SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
1.2 MACHINE TOOLS AND TOOLS
USED IN AUTOMOBILE
REPAIRING:
SHOP-CUTTERS, PULLERS, STUD-EXTRACTOR,
TORQUE WRENCH, PISTON RING EXPANDER,
PISTON RING GROOVE CLEANER, WHEEL
BALANCER, WHEEL ALIGNER, ARBOR PRESS,
DRILL PRESS, TYRE CHANGER, CAR WASHER,
BATTERY CHARGER, VALVE GRINDER, HONING
MACHINE, CYLINDER BORING MACHINE.
• Presented By
• Arup Kumar Sikdar
• Lecturer in Automobile Engineering
• Nalhati Government Polytechnic
• SUBJECT: WORKSHOP
ORGANIZATION & VEHICLE
MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
Shop cutters
• In the context of machining,
a cutting tool or cutter is any
tool that is used to remove some
material from the work piece by
means of shear deformation.
Cutting may be accomplished by
single-point or multipoint tools.
Single-point tools are used
in turning, shaping, planning and
similar operations, and remove
material by means of one cutting
edge. Milling and drilling tools are
often multipoint tools. It is a body
having teeth or cutting edges on
it.
Pullers
• A puller is a tool used to remove parts such
as bearings, pulleys or gears from a shaft.
They have legs, typically two or three which
circle around the back or inside of a part and
they also have a forcing screw which centers
up against the end of a shaft.
• Jaw type puller. Two or three jaw style, with
three jaw being the best choice. Manual or
hydraulic with outside jaw positions.
• Push/Pull puller. Use male or female
adaptors to thread into tapped holes on
components.
• Slide hammer puller. Use on light duty
applications. For use with attachments.
• Bar type puller with bearing separator. Bar
type with side rods threaded into bearing
separator provides "knife edge" to get behind
component or when there is not a good
gripping edge.
Stud-extractor
• A screw extractor is a tool for removing
broken or seized screws. There are two
types: one has a spiral flute structure,
commonly called an easy out the other
has a straight flute structure. Screw
extractors are intentionally made
of hard, brittle steel, and, if too much
torque is applied, can break off inside the
screw that is being removed. Since the
extractor is an extremely hard material,
and a typical home shop drill bit will not be
able to drill into it, a larger element of
difficulty is added to the original screw
extraction project. One way to avoid this
added difficulty is to drill a hole completely
through the screw. Thus, if the fastener
breaks, a punch can be used to drive out
the easy out from the screw, via the back,
or end, of the fastener.
Torque wrench • A torque wrench is a tool used to apply a
specific torque to a fastener such as
a nut, bolt, or lag screw. It is usually in the
form of a socket wrench with special internal
mechanisms.
• Important nuts and bolts in automobile work
must be tightened with a specified amount of
torque, because excessive torque may result
in their breakage while less torque, they will
remain loose. This permits
proper tension and loading of all parts.
• A torque wrench uses torque as a proxy for
bolt tension. The technique suffers from
inaccuracy due to inconsistent or
uncalibrated friction between the fastener
and its mating hole. Measuring bolt tension
(indirectly via bolt stretch) is what is desired,
but often torque is the only
practical measurement which can be made.
• Different type of torque wrench as shown in
diagram.
Piston ring
expander
• A unique tool that will speed the
removal and installation of piston
rings with minimum ring distortion.
The use of a ring expander will
greatly reduce ring point
misalignment which can be
detrimental to good piston ring
sealing and engine performance.
Made of steel and requires no
adjustments.
Piston ring
groove cleaner
• This tool is specially designed to clean
up the compression ring slots. It will
remove the carbon build-up easily. The
tool includes two cleaning spurs with
sizes 5/64", 3/32", 1/8", 5/32", 3/16",
1/4", 1.5mm, 1.75mm, 2mm. Can be
used on all pistons with 2 3/4" to 5" (70
to 127mm) diameter.
Piston ring
compressor
• Piston ring compressors are places
around the piston covering the rings. As
the compressor is tightened, it
compresses the piston rings into their
grooves on the piston. Then the piston
and rod assembly is installed into the
cylinder.
Alignments of
Wheels
• It is used to inspect and repair the wheel geometry. It is
equipped with pre-alignment inspection check, self diagnostics
to enable quick detection of errors, and on-screen real-time
adjustment for high precision and speed.
• Every vehicle manufacturer furnishes the wheel alignment
specification for the vehicles manufactured by him.
• Measurement and adjusting the wheel alignment angles
conforming to the above specified value is called the wheel
alignment.
• Wheel alignment angles are
• (i) Wheel angles - camber and toe.
• (ii) Steering axis angles – caster and king pin inclination.
• (iii) Unwanted angles – wheel run out and set back.
• Each wheel alignment angle has a specific purpose and
function. If they are not set properly. The effects will be uneven
tire wear, loss of steering control, pulling to one side while
driving, jerking on travel etc.
Alignments of Wheels
• It may not be possible to correct all the above angles in a vehicle. Depending upon the
design of suspension, some angles are adjustable at workshop level, and some are not
adjustable.
• Description of equipment : The system consists of main cabinet, electronic unit, power
supply unit, display panel, membrane keyboard, sensor arms and printer.
• 1. Main cabinet : It is the housing for the electronic unit and power supply unit. The
sensor arms are fixed to the pins provided in the sides of the main cabinet.
• 2. Display panel : It consists of three display windows and membrane keyboard. The
centre window displays the ongoing programmers the left and right windows display
the respective alignment angles that are being checked.
• 3. Membrane keyboard : This consists of two sections. One section contains the
display windows; the other section contains the operational keys for the selection and
operation of various functions of the system.
• 4. Sensor arms : The sensor arms (left and right) contain high precision electronic
sensing elements require and transmit the various alignment parameters to the
electronic unit. These arms are fixed with spirit level.
• 5. Wheel brackets : Brackets will be mounted on the left and right wheel rims. The
sensor arms will be mounted on these wheel brackets.
• 6. Rear wheel size : These are used as a reference for centering the front wheels with
respect to the geometric center line of the vehicle.
• 7. Rotary plates : The rotary plate consists of a freely rotating plate in which degree
graduations are marked to measure the angle of rotation. While carrying out alignment,
the wheels of the vehicle being aligned will rest of these plates. The rotary plates
enable left 20 degree and right 20-degree movement required for measuring caster
angle.
• 8. Steering lock : It is used lock the steering wheel movement, while performing the toe
adjustment.
• 9. Brake pedal lock : It is to keep the brake in pressed condition, so that the vehicle will
not move during the turn left 20 degree and turn right 20-degree programs.
Balancing of wheels
• Modern suspension systems and higher driving speeds have made it
necessary that the wheel and tire assembly be in balance if maximum driving
and riding comfort, maximum safety, and maximum tire life are to be realized.
Front wheels are more sensitive to an unbalanced condition than the rear
wheels, but all four should be balanced to prolong tire life.
• A wheel and tire assembly can be balanced in two ways statically and
dynamically. Static imbalance is indicated by ‘wheel tramp’. Dynamic imbalance
will cause the wheel to wobble or shimmy. Type of imbalance can exist without
the other, although both tires are usually present at the same time.
• Wheel balance should be checked at regular intervals, and also a tire has been
repaired, retreaded, or recapped.
• Computerized wheel balances are used to check the wheel balancing. It is
used to check the single plane (static) and two plane (dynamic) balancing.
Balancer has a spindle driven by an electrical motor.
• Attach the wheel to the balancer spindle with the help of quick cone lock nut.
Quick cone lock nut – ensures fast mounting and removal of wheel. Spin the
wheel at high speed, the computer displays unbalance for inner and outer rims
in single run. Determine the size of weights needed. Self checking, on error line
program facilities are available in this balancer. Measuring range of this
balancer is 0-200gms and balancing speed 400 rpm.
Arbor Press
• An arbor press is a small hand-
operated press. It is typically used to
perform smaller jobs, such
as staking, riveting, installing,
configuring and
removing bearings and other press
fit work. Punches, inserters, or other
tools/dies may be added to the end of
the ram depending on the desired
task.
• Typically, common are presses with a
leverage of 1–5 tons. This leverage is
achieved when a force is applied to
the lever arm or wheel.
Drill press/
Machine
• Drill press, also called Drilling Machine, device for
producing holes in hard substances. The drill is held in
a rotating spindle and is fed into the workpiece, which
is usually clamped in a vise resting on a table. The
drill may be gripped in a chuck with three jaws that
move radially in unison, or it may have a tapered
shank that fits into a tapered hole in the spindle.
Tire Changer
• A tire changer is a machine used to help
tire technicians dismount and mount tires
with automobile wheels. After the wheel
and tire assembly are removed from the
automobile, the tire changer has all the
components necessary to remove and
replace the tire from the wheel. Different
tire changers allow technicians to replace
tires on automobiles, motorcycles and
heavy-duty trucks. New tire and wheel
technology has improved certain tire
changers to be able to change a low-
profile tire or a run-flat tire.
Car Washer
• Regular chassis washing of both cars and commercial vehicles to remove grease, oil,
mud and other corrosive deposits is most essential. This type of cleaning is a time
representative of preventive maintenance. This is easily done by a spray of water with
a solvent, at high pressure (above 25 kg/cm2).
• Car washer consists of a pump which is driven by a electric motor. The pump sucks
water from a well or from water tank filled beneath it and delivers to the nozzle through
a pipe of hoses with high pressure. There are two types of car washers as follows.
• That provided with single hose which can be used to wash only one vehicle at a time
• 1. That provided with twin hoses which can be used to wash two vehicles at a time.
The nozzles are adjustable, so that the delivery of water can be regulated at variable
force from fine spray to solid jet.
• Automatic Washing-
• The automatic car wash machine has a three-horsepower pumping station which
pumps up to 100ltrs of water per minute through 15 numbers of nozzles, 12 of which
spray as a pre-wash arch which washes tires, wheels and rocker panels and rest
three nozzles' sprays on back top brush. The machine dispenses a specially
formulated foaming, high pressure chemical during a pre-wash pass which is applied
along with high pressure wash.
• The high-pressure spray automatically adjusts to the vehicle’s dimensions by the use
of P L C based control panel and lastly, high pressure air blowers maintain the best
air-steam helps to dry the complete vehicle surfaces.
• The features and benefits of
• 1. Washes all shapes, sizes and configurations of vehicles.
• 2. All brushes are made of extremely durable at soft bristles that are carefully hand-
woven.
• 3. There is an intensified rear wash programmed to effectively double wash the backs
of vehicles.
Battery
Charger
• Automobile battery charger is exactly like
a cell phone or laptop charger but for
a car or truck battery. These devices plug
into an electrical outlet on one end (source
of power) and connect to a vehicles
battery terminals with cables that resemble
jumper/booster cables.
• Battery charger uses three-phase charging
mode(PWM charging mode), which
includes constant current charging phase,
constant voltage charging phase, floating
charging phase with short circuit protection,
over voltage protection, anti - reverse
connecting protection etc.
Valve Grinder
• If the valve face is badly scored or pitted, it may be
done on a special valve refacing machine .
• The machine consists of a grinding wheel operated
by an electric motor. The valve is held in chuck
which is also rotated with electric motor. There is a
provision to set the valve chuck at any desired
angle. This angle must just match the valve seat
angle. Then put the valve into the chuck and
tighten the chuck. The valve should be placed in
the chuck so that the part of the stem that runs in
the valve guide is gripped by the chuck.
• To start the operation, align the coolant feed so
that it sprays coolant on the rotating valve face.
Then start the machine, move the lever to carry
the valve face across the grinding wheel. The first
cut should be a light one.
• Do not take heavy cuts. If so much metal must be
removed that the margin is lost, discard the valve.
This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
Cylinder Boring Machine
• In recent practice the method of truing worm cylinders with the
baring bar has become widely used on account of its rapidity and
precision. Reboring is done on special machines, it is shown in
Figure.
• In this machines uses a single point tool (or) cutter which is set to
the exact diameter required with special micrometer. The cutting
edge is sharpened on a revolving disk, using a mixture of diamond
dirt and oil. The cutter blade shaft is mounted inside a column which
moves up and down its housing in the mixed part of the machine,
for tool feeding purpose. The cutter is driven at low speed by an
electric motor mounted on the machine.
• The top surface of the cylinder block is thoroughly cleaned and the
boring bar set at one of the cylinder bores. The bar is centered set
to the desired depth of cut and the machine started. The cutter will
bore progressively to the other end, and the machine stops when
the boring complete. After the job is complete again the cylinder
must be washed thoroughly to remove all abrasive particles.
Cylinder Honing Machine
• Honing the cylinder walls is necessary after reboring, or to remove
minor imperfections and glaze. A hone consists of four or six
narrow, fine-graded grinding stones mounted in cage around a
spindle which is rotated by an electric motor.
• In the fixed, machine-shop type hone, the cylinder block is
mounted on the machine table, and the vertical or stroking
movement of the hone up and down the bore often effected
automatically. Portable hones designed to be driven by a heavy
duty electric drill mounted on a stroking stand are also widely
used, especially in conjunctions with a portable boring bar; in
these cases the stroking action is effected manually.
• Place the hone in the cylinder and expand the stones until the
assembly can just be turned by hand and machine started. Home
drive at drill speed while moving the hone up and down the entire
length of the cylinder until the hone begins to run free. During this
operation a liberal amount of kerosene, or other suitable cutting
fluid, should be used to keep the stones clean.
• Move the hone up and down slowly with the first-cut rough rough
stones, but more rapidly with the finish-cut line stones. Expand the
stones against the cylinder walls and repeat honing operation until
the desired bore diameter is obtained. After the honing is
completed, all abrasive particles must be removed from the
engine parts. Hot water and soap is recommended to clean the
cylinder walls.
Review
Question
Which tool is used to remove bearing from
shaft?
How to remove broken stud from the any
component.
How to tighten bolt properly.
Which tool is used to maintain piston?
What is Arbor Press.
How to reuse cylinder and which tools are used
for reuse.

More Related Content

What's hot

Manual transmission final
Manual transmission finalManual transmission final
Manual transmission finalSagar Ahire
 
Front axle and steering system
Front axle and steering systemFront axle and steering system
Front axle and steering systemYashodhan Agarwal
 
Gear box
Gear boxGear box
Gear boxdeep388
 
Uint 1 locating and clamping devices
Uint 1 locating and clamping devicesUint 1 locating and clamping devices
Uint 1 locating and clamping devicesS.DHARANI KUMAR
 
Pneumatic circuits
Pneumatic circuitsPneumatic circuits
Pneumatic circuitsRAHUL THAKER
 
Steering gearbox
Steering gearboxSteering gearbox
Steering gearboxviruyadave
 
power steering system
power steering systempower steering system
power steering systemsonu bansal
 
Lubrication system
Lubrication systemLubrication system
Lubrication systemAriful Hasan
 
Propeller shaft & universal joint
Propeller shaft & universal jointPropeller shaft & universal joint
Propeller shaft & universal jointdeep388
 
Introduction to automobile engineering
Introduction to automobile engineeringIntroduction to automobile engineering
Introduction to automobile engineeringNeeraj Sharma
 
steering gear mechanism ppt
steering gear mechanism pptsteering gear mechanism ppt
steering gear mechanism ppttarique shaikh
 
Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile
Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile    Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile
Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile Dr.S.SURESH
 

What's hot (20)

Clutches
ClutchesClutches
Clutches
 
Clutch
ClutchClutch
Clutch
 
Manual transmission final
Manual transmission finalManual transmission final
Manual transmission final
 
Front axle and steering system
Front axle and steering systemFront axle and steering system
Front axle and steering system
 
Gear box
Gear boxGear box
Gear box
 
Uint 1 locating and clamping devices
Uint 1 locating and clamping devicesUint 1 locating and clamping devices
Uint 1 locating and clamping devices
 
Clutch
ClutchClutch
Clutch
 
Pneumatic circuits
Pneumatic circuitsPneumatic circuits
Pneumatic circuits
 
Fuel supply system in SI engines
Fuel supply system in SI enginesFuel supply system in SI engines
Fuel supply system in SI engines
 
Steering gearbox
Steering gearboxSteering gearbox
Steering gearbox
 
power steering system
power steering systempower steering system
power steering system
 
Lubrication system
Lubrication systemLubrication system
Lubrication system
 
Clutch ppt
Clutch pptClutch ppt
Clutch ppt
 
Propeller shaft & universal joint
Propeller shaft & universal jointPropeller shaft & universal joint
Propeller shaft & universal joint
 
Clutch System
Clutch System Clutch System
Clutch System
 
Introduction to automobile engineering
Introduction to automobile engineeringIntroduction to automobile engineering
Introduction to automobile engineering
 
11 final drive
11 final drive11 final drive
11 final drive
 
Wheel Alignment
Wheel AlignmentWheel Alignment
Wheel Alignment
 
steering gear mechanism ppt
steering gear mechanism pptsteering gear mechanism ppt
steering gear mechanism ppt
 
Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile
Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile    Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile
Automobile Engineering-Unit-III-Transmission system of Automobile
 

Similar to Machine tools and tools used in automobile repairing workshop.

Unit-II Turning Machines.pptx
Unit-II Turning Machines.pptxUnit-II Turning Machines.pptx
Unit-II Turning Machines.pptxMohamedsulaiman53
 
Oliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentation
Oliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentationOliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentation
Oliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentationAnoushkaOttley
 
Automatic lathe by polayya.chintada
Automatic lathe by polayya.chintadaAutomatic lathe by polayya.chintada
Automatic lathe by polayya.chintadaPOLAYYA CHINTADA
 
341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx
341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx
341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptxvinoth777429
 
jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ...
 jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ... jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ...
jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ...Prof.Mayur Modi
 
Clamping and Clamping Devices
Clamping and Clamping DevicesClamping and Clamping Devices
Clamping and Clamping DevicesAmruta Rane
 
Gear Manufacturing.ppt
Gear Manufacturing.pptGear Manufacturing.ppt
Gear Manufacturing.pptRAMESHBABUSMEC
 
Theory of Shaper Machine
Theory of Shaper MachineTheory of Shaper Machine
Theory of Shaper MachineKedar Parekh
 
LATHE MECHINE
LATHE MECHINELATHE MECHINE
LATHE MECHINEADTEC
 
IRJET- Design and Development of Collet Chuck
IRJET- Design and Development of Collet ChuckIRJET- Design and Development of Collet Chuck
IRJET- Design and Development of Collet ChuckIRJET Journal
 
01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf
01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf
01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdfDalia Nabil
 
Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU)
Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU) Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU)
Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU) Jim Alex
 

Similar to Machine tools and tools used in automobile repairing workshop. (20)

Automatic lathes
Automatic lathes Automatic lathes
Automatic lathes
 
Unit-II Turning Machines.pptx
Unit-II Turning Machines.pptxUnit-II Turning Machines.pptx
Unit-II Turning Machines.pptx
 
Lathe Machines
Lathe MachinesLathe Machines
Lathe Machines
 
Slotter machine
Slotter machineSlotter machine
Slotter machine
 
Alignment.pptx
Alignment.pptxAlignment.pptx
Alignment.pptx
 
lathe machine
lathe machinelathe machine
lathe machine
 
CNC.pdf
CNC.pdfCNC.pdf
CNC.pdf
 
Oliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentation
Oliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentationOliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentation
Oliver piercey 3666 assignsubmission_file_milling machine presentation
 
Automatic lathe by polayya.chintada
Automatic lathe by polayya.chintadaAutomatic lathe by polayya.chintada
Automatic lathe by polayya.chintada
 
341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx
341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx
341648257-Lathe-Machine.pptx
 
machine tool & casting.pdf
machine tool & casting.pdfmachine tool & casting.pdf
machine tool & casting.pdf
 
jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ...
 jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ... jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ...
jigs & fixtures, gear and thread manufacturing,manufacturing processes,Produ...
 
Clamping and Clamping Devices
Clamping and Clamping DevicesClamping and Clamping Devices
Clamping and Clamping Devices
 
Gear Manufacturing.ppt
Gear Manufacturing.pptGear Manufacturing.ppt
Gear Manufacturing.ppt
 
Theory of Shaper Machine
Theory of Shaper MachineTheory of Shaper Machine
Theory of Shaper Machine
 
LATHE MECHINE
LATHE MECHINELATHE MECHINE
LATHE MECHINE
 
IRJET- Design and Development of Collet Chuck
IRJET- Design and Development of Collet ChuckIRJET- Design and Development of Collet Chuck
IRJET- Design and Development of Collet Chuck
 
01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf
01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf
01-PED121-Lecture 2- Basic Elements and Mechanisims of Machine tools.pdf
 
Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU)
Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU) Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU)
Lathe( Machine Tools-KTU)
 
Module 4.pdf
Module 4.pdfModule 4.pdf
Module 4.pdf
 

More from Arup Kumar Sikdar

General Safety Precaution taken in Automobile Workshop
General Safety Precaution taken in Automobile WorkshopGeneral Safety Precaution taken in Automobile Workshop
General Safety Precaution taken in Automobile WorkshopArup Kumar Sikdar
 
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLEINFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLEArup Kumar Sikdar
 
Effect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
Effect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLEEffect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
Effect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLEArup Kumar Sikdar
 
Classification of gas turbines and field of application
Classification of gas turbines and field of applicationClassification of gas turbines and field of application
Classification of gas turbines and field of applicationArup Kumar Sikdar
 

More from Arup Kumar Sikdar (6)

General Safety Precaution taken in Automobile Workshop
General Safety Precaution taken in Automobile WorkshopGeneral Safety Precaution taken in Automobile Workshop
General Safety Precaution taken in Automobile Workshop
 
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLEINFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
 
Effect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
Effect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLEEffect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
Effect OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE aerodynamic PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE
 
1.2 brayton cycle
1.2 brayton cycle1.2 brayton cycle
1.2 brayton cycle
 
Classification of gas turbines and field of application
Classification of gas turbines and field of applicationClassification of gas turbines and field of application
Classification of gas turbines and field of application
 
Seminar 0n solar Chimney
Seminar 0n solar ChimneySeminar 0n solar Chimney
Seminar 0n solar Chimney
 

Recently uploaded

Human Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdf
Human Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdfHuman Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdf
Human Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdfAditiMishra247289
 
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University OrientationWelcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientationxlr8sales
 
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILESABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILESsriharshaganjam1
 
Control-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAG
Control-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAGControl-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAG
Control-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAGVikrantPawar37
 
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX ResidentsMastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX ResidentsRowlett Motorwerks
 
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light ServiceLighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light ServiceImport Car Center
 
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptxPros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptxjennifermiller8137
 
怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道7283h7lh
 
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!Mint Automotive
 
A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel Engines
A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel EnginesA Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel Engines
A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel EnginesROJANE BERNAS, PhD.
 

Recently uploaded (10)

Human Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdf
Human Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdfHuman Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdf
Human Resource Practices TATA MOTORS.pdf
 
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University OrientationWelcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientation
 
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILESABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
 
Control-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAG
Control-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAGControl-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAG
Control-Plan-Training.pptx for the Automotive standard AIAG
 
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX ResidentsMastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
 
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light ServiceLighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
 
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptxPros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
 
怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理美国UCONN毕业证康涅狄格大学学位证书一手渠道
 
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
 
A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel Engines
A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel EnginesA Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel Engines
A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel Engines
 

Machine tools and tools used in automobile repairing workshop.

  • 1. 1.2 MACHINE TOOLS AND TOOLS USED IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIRING: SHOP-CUTTERS, PULLERS, STUD-EXTRACTOR, TORQUE WRENCH, PISTON RING EXPANDER, PISTON RING GROOVE CLEANER, WHEEL BALANCER, WHEEL ALIGNER, ARBOR PRESS, DRILL PRESS, TYRE CHANGER, CAR WASHER, BATTERY CHARGER, VALVE GRINDER, HONING MACHINE, CYLINDER BORING MACHINE. • Presented By • Arup Kumar Sikdar • Lecturer in Automobile Engineering • Nalhati Government Polytechnic • SUBJECT: WORKSHOP ORGANIZATION & VEHICLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
  • 2. Shop cutters • In the context of machining, a cutting tool or cutter is any tool that is used to remove some material from the work piece by means of shear deformation. Cutting may be accomplished by single-point or multipoint tools. Single-point tools are used in turning, shaping, planning and similar operations, and remove material by means of one cutting edge. Milling and drilling tools are often multipoint tools. It is a body having teeth or cutting edges on it.
  • 3. Pullers • A puller is a tool used to remove parts such as bearings, pulleys or gears from a shaft. They have legs, typically two or three which circle around the back or inside of a part and they also have a forcing screw which centers up against the end of a shaft. • Jaw type puller. Two or three jaw style, with three jaw being the best choice. Manual or hydraulic with outside jaw positions. • Push/Pull puller. Use male or female adaptors to thread into tapped holes on components. • Slide hammer puller. Use on light duty applications. For use with attachments. • Bar type puller with bearing separator. Bar type with side rods threaded into bearing separator provides "knife edge" to get behind component or when there is not a good gripping edge.
  • 4. Stud-extractor • A screw extractor is a tool for removing broken or seized screws. There are two types: one has a spiral flute structure, commonly called an easy out the other has a straight flute structure. Screw extractors are intentionally made of hard, brittle steel, and, if too much torque is applied, can break off inside the screw that is being removed. Since the extractor is an extremely hard material, and a typical home shop drill bit will not be able to drill into it, a larger element of difficulty is added to the original screw extraction project. One way to avoid this added difficulty is to drill a hole completely through the screw. Thus, if the fastener breaks, a punch can be used to drive out the easy out from the screw, via the back, or end, of the fastener.
  • 5. Torque wrench • A torque wrench is a tool used to apply a specific torque to a fastener such as a nut, bolt, or lag screw. It is usually in the form of a socket wrench with special internal mechanisms. • Important nuts and bolts in automobile work must be tightened with a specified amount of torque, because excessive torque may result in their breakage while less torque, they will remain loose. This permits proper tension and loading of all parts. • A torque wrench uses torque as a proxy for bolt tension. The technique suffers from inaccuracy due to inconsistent or uncalibrated friction between the fastener and its mating hole. Measuring bolt tension (indirectly via bolt stretch) is what is desired, but often torque is the only practical measurement which can be made. • Different type of torque wrench as shown in diagram.
  • 6. Piston ring expander • A unique tool that will speed the removal and installation of piston rings with minimum ring distortion. The use of a ring expander will greatly reduce ring point misalignment which can be detrimental to good piston ring sealing and engine performance. Made of steel and requires no adjustments.
  • 7. Piston ring groove cleaner • This tool is specially designed to clean up the compression ring slots. It will remove the carbon build-up easily. The tool includes two cleaning spurs with sizes 5/64", 3/32", 1/8", 5/32", 3/16", 1/4", 1.5mm, 1.75mm, 2mm. Can be used on all pistons with 2 3/4" to 5" (70 to 127mm) diameter.
  • 8. Piston ring compressor • Piston ring compressors are places around the piston covering the rings. As the compressor is tightened, it compresses the piston rings into their grooves on the piston. Then the piston and rod assembly is installed into the cylinder.
  • 9. Alignments of Wheels • It is used to inspect and repair the wheel geometry. It is equipped with pre-alignment inspection check, self diagnostics to enable quick detection of errors, and on-screen real-time adjustment for high precision and speed. • Every vehicle manufacturer furnishes the wheel alignment specification for the vehicles manufactured by him. • Measurement and adjusting the wheel alignment angles conforming to the above specified value is called the wheel alignment. • Wheel alignment angles are • (i) Wheel angles - camber and toe. • (ii) Steering axis angles – caster and king pin inclination. • (iii) Unwanted angles – wheel run out and set back. • Each wheel alignment angle has a specific purpose and function. If they are not set properly. The effects will be uneven tire wear, loss of steering control, pulling to one side while driving, jerking on travel etc.
  • 10. Alignments of Wheels • It may not be possible to correct all the above angles in a vehicle. Depending upon the design of suspension, some angles are adjustable at workshop level, and some are not adjustable. • Description of equipment : The system consists of main cabinet, electronic unit, power supply unit, display panel, membrane keyboard, sensor arms and printer. • 1. Main cabinet : It is the housing for the electronic unit and power supply unit. The sensor arms are fixed to the pins provided in the sides of the main cabinet. • 2. Display panel : It consists of three display windows and membrane keyboard. The centre window displays the ongoing programmers the left and right windows display the respective alignment angles that are being checked. • 3. Membrane keyboard : This consists of two sections. One section contains the display windows; the other section contains the operational keys for the selection and operation of various functions of the system. • 4. Sensor arms : The sensor arms (left and right) contain high precision electronic sensing elements require and transmit the various alignment parameters to the electronic unit. These arms are fixed with spirit level. • 5. Wheel brackets : Brackets will be mounted on the left and right wheel rims. The sensor arms will be mounted on these wheel brackets. • 6. Rear wheel size : These are used as a reference for centering the front wheels with respect to the geometric center line of the vehicle. • 7. Rotary plates : The rotary plate consists of a freely rotating plate in which degree graduations are marked to measure the angle of rotation. While carrying out alignment, the wheels of the vehicle being aligned will rest of these plates. The rotary plates enable left 20 degree and right 20-degree movement required for measuring caster angle. • 8. Steering lock : It is used lock the steering wheel movement, while performing the toe adjustment. • 9. Brake pedal lock : It is to keep the brake in pressed condition, so that the vehicle will not move during the turn left 20 degree and turn right 20-degree programs.
  • 11. Balancing of wheels • Modern suspension systems and higher driving speeds have made it necessary that the wheel and tire assembly be in balance if maximum driving and riding comfort, maximum safety, and maximum tire life are to be realized. Front wheels are more sensitive to an unbalanced condition than the rear wheels, but all four should be balanced to prolong tire life. • A wheel and tire assembly can be balanced in two ways statically and dynamically. Static imbalance is indicated by ‘wheel tramp’. Dynamic imbalance will cause the wheel to wobble or shimmy. Type of imbalance can exist without the other, although both tires are usually present at the same time. • Wheel balance should be checked at regular intervals, and also a tire has been repaired, retreaded, or recapped. • Computerized wheel balances are used to check the wheel balancing. It is used to check the single plane (static) and two plane (dynamic) balancing. Balancer has a spindle driven by an electrical motor. • Attach the wheel to the balancer spindle with the help of quick cone lock nut. Quick cone lock nut – ensures fast mounting and removal of wheel. Spin the wheel at high speed, the computer displays unbalance for inner and outer rims in single run. Determine the size of weights needed. Self checking, on error line program facilities are available in this balancer. Measuring range of this balancer is 0-200gms and balancing speed 400 rpm.
  • 12. Arbor Press • An arbor press is a small hand- operated press. It is typically used to perform smaller jobs, such as staking, riveting, installing, configuring and removing bearings and other press fit work. Punches, inserters, or other tools/dies may be added to the end of the ram depending on the desired task. • Typically, common are presses with a leverage of 1–5 tons. This leverage is achieved when a force is applied to the lever arm or wheel.
  • 13. Drill press/ Machine • Drill press, also called Drilling Machine, device for producing holes in hard substances. The drill is held in a rotating spindle and is fed into the workpiece, which is usually clamped in a vise resting on a table. The drill may be gripped in a chuck with three jaws that move radially in unison, or it may have a tapered shank that fits into a tapered hole in the spindle.
  • 14. Tire Changer • A tire changer is a machine used to help tire technicians dismount and mount tires with automobile wheels. After the wheel and tire assembly are removed from the automobile, the tire changer has all the components necessary to remove and replace the tire from the wheel. Different tire changers allow technicians to replace tires on automobiles, motorcycles and heavy-duty trucks. New tire and wheel technology has improved certain tire changers to be able to change a low- profile tire or a run-flat tire.
  • 15. Car Washer • Regular chassis washing of both cars and commercial vehicles to remove grease, oil, mud and other corrosive deposits is most essential. This type of cleaning is a time representative of preventive maintenance. This is easily done by a spray of water with a solvent, at high pressure (above 25 kg/cm2). • Car washer consists of a pump which is driven by a electric motor. The pump sucks water from a well or from water tank filled beneath it and delivers to the nozzle through a pipe of hoses with high pressure. There are two types of car washers as follows. • That provided with single hose which can be used to wash only one vehicle at a time • 1. That provided with twin hoses which can be used to wash two vehicles at a time. The nozzles are adjustable, so that the delivery of water can be regulated at variable force from fine spray to solid jet. • Automatic Washing- • The automatic car wash machine has a three-horsepower pumping station which pumps up to 100ltrs of water per minute through 15 numbers of nozzles, 12 of which spray as a pre-wash arch which washes tires, wheels and rocker panels and rest three nozzles' sprays on back top brush. The machine dispenses a specially formulated foaming, high pressure chemical during a pre-wash pass which is applied along with high pressure wash. • The high-pressure spray automatically adjusts to the vehicle’s dimensions by the use of P L C based control panel and lastly, high pressure air blowers maintain the best air-steam helps to dry the complete vehicle surfaces. • The features and benefits of • 1. Washes all shapes, sizes and configurations of vehicles. • 2. All brushes are made of extremely durable at soft bristles that are carefully hand- woven. • 3. There is an intensified rear wash programmed to effectively double wash the backs of vehicles.
  • 16. Battery Charger • Automobile battery charger is exactly like a cell phone or laptop charger but for a car or truck battery. These devices plug into an electrical outlet on one end (source of power) and connect to a vehicles battery terminals with cables that resemble jumper/booster cables. • Battery charger uses three-phase charging mode(PWM charging mode), which includes constant current charging phase, constant voltage charging phase, floating charging phase with short circuit protection, over voltage protection, anti - reverse connecting protection etc.
  • 17. Valve Grinder • If the valve face is badly scored or pitted, it may be done on a special valve refacing machine . • The machine consists of a grinding wheel operated by an electric motor. The valve is held in chuck which is also rotated with electric motor. There is a provision to set the valve chuck at any desired angle. This angle must just match the valve seat angle. Then put the valve into the chuck and tighten the chuck. The valve should be placed in the chuck so that the part of the stem that runs in the valve guide is gripped by the chuck. • To start the operation, align the coolant feed so that it sprays coolant on the rotating valve face. Then start the machine, move the lever to carry the valve face across the grinding wheel. The first cut should be a light one. • Do not take heavy cuts. If so much metal must be removed that the margin is lost, discard the valve. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  • 18. Cylinder Boring Machine • In recent practice the method of truing worm cylinders with the baring bar has become widely used on account of its rapidity and precision. Reboring is done on special machines, it is shown in Figure. • In this machines uses a single point tool (or) cutter which is set to the exact diameter required with special micrometer. The cutting edge is sharpened on a revolving disk, using a mixture of diamond dirt and oil. The cutter blade shaft is mounted inside a column which moves up and down its housing in the mixed part of the machine, for tool feeding purpose. The cutter is driven at low speed by an electric motor mounted on the machine. • The top surface of the cylinder block is thoroughly cleaned and the boring bar set at one of the cylinder bores. The bar is centered set to the desired depth of cut and the machine started. The cutter will bore progressively to the other end, and the machine stops when the boring complete. After the job is complete again the cylinder must be washed thoroughly to remove all abrasive particles.
  • 19. Cylinder Honing Machine • Honing the cylinder walls is necessary after reboring, or to remove minor imperfections and glaze. A hone consists of four or six narrow, fine-graded grinding stones mounted in cage around a spindle which is rotated by an electric motor. • In the fixed, machine-shop type hone, the cylinder block is mounted on the machine table, and the vertical or stroking movement of the hone up and down the bore often effected automatically. Portable hones designed to be driven by a heavy duty electric drill mounted on a stroking stand are also widely used, especially in conjunctions with a portable boring bar; in these cases the stroking action is effected manually. • Place the hone in the cylinder and expand the stones until the assembly can just be turned by hand and machine started. Home drive at drill speed while moving the hone up and down the entire length of the cylinder until the hone begins to run free. During this operation a liberal amount of kerosene, or other suitable cutting fluid, should be used to keep the stones clean. • Move the hone up and down slowly with the first-cut rough rough stones, but more rapidly with the finish-cut line stones. Expand the stones against the cylinder walls and repeat honing operation until the desired bore diameter is obtained. After the honing is completed, all abrasive particles must be removed from the engine parts. Hot water and soap is recommended to clean the cylinder walls.
  • 20. Review Question Which tool is used to remove bearing from shaft? How to remove broken stud from the any component. How to tighten bolt properly. Which tool is used to maintain piston? What is Arbor Press. How to reuse cylinder and which tools are used for reuse.