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Research on Product Development For Groundwater Remediation.pptx

  2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES • To determine release rate of percarbonate in sleeves with/without PSM during XRO. • To determine and compare ease of deployment and recharging of sleeves with/without PSM during XRO. • To determine the best method for deployment of XRO products in groundwater remediation. 2
  3. BACKGROUND STORY Groundwater contamination is caused by human activities ranging from; • Man-made products -gasoline , oil, organic salts, fertilizers • Untreated wastes; -septic tanks, underground storage tanks, leaky landfills 3
  4. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION This involve treating groundwater by; • removal of pollutants • converting them into harmless chemical. TYPES OF REMEDIATION • In-situ (on-site) • Out-situ (off-site) In-situ treatment Image credit: remediation/ 4
  5. EXTENDED-RELEASE OXIDATION (XRO) Ax-Nano method of remediation involves the XRO • Strong oxidants -percarbonate, persulfate, permanganate • Controlled release - released in small parts over extended period WHY CONTROL RELEASE • control the release of reactive compounds (percarbonate) • reduce non-selective consumption of oxidants • maintain effective treatment for longer period 5
  6. PERCARBONATE Properties • Odorless with white solid appearance • Strong oxidizing properties • Molar mass of 156.982 g/mol • Solubility density of 150g/l • Molecular formula Na2CO3·1.5 H2O2 Oxidizing Properties It reacts with water to liberate H2O2 Na2CO3●1.5H2O2 (s) → Na2CO3 (aq) + 1.5H2O2 (aq) Percarbonate Image source: wikipedia 6
  7. THE EXPERIMENT What is this experiment about? • To test the efficiency of Non-PSM treatment in groundwater remediation Why do this? • Product development • To investigate alternatives 7
  8. STAGE GATE OVERVIEW Stage 0: Create a Value Proposition​ Controlled Release Percarbonate in non- PSM Stage 1: Define the Scope​ XRO treatment in contaminated sites on A&T FARM Controlled release testing or percarbonate in the AxNano Lab Stage 2: Complete a Minimum Viable Test​ Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO)​ Stage 3: Minimum Viable Product​ RemRx® XRO (Non-PSM) Stage 4: Product Launch​ RemRx® Controlled release Non-PSM 8
  9. AX-NANO Laboratory Experiment was done by setting up a battery reactor in the lab. Duration of experiment was three weeks. The following test was done; • Controlled release • Oxidation-reduction potential • PH • Conductivity EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP A & T Farm For on-field data collection, experiments was done in the A&T farm. Test was done on contaminated well 10, 8, 6, and 14. Samples were collected over 4 weeks and tested for • Controlled release • Oxidation-reduction potential • PH • Conductivity • Deployment test 9
  10. MAP OF A&T FARM 10
  11. • WM10 will have no treatment(control well) • WM8 will have the PSM Plus sleeves treatment • WM6 will have only Non- PSM treatment • WM14 will have three segmented NON-PSM treatment 11
  12. Well Dept (ft) GW level(ft ) PVC diamet er(ft) pH ORP(m v) Conduc tivity( mS/cm ) WM10 51 14 1.75 5.9 98.1 0.24 WM8 47 14 1.75 5.7 112.7 0.22 WM6 51 14 1.75 5.9 167.7 0.25 WM14 47 14 1.75 5.7 188.8 0.68 A&T FARM SITE BOUNDARIES Initial examination was done on all four wells to determine • PH • ORP • Conductivity 12
  13. MATERIALS LAB EXPERIMENT • Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) • Solution containing sodium percarbonate tablet • Percarbonate powder • Nitric acid (HNO3) • 100 mL volumetric flask • Small glass vials • Stir plate and small stir bars • Non-woven polypropylene fabric(sleeves) • Zipper • Nine 200mL beakers • Solution containing sodium percarbonate powder • Weighing balance • PH, ORP, conductivity meter FIELD EXPERIMENT • Plastic screen mesh • Braided rope • Non-woven polypropylene fabric (2-4 inches in diameter) • Water level meter • Weighing balance • Tape Rule • Percarbonate powder • 4 sample collection container (150mL) • Sample collection tube • PH, ORP, conductivity meter 13
  14. METHODS • A stock solution of KMNO4 was created by dissolving 0.03g of KMNO4 in 30ml of distilled water to get 6mM. • A measured 1.34g, 1.33g, and 1.34g tablet of percarbonate was dropped into three different 200mL beakers labelled A-C respectively. DI water was added up to the mark. This created a solution where H2O2 was gradually released from the percarbonate tablets. • Sleeves were cut into smaller units of three equal parts. A measured 0.779g, 0.797g, and 0.778g amount of percarbonate powder were put into each sleeves and tied with a zipper. Each tied sleeves were then dropped into three different 200mL beaker, and DI water was added to each beaker up to the mark and labelled D-F respectively. • Three separate 0.80g percarbonate powder was measured and put into three separate 200mL beaker DI water was added up to the mark and labelled G-I respectively. Ax-Nano Lab Experiment 14
  15. • A stock solution of nitric acid was also prepared by adding 12 mL of concentrated nitric acid to DI water in the 100 mL volumetric flask • 4 mL nitric acid solution was added to glass vial labelled A-I • 0.2mL hydrogen peroxide-containing solution from each sample labelled A-F was added to the same vials and mixed. • Using the stir plate, a small stir bar was added into each vials and placed on the stirring plate. • Aliquots of KMNO4 were added in 10uL measurements until a faint pink color was achieved( endpoint) • Note : For this experiment, Two drops were required to activate the reaction. • ORP, pH, and conductivity of each sample were measured using the pH and ORP meter. • Experiments were repeatedly done at different timepoints over 3 weeks. 15
  16. On-Field Experiment • Three separate 14ft of non-woven polypropylene fabric (sleeves) were measured and cut to size. • 2.26kg percarbonate was weighed and poured into sleeves. Sleeves were tied with zip ties and were mounted into 5 separate PSM. (fig A) • The 5 separate PSM were attached together with braided ropes, such that the total length was 14ft. (fig A) • 2.12kg, and 2.18kg of percarbonate were also weighed and put into the separate sleeves (2.12kg goes into the long un-detached sleeves fig. B) while 2.18kg were separated into three detached sleeves fig. C). All sleeves were tied with zip ties. • Braided ropes were attached to all the end of the sleeves and loops were made for easy pull- up during investigation. 16
  17. • Products in fig. A were deployed into WM8 • Products in fig. B were deployed in WM6 • Products in fig. C were deployed in WM14- ropes were tied to each sleeves with one 3 ft shorter than the next. This is to make sure the sleeves don't get stacked to each other. • Samples were taken every week for 4 weeks from each well into four 150mL container, and labelled WM10, WM8, WM6, and WM14 respectively. • PH , ORP, and conductivity of each sample was analyzed in the lab using the PH-ORP meter. • 4mL of nitric acid were added to 1mL sample from each 150mL container. • Each samples were placed on the stirring plate and KMNO4 aliquot added until endpoint was achieved. 17
  18. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Control release table AX-NANO LAB RESULTS It can be inferred from the table and graph that sample a-f undergoes a release rate over time. Sample g-i were completely dissolved in DI water in the first few hours and hence, the sharp decrese in percentage release over time. 18
  19. ph,cond, orp table 19
  20. A & T FARM EXPERIMENTAL DATA Control Release Table Sample Weight of Percabonate( g) Volume of GW sample taken (ml) Expected concentratio n of H2O2(M) at full release Concentratio n of H2O2 at full release(M) Well 8 2260 150 143.9398764 0.000158194 Well 6 2120 150 135.0232469 0.000316388 Well 14 2180 150 138.8446596 0.0001582 20
  21. 21
  22. 22 CONCLUSIONS • Experimental results from laboratory experiment shows that percarbonate deployed in non-woven polypropylene fabric undergoes controlled release as shown by sample d, e and f (page 18). • Percarbonate treatment in groundwater remediation causes a positive change in pH, ORP and conductivity as shown on page 19 and 21. • Non-plastic screen mesh treatment has the same effect as plastic screen mesh treatment during groundwater remediation. • Due to invented product design (braided ropes, no canisters, and invented loops) for the A & T experiment, samples for WM8 and WM6 were deployed easily and removed with ease for sample collection (becomes more lighter during pull-up). • Product design method for WM14 (page 16, fig. C) is not advisable. Ropes get tangled-up during sample collection, and it also waste time.
  23. 23 RECOMMENDATIONS • Additional experiment needs to be carried out to determine the volume of groundwater present on A&T FARM (if possible). This will help to get a clear insight on release rate. • Samples should be collected a day after insertion to get a clear insight on how fast percarbonate is decimated. • Braided ropes can be subjected to lab test to further ascertain its durability.