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Classification of gas turbines and
Field of application
Subject: Heat Power Engineering – II
Presented By
Arup Kumar Sikdar
Lecturer in Automobile Engineering
Nalhati Government Polytechnic
Course Outcome
• Students can understand about Gas turbine engine.
• Understand different types of gas turbine and engine and its
application.
Introduction
A gas turbine is a machine delivering mechanical power or thrust.
It does this using a gaseous working fluid. The mechanical power
generated can be used as lot of application .
In IC engine compression combustion and expansion text place in
a single component, i.e. cylinder while, in a gas turbine each of
these operation is carried out in a separate component.
The 3 main components off a simple gas turbine plant are
compressor, combustion chamber and turbine which are all
connected.
In a gas turbine, first of all, the air is obtained from the atmosphere
and compressed in an air compressor.the compressed air is then
passed into the combustion chamber, where it is heated
considerably. The hot air is thenMade to flow over the moving
blades of the gas turbine, which imparts rotational motion to the
runner. During this process , the air gets expanded and finally it is
exhausted into the atmosphere.
Classification of
gas turbines
1. According to path of the working substance
a) closed cycle gas turbines,
b) open cycle gas turbines and
c) semi closed gas turbines .
2. According to process of heat absorption
a) constant pressure gas turbines and
b) constant volume gas turbines
Application
• Generation of electric power:
In the field of electric power generation, gas turbines must
compete with steam turbines in large central power stations
and with diesel engines in smaller plants. Even though the
initial cost of a gas turbine is less than either alternative for
moderately sized units, its inherent efficiency is also lower.
Yet, a gas-turbine unit requires less space, and it can be
placed on-line within minutes, as opposed to a steam unit
that requires many hours for start-up.
Application
• Industrial uses:
With sizes typically ranging from 1,000 to 50,000
horsepower, industrial gas-turbine engines can be used for
many applications. These include driving compressors for
pumping natural gas through pipelines, where a small part of
the pumped gas serves as the fuel. Such units can be
automated so that only occasional on-site supervision is
required. A gas turbine can also be incorporated in an oil
refining process called the Houdry process, in which
pressurized air is passed over a catalyst to burn off
accumulated carbon. The hot gases then drive a turbine
directly without a combustion chamber. The turbine, in turn,
drives a compressor to pressurize the air for the process.
Small portable gas turbines with centrifugal compressors
also have been used to operate pumps.
Application
• Marine propulsion
In this area of application, the gas-turbine
engine has two advantages over steam-
and diesel-driven plants: it is lightweight
and compact. During the early 1970s
a ship powered by a gas turbine capable of
20,000 horsepower was successfully tested
at sea by the U.S. Navy over a period of
more than 5,000 hours. Gas turbines were
subsequently selected to power various
new U.S. naval vessels.
Application
• Turbojet and Turbo propeller engines
The gas turbines use to drive air
compressors in turbojet. They are also
used to drive here compressor and turbines
in Turbo propeller engines. The gas
turbines in turbojet and Turbo propeller
engine are operated in the temperature
range of 800°c to 1000°c.
Application
• Locomotive propulsion:
During the 1950s and ’60s, manufacturers
of locomotives built a number of vehicles powered
by gas-turbine engines that use heavy oil. Although
gas-turbine locomotives have had moderate
success for long sustained runs, they have not been
able to make significant inroads against diesel
locomotives under normal running conditions,
especially after increases in the relative cost of
heavy fuel oils. Moreover, the inherent low efficiency
of a simple open-cycle gas turbine becomes even
worse at part-load or during idling when
considerable fuel is needed to drive the compressor
while producing little or no useful power.
Application
• Automotive propulsion
Gas-turbine engines were proposed for use
in automobiles from the early 1960s. In
spite of their small size and weight for a
given power output and their low exhaust
emissions compared to gasoline engines,
the disadvantages of
high manufacturing costs, low thermal
efficiency, and poor part-load and idling
performance have proven gas-turbine cars
to be uneconomical and impractical.
Review Question
• Three main component of gas turbine engine is
______, ______ and ________.
• Gas turbine engine are________(Internal /
External) combustion engine.
• In a gas turbine each of these operation is carried
out in a single component. (True/False)
• Classify the gas turbine engines.
• Name three application of gas turbine engine.

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Classification of gas turbines and field of application

  • 1. Classification of gas turbines and Field of application Subject: Heat Power Engineering – II Presented By Arup Kumar Sikdar Lecturer in Automobile Engineering Nalhati Government Polytechnic
  • 2. Course Outcome • Students can understand about Gas turbine engine. • Understand different types of gas turbine and engine and its application.
  • 3. Introduction A gas turbine is a machine delivering mechanical power or thrust. It does this using a gaseous working fluid. The mechanical power generated can be used as lot of application . In IC engine compression combustion and expansion text place in a single component, i.e. cylinder while, in a gas turbine each of these operation is carried out in a separate component. The 3 main components off a simple gas turbine plant are compressor, combustion chamber and turbine which are all connected. In a gas turbine, first of all, the air is obtained from the atmosphere and compressed in an air compressor.the compressed air is then passed into the combustion chamber, where it is heated considerably. The hot air is thenMade to flow over the moving blades of the gas turbine, which imparts rotational motion to the runner. During this process , the air gets expanded and finally it is exhausted into the atmosphere.
  • 4. Classification of gas turbines 1. According to path of the working substance a) closed cycle gas turbines, b) open cycle gas turbines and c) semi closed gas turbines . 2. According to process of heat absorption a) constant pressure gas turbines and b) constant volume gas turbines
  • 5. Application • Generation of electric power: In the field of electric power generation, gas turbines must compete with steam turbines in large central power stations and with diesel engines in smaller plants. Even though the initial cost of a gas turbine is less than either alternative for moderately sized units, its inherent efficiency is also lower. Yet, a gas-turbine unit requires less space, and it can be placed on-line within minutes, as opposed to a steam unit that requires many hours for start-up.
  • 6. Application • Industrial uses: With sizes typically ranging from 1,000 to 50,000 horsepower, industrial gas-turbine engines can be used for many applications. These include driving compressors for pumping natural gas through pipelines, where a small part of the pumped gas serves as the fuel. Such units can be automated so that only occasional on-site supervision is required. A gas turbine can also be incorporated in an oil refining process called the Houdry process, in which pressurized air is passed over a catalyst to burn off accumulated carbon. The hot gases then drive a turbine directly without a combustion chamber. The turbine, in turn, drives a compressor to pressurize the air for the process. Small portable gas turbines with centrifugal compressors also have been used to operate pumps.
  • 7. Application • Marine propulsion In this area of application, the gas-turbine engine has two advantages over steam- and diesel-driven plants: it is lightweight and compact. During the early 1970s a ship powered by a gas turbine capable of 20,000 horsepower was successfully tested at sea by the U.S. Navy over a period of more than 5,000 hours. Gas turbines were subsequently selected to power various new U.S. naval vessels.
  • 8. Application • Turbojet and Turbo propeller engines The gas turbines use to drive air compressors in turbojet. They are also used to drive here compressor and turbines in Turbo propeller engines. The gas turbines in turbojet and Turbo propeller engine are operated in the temperature range of 800°c to 1000°c.
  • 9. Application • Locomotive propulsion: During the 1950s and ’60s, manufacturers of locomotives built a number of vehicles powered by gas-turbine engines that use heavy oil. Although gas-turbine locomotives have had moderate success for long sustained runs, they have not been able to make significant inroads against diesel locomotives under normal running conditions, especially after increases in the relative cost of heavy fuel oils. Moreover, the inherent low efficiency of a simple open-cycle gas turbine becomes even worse at part-load or during idling when considerable fuel is needed to drive the compressor while producing little or no useful power.
  • 10. Application • Automotive propulsion Gas-turbine engines were proposed for use in automobiles from the early 1960s. In spite of their small size and weight for a given power output and their low exhaust emissions compared to gasoline engines, the disadvantages of high manufacturing costs, low thermal efficiency, and poor part-load and idling performance have proven gas-turbine cars to be uneconomical and impractical.
  • 11. Review Question • Three main component of gas turbine engine is ______, ______ and ________. • Gas turbine engine are________(Internal / External) combustion engine. • In a gas turbine each of these operation is carried out in a single component. (True/False) • Classify the gas turbine engines. • Name three application of gas turbine engine.