrangement
reaction took place,which formed Urea.
cynate (A well known Organic
(A typical inorganic Compound) compound)
• Kolbe synthesised CH3COOH from its
• Berthelot synthesised CH4
• Carbon is tetravalent as it contains four
unpaired electrons in its excited state
The tetravalency of carbon was given by
Vanthoff and Lebel who were awarded the
first nobel prize in chemistry.
Compounds which are made by carbon and
hydrogen are known as Hydrocarbon.
The branch of chemistry dealing with the
study of hydrocarbons and the compounds
which could be thought of as the
derivatives of hydrocarbons is called
Why Organic Chemistry is a
• Large number of organic Compounds.
• Composition of Organic Compounds.
• Complexity of molecules.
• Most of the Properties are decided by
• They contain covalent bonds between
carbon and carbon as well as between other
• They shows property of isomerism.
• They have low melting and boiling points
as compared to inorganic compounds.
• They are not soluble in non-polar solvents.
• Nature of Chemical reactions.
Open Chain or
Closed chain or
Modern ABC for class XI
Morrison & Boyd