Leadership Excellence for Managers and Heads of Strategic Business Units

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Leadership Excellence for Managers and Heads of Strategic Units looks at the various theories of leadership from early history - The Great Man Theories, Trait Theory, Behavioural and Style, etc; with a view to rationalise the need for Leadership in modern businesses.

The Blake Mouton Grid, John Adair's Action Centred Leadership, Path-Goal Theory, Robert Tannenbaum/Warren H. Schmidt's Theory.
Definitions from Peter

Published in: Business, Education

Leadership Excellence for Managers and Heads of Strategic Business Units

  1. 1. Leadership Excellence By Akeem Akinfenwa October 9, 2010
  2. 2. Outline • Leadership – definitions • Leadership Theories & Styles • Perspectives of Leadership and Skills Requirement • Management & Leadership • The Management-Leadership Balance • What distinguishes 'good' leaders from 'mediocre' and/or ‘bad’ ones • Leadership in the next 20years
  3. 3. McGregor Theory X & Y Theory X 1. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he or she can. 2. Because of this human characteristic, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organisational objectives. 3. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all. Theory Y 1. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. 2. External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort toward organisational objectives. People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. 3. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. 4. The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept responsibility but to seek it. 5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. Ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed I the population. 6. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilised.
  4. 4. Then Why Do We Need A Leader • Exercise 1 • Bring out 5 points to support the need for Leadership – – – – – – – At home; Extended family; Among peers; Societies, clan, etc Organisation; Government; Extra-governmental institutions; etc • N.B. “LEAD, FOLLOW OR GET OUT OF THE WAY”
  5. 5. Definition • The activity of leading; • The body of people who lead a group; • The Collins English Dictionary. ( © 1998 HarperCollins Publishers ) leadership (n) 1. The position or function of a leader. 2. the period during which a person occupies the position of leader: during her leadership very little was achieved. 3. a. the ability to lead. b. (as modifier): leadership qualities. 4. the leaders as a group of a party, union, etc.: the union leadership is now very reactionary. This dictionary definition of leadership focuses on the position (singular or collective), tenure and ability of leaders. As such, it misses key points about the purpose and hallmarks of effective leadership. • Peter Drucker : The forward to the Drucker Foundation's "The Leader of the Future" sums up leadership : "The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers." To gain followers requires influence (see John Maxwell's definition below) but doesn't exclude the lack of integrity in achieving this. Indeed, it can be argued that several of the world's greatest leaders have lacked integrity and have adopted values that would not be shared by many people today. • John C Maxwell : In the 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, John Maxwell sums up his definition of leadership as "leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less." This moves beyond the position defining the leader, to looking at the ability of the leader to influence others - both those who would consider themselves followers, and those outside that circle. Indirectly, it also builds in leadership character, since without maintaining integrity and trustworthiness, the capability to influence will disappear.
  6. 6. …Definition • • • • Warren Bennis : Warren Bennis' definition of leadership is focused much more on the individual capability of the leader : "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential." Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester : For the purposes of the Leadership Development Process of the Diocese of Rochester, their leadership definition is "the process of influencing the behavior of other people toward group goals in a way that fully respects their freedom." The emphasis on respecting their freedom is an important one, and one which must be the hallmark of Christian leadership. Jesus influenced many diverse people during his ministry but compelled no-one to follow Him. As the "process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.“ "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen (Alan Keith) . This is more inclusive
  7. 7. Leadership Theories & Styles Early History 1. "Great Man" Theories: Assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. 2. Trait Theories: Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?
  8. 8. …Leadership Theories & Styles • Behavioural & Style Theories • Behavioral Theories: Based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. - Autocratic leaders, Democratic leaders , Laissez-faire leaders • Contingency Theories: Focuses on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. • Situational Theories: Propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making e.g. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory. This theory rests on two fundamental concepts; Leadership Style and the individual or group's Maturity level. Contingency
  9. 9. Exercise 2
  10. 10. Blake-Mouton Grid …Leadership Theories & Styles Exercise 2
  11. 11. …Blake-Mouton Grid …Leadership Theories & Styles The Major Leadership Grid Styles 1,1 Impoverished management. Often referred to as Laissez-faire leadership. Leaders in this position have little concern for people or productivity, avoid taking sides, and stay out of conflicts. They do just enough to get by. 1,9 Country Club management. Managers in this position have great concern for people and little concern for production. They try to avoid conflicts and concentrate on being well liked. To them the task is less important than good interpersonal relations. Their goal is to keep people happy. (This is a soft Theory X approach and not a sound human relations approach.) 9,1 Authority-Compliance. Managers in this position have great concern for production and little concern for people. They desire tight control in order to get tasks done efficiently. They consider creativity and human relations to be unnecessary. 5,5 Organisation Man Management. Often termed middle-of-the-road leadership. Leaders in this position have medium concern for people and production. They attempt to balance their concern for both people and production, but they are not committed. 9+9 Paternalistic “father knows best” management. A style in which reward is promised for compliance and punishment threatened for non-compliance Opp Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” management. In which the style utilised depends on which style the leader feels will return him or her the greatest self-benefit. 9,9 Team Management. This style of leadership is considered to be ideal. Such managers have great concern for both people and production. They work to motivate employees to reach their highest levels of accomplishment. They are flexible and responsive to change, and they understand the need to change.
  12. 12. Action Centred Leadership …Leadership Theories & Styles Action Centred Leadership • A model proposed by John Adair (1973) argued that it is not who you are but what you do which establishes you as a leader. A leader needs to balance the needs of the task, the team and the individual, shown clearly in the diagram below in his 3 circle model. The effective leader carries out the functions and demonstrates the behaviours appropriate to the circles, varying the level according to the needs of the situation. The leader whilst balancing the three circles, sits in his/her helicopter above the process, ensuring the best possible overview of what is happening.
  13. 13. Action Centred Leadership …Leadership Theories & Styles Leaders Behaviour under Task · Providing clear Objectives · Providing appropriate procedures · Ensuring there is evidence of progress · Ensuring avoidance of digression · Ensuring deadlines are met Leaders Behaviour under Team · Commitment · Trust & Openness · Sense of purpose · Stability · Cohesion · Success · Fun Leaders Behaviour under Individual · To be included · To make a contribution · To be respected · To receive Feedback · To feel safe · To grow
  14. 14. …Leadership Theories & Styles Some Practical Theories 6. Participative Theories: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. 7. Management Theories: Management theories (also known as "Transactional theories") focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. 8. Relationship Theories: Relationship theories (also known as "Transformational theories") focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards
  15. 15. …Leadership Theories & Styles 8. Path-Goal Theory • A leadership theory that focuses on the need for leaders to make rewards contingent on the accomplishment of objectives and to aid group members in attaining rewards by clarifying the paths to goals and removing obstacles to performance. According to the goal-path theory there are four primary styles of leadership: • 1. Directive Leadership: The leader explains the performance goal and provides specific rules and regulations to guide subordinates toward achieving it. 2. Supportive Leadership: The leader displays personal concern for subordinates. This includes being friendly to subordinates and sensitive to their needs. 3. Achievement-oriented Leadership: The leader emphasises the achievement of difficult tasks and the importance of excellent performance and simultaneously displays confidence that subordinates will perform well. 4. Participative Leadership: The leader consults with subordinates about work, task goals, and paths to resolve goals. This leadership style involves sharing information as well as consulting with subordinates before making decisions. • • •
  16. 16. Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt’s continuum of Leadership Behaviour …Leadership Theories & Styles The actions shown at the left side of the continuum are relatively authoritarian; those at the right side are relatively participative. The manager’s choices depend on three factors: 1. 2. 3. Forces in the manager: The manager’s value system, confidence in subordinates, leadership inclinations, and feelings of security in an uncertain situation. Forces in the subordinate: Expectations, need for independence, readiness to assume decision-making responsibility, tolerance for ambiguity in task definition, interest in the problem, ability to understand and identify with the goals of the organisation, and knowledge and experience to deal with the problem. Forces in the situation: Type of organisation, effectiveness of the group, the problem itself (the task), and time pressure.
  17. 17. …Leadership Theories & Styles
  18. 18. Key Learning Points on Leadership Theories While the transformational leadership approach is often highly effective, there's no one "right“ way to lead or manage that fits all situations. To choose the most effective approach for yourself, consider the following: – – – – The skill levels and experience of your team; The work involved (routine, or new and creative); The organizational environment (stable or radically changing, conservative or adventurous); You own preferred or natural style; Good leaders often switch instinctively between styles, according to the people they lead and the work that needs to be done. Establish trust – that's key to this process – and remember to balance the needs of the organization against the needs of your team
  19. 19. Leadership & Our Culture • Our Culture • Pros – – – – – – – – – – African (Men Vs Women); Paternalistic We are our brothers keepers; Empathy; Loyalty Traditional Rulers Religion & Religious Leaders; Seniority syndrome; Kings/Obas/Emirs, etc Communal values • Our Culture • Cons – – – – – – – – – Ethnocentric; Greed Winner takes All I, Me and Myself and Show-off Poor value for time The Herding Effect Our Leaders as representative of God; Instilling standard work ethics
  20. 20. …Management & Leadership Management Leadership Systems, processes, and technology People — context and culture Goals, standards, and measurements Preferred future, principles, and purpose Control Commitment Strategic planning Strategic opportunism A way of doing A way of being Directing Serving Responding and reacting Initiating and originating Continuous improvement of what is Innovative breakthroughs to what could be
  21. 21. The Management-Leadership Balance Complementary Strengths Management Processes Facts Intellectual Head Position power Control Problem solving Reactive Doing things right Rules Goals Leadership People Feelings Emotional Heart Persuasion power Commitment Possibility thinking Proactive Doing the right things Values Vision Light a fire under people Stoke the fire within people Written communications Standardization Verbal communications Innovation • Both management and leadership skills are needed at the organizational, team, and personal levels. •It's not a case of either/or, but and/also.
  22. 22. Leading Yourself To effectively lead yourself, useful skills are, for example: 1.physical fitness 2.decision making and problem solving 3.critical thinking 4.setting personal goals 5.prioritizing 6.time and stress management 7.self-coaching 8.emotional intelligence 9.motivating yourself 10.work-life balance
  23. 23. Leading Others Individuals To effectively lead others, you need to effectively lead yourself and have additional skills, for example: 1.Coaching 2.Counseling (basic) 3.Feedback 4.Listening 5.Questioning 6.Understanding body language 7.Delegating 8.Directing
  24. 24. Leading Groups/Teams To effectively lead groups or teams, you need skills to lead others and have additional skills, for example: 1.Agenda design 2.Facilitation 3.Consensus building 4.Group decision making and problem solving 5.Meeting management
  25. 25. Leading Organizations To effectively lead organizations, you need skills to lead yourself, other individuals and teams, along with skills, for example: 1.Strategic planning 2.Business planning 3.Organizational development and change 4.At least one organizational performance model, for example, Balanced Scorecard or strategic management
  26. 26. Perspective of Leadership & Skills Requirement Leading Yourself Leading Others Individuals Leading Groups/Teams Leading Organizations To effectively lead yourself, useful skills are, for example: 1.physical fitness 2.decision making and problem solving 3.critical thinking 4.setting personal goals 5.prioritizing 6.time and stress management 7.self-coaching 8.emotional intelligence 9.motivating yourself 10.work-life balance To effectively lead others, you need to effectively lead yourself and have additional skills, for example: To effectively lead groups or teams, you need skills to lead others and have additional skills, for example: 1.Agenda design 2.Facilitation 3.Consensus building 4.Group decision making and problem solving 5.Meeting management To effectively lead organizations, you need skills to lead yourself, other individuals and teams, along with skills, for example: 1.Strategic planning 2.Business planning 3.Organizational development and change 4.At least one organizational performance model, for example, Balanced Scorecard or strategic management 1.Coaching 2.Counseling (basic) 3.Feedback 4.Listening 5.Questioning 6.Understanding body language 7.Delegating 8.Directing
  27. 27. What Does Leadership Excellence Entails: The Leaders Blueprint
  28. 28. Leadership in the 21 Century st • • The leadership challenge of the 21st century will be for a leader to be anchored in the timeless virtue of the past while charting a strategic vision for the future that exploits for the organization the possibilities of the information age. The essence of effective 21st century leadership, its most important aspect, is a cornerstone of robust ethical standards. This ethical cornerstone rests on a foundation of timeless imperatives. Three of the most important leadership imperatives are – – – • • • • • • • • integrity, loyalty, and a dedication to teamwork. Facilitation. Leadership development efforts should be based on informal or non-formal teaching, better described as facilitation. Learner Focus. To customize leadership development, learning facilitators need to understand the context in which their leadership is situated; the learners' needs, desires, and strengths; and the issues being addressed. Leadership Focus. Learner-focused leadership development does not mean leader-focused. Leadership exists as a set of relationships among group or organization members; and everyone in the group has leadership potential and can play leadership roles at various times. This view implies a group-centered approach to leadership development, one centered on organizational development and capacity building. Issue/Action Focus. Out-of-context leadership development programs have limited impact because the transfer of learning to real-life situations rarely happens. Therefore long-term impact must incorporate learning centered around real issues that groups are facing, learning in action, and on-going reflection or collective self-examination. Non-Prescriptive. Visioning Together Leading & Learning Together as well as Acting totegther Communicating
  29. 29. Lesson For the Followers • • • • • • • • Don’t Follow the Herd - Remember Fela’s saying … Loyalty pays Knowledge of task – past, present and future Complement the skills of your leader; Learn!, Learn!! Learn!!!- You never can tell when its going to be your turn Watch carefully his/her strengths and understand very well his weaknesses and its impact on the task; Pick a coach, mentor – for knowledge not for other non progressive reasons; Seek an Executive Champion

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