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Testrig(PF Paper) usa, Dr Sanaei, A.


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This paper is presented as part of a workshop case study of my PHD degree in University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England,1998.
The subject of my extended research has been on new advanced Precision Farming Technologies which is presented by the author in ASABE world conferences in USA.

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Testrig(PF Paper) usa, Dr Sanaei, A.

  1. 1. SIMULATED SLOPES ON A TEST RIG BASED EVALUATING CONTINUOUS CEREAL YIELD METERING ACCURACY A Case Study of Workshop Experience SANAEI, AKBAR; PhD . Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering Machinery Dept ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY-EGHLID BRANCH-IRAN Director, First Iranian Applied Research Centre of Advanced Machinery and Technologies in Precision Farming at IUT Email: or 1
  2. 2. ABSTRACT   Yield mapping as a prerequisite of “precision farming evolution” needs more both field and laboratory investigations for wide varied slope effect based crops combining as an important influenced factor. Naturally, optimised precision and accuracy of continuous crop yield metering on combine harvesters requires more detailed studies on points such the field-slope variations which affect not only on soil characteristics and in-field spatial crop yield but it is a serious problem to measure the reliable continuous spatial variable yield variations during combine harvesting. 2
  3. 3. ABSTRACT2    Author through his practical studies conducted at Nafferton research Farm of Newcastle University in UK found out very varied topographic aspects. Previous author’s experiences in both workshop and fields showed that the slope affects accurate yield measurement through combining crops (Sanaei, A. 2008). Then the research was extended to design and construct a test rig using clean grain elevator’s parts of Class Combine for more controlled fruitful trials by simulating varied slopes (pitch and roll) in workshop 3 site.
  4. 4. Objective & Method      Today, there are only a few harvester combines with installed full package of yield meter kits equipped with a slope (both Pitch and Roll) sensor as well. These studies showed that the accuracy of Ceres2 also may be improved by adding an optional hillside slope sensor. It measures the angle of side-slopes and the instrument will correct the yield measurement for the effect of the slope sensor location. This paper examined and analysed data of multidimensional detailed wide range of slope effects between 0-15 degrees on measuring yield. This was done through accessing to algorithmic models by installing previous version of Ceres2 yield meter on constructed test rig which showed comprehensive results including significant differences on yield meter accuracy. 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION    As previously mentioned, accurate and precise yield monitoring and mapping on a combine harvester is yet a serious prerequisite for more processing of other stages of a successful precision farming project. Based on the above concept, author decided to carry out comprehensive laboratory slope tests in his more advance research project according to basic works of Ciha (1984) ; Reitz & Kutzbach (1994); Kent et al.,(1990); Sanaei & Yule (1995); Sanaei & Yule (1996) and Hammer et al., (1995) for the improvement of Ceres2 instrumented combine harvester based yield measurement. Hence, following the multiple fields yield monitoring experiments and data collection during harvest 1994-95, a preliminary laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the continuous crop yield monitoring on the combine harvester affected by both pitch and roll slopes 5 (Sanaei, A. 2008).
  6. 6. Previous Works    The first-year results of these field and stationary grain combining workshop experiments based continues yield monitoring on Deut Fahr combine harvester on Nafferton research farm of Newcastle University-UK (Sanaei, A.1999), indicated that factors such as slope (pitch and roll), changing travel and elevator speed, and wheel slip might have an effect on the accuracy of measured yields. These special limited workshop trials of the slope effects (over a range of 0-10 ° for various sides and up/down hill slopes) on stationary working combine performance in 1995 emphasized on existence of significant difference in yield measurements (Sanaei A. 2008). These tests confirmed that both pitch and roll 6 may change the measured yield significantly.
  7. 7. ?Why Decision for Test Rig Method    Because, author decided again to conduct more precise and comprehensive workshop tests to measure slope's effect over a wider slope range of pitch and roll (0-15 ° ). For this, a reliable experimental test rig was started to design and construct pre-harvest 1996 which was delayed until February 1997 because of provided parts delay. This experiment was included more detailed slope trials with four orientations of clean grain elevator slope position as well as other related trails for some more influenced factors such as clean grain elevator speed . 7
  8. 8. MATERIALS AND METHODS       The test rig design comprises two funnel shaped discharge and feeding grain bins fitted on the main frame skeleton (Figure 1). A magnetic speed sensor was constructed , the magnetic core fitted on the driven shaft of an electric motor and the probe connected to Hermes data logger. A speed converter changed and controlled the rotary speed of this electric motor where appropriate. A door at the bottom of the upper bin could be opened as an end point of each test to discharge the grain from discharge tank into feeding tank. Another door on lower bin admitted an adjusted amount of grain into bottom auger based on a fixed line for the whole experiment. Three parts; clean grain elevator (part No: 682765.0 for the Dominator 218) plus, discharge auger and bottom auger (filler tube) were provided by CLAAS Combine Company in Germany and modified to fit the test rig. 8
  9. 9. Figure 1- Instrumented Test Rig construction and configuration, February 1997 9
  10. 10. Test Rig Components Design      The grain elevator was fitted vertically based on the manufacture’s instructions. The Moisture sensor was fitted on the discharge auger just above the discharge bin and the yield sensor parts were installed inside of the upper part of clean grain elevator. The paddle chain elevator was powered via a 540 rpm PTO of a ZETOR tractor through a driving system. This driving system includes a triangle frame to carry a gearbox with a shaft for changing the rotation direction of PTO drive shaft. The driven shaft of the gearbox is connected to main drive shaft of the pulleys (SPA 140-3 2517 & SPA 250-3 2517) and belt (SPA 1600) via universal drive shaft. The diameters of two slotted pulleys fitted on the main drive shaft and bottom or cross auger shaft were 140 and 250 10 mm respectively.
  11. 11. RPM output = di 140 × 540rpm = × 540 = 302.4 do 250 Test Rig Design Calculations 11
  12. 12. Other Test Rig Components    The other main part of the test rig was a four-wheeled carriage base , which could be used to make small changes in slope and for transportation. The steeper slopes were made using a hydraulic jack and a 2 tonne hydraulic mobile crane. A magnetic speed sensor was constructed and fitted on the shaft of an electric motor connected to a transformer to provide signals with smooth factor of 7 seconds based on a normal forward speed of the combine (4.7 km per hour). 12
  13. 13. Yield Meter Calibration     The Ceres2 yield-meters was calibrated and set up based on manufacture instructions (issue 09, 7/5/96, NG 406-537). Two plastic protractors equipped with a hanging weight bar fitted on both sides of grain elevator indicated degree of slope for each treatment. The constructed Test Rig after final setting up and rechecking for insured reliable work of all sensors and fitted instruments was used to conduct reliable tests of Ceres2 yield sensing based on both precise and accurate Ceres2 yield meter calibration. This was conducted by fitting four load cell units on each corner of the discharge grain tank. 13
  14. 14. Data Logger and Signals    The signals sent from four load cells attached to discharge tank via connection to an electronic data logger ‘Signal Centre’ could record the momentum. This load cells was connected to four separate channels of the ‘Signal Centre’ data acquisition system to save the continuous data signal records of grain flow rates continuously. This was done during accuracy tests of Ceres2 yield sensor based on loading a precise weighted amount of wheat kernel on the feeding grain tank. 14
  15. 15. Elevator Speed Based Yield Measurement Tests    Ceres2 yield sensor accuracy was examined for different elevator speeds within a range of 180-300 rpm with an increment of 20 rpm in level condition. Trial 5 on the test rig was included a number of these tests. This chain processing showed the actual relationship between different speeds of grain elevator and yield measurements. 15
  16. 16. Slope Based Yield Measurement Tests        This part of experiment was carried out with slopes from 0-15° in one degree increments for each treatment of trials in four oriented sides of test rig and achieved data were analysed statistically in Excel spreadsheet 1. Trial 1 Rear Slope (RS) 2. Trial 2 Front Slope (FS) 3. Trial 3 Left-hand side Slope (LHS) 4. Trial 4 Right-hand side Slope (RHS) Each treatment was carried out by feeding a definite amount of grain (384 kg. wheat) into the system with three replications for up and down (pitch) slopes and two replications for side (roll) slopes. Even though each treatment contained a significant number of signal records for the yield measurement but more replications ensured the reliability of tests by producing a larger number of 16 records.
  17. 17. Test Rig Based Slope Tests Conditions     The number of records and the time needed for each test varied from 30-80 records within 2-7 minutes. Each test was initiated by simultaneously activating the yield meter to log the records and opening the slide door at bottom of feeding grain bin. Each test was terminated when the yield meter monitor displayed a ‘0.00’ for moisture and received yield signals. With the purpose of providing more even conditions for the whole experiment of each orientation the tractor’s engine was operating 17 continuously without changing in rpm or other
  18. 18. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION     Slope Tests: Ceres2 measurements at a range of slopes were corrected relative to GCF calculated in the level situation to achieve the actual mass of the grain (Table1-third column). Comparison of corrected Ceres2 yield records (kg) of each slope test relative to corrected yield (384 kg) in the level situation gave errors up to 58.8% at 15 ° at right slope (Table1-last column). In overall, the results demonstrated that increased downhill slope decreased yield measurement while increased uphill slope increased it with a maximum 31.8 % error for both situations . 18
  19. 19. Table1) Calculated yield errors at test .rig slopes relative to level situation 19
  20. 20. :Elevator Speed Effect- 2   Yield measured by Ceres2 RDS Tech. consistently decreased when elevator speed was increased within 180-300 rpm (Figure 2). Observations results 3 to 18 showed peak variations of yield measurement for variable grain elevator speeds on the test rig. 20
  21. 21. Figure 2- Plots over the elevator speeds range .of 180-300 rpm showed a negative relationship 9 Yield Variation Plots on Variable Elevator Speed Observations 1- 31, Test Rig-1997 8 180 rpm Yield: t/ha 7 6 5 4 300 rpm 3 2 1 0 Observations/tim e T24/180rpm T21/260rpm T19/200rpm T22/280rpm T23/220rpm T28/300rpm T20/240rpm T27/303rpm 21
  22. 22. Figure3- Plateau yields variation plots for variable elevator speeds on the test rig-1997 Yield: t/ha Effect of Variable Elevator Speed on Yield Measurement Test Rig 1997 9 8.5 8 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 4 180 rpm 180 rpm 200 rpm 220 rpm 240 rpm 260 rpm 300 rpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 280 rpm 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Peak observations from 3-18 22 300 rpm
  23. 23. Figure 4- Linear regression of yield against variable ( elevator speed-test rig 1997 (data:3 to18 The mean of yield observations 3 to 18 (figure3) indicates a negative relationship between measuring yield and elevator )speed (r sq= 0.97***) (Figures 4 RPM Line Fit Plot-Elevator Speed Trial Test Rig-1997 10 Observations:3 to 18 8 6 4 Residuals Yield:t/ha RPM Residual Plot-Yield/Elevator Speed Trial Test Rig-1997 y = -0.4779x + 8.2771 R2 = 0.95 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 RPM Yield:t/ha 6 7 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.6 1 2 3 4 RPM Linear (Yield:t/ha) 23 5 6 7
  24. 24. Other regression used the whole ).data of the tests (Figure 5   Though, this model shows a high negative correlation (r sq= 0.90***) between yield measurements and elevator speed. The residuals plot does not confirm the linearity of the model. 24
  25. 25. Figure 5- Linear regression of elevator speed (against yield and residuals (whole data Yie ld: t/ha Rpm/Pto Line Fit Plot-Elevator Speed Trials Test Rig-1997 8 6 4 y = -0.0138x + 8.5135 R2 = 0.9045 2 0 150 200 250 Rpm /Pto Yield: t/ha Residuals 2 Linear (Yield: t/ha( Residuals Plot of Linear Yield/Speed Elevator Trial Test rig - 1997 1 0 -1 0 2 4 6 8 -2 Ele vator speed/rpm Linear Residuals 25 300
  26. 26.  Figure 6- Quadratic regression of elevator speed against yield and residuals (whole (data Using the whole data, a second order polynomial regression (Figure6) improved and removed the trend in residuals (Table 2). Elevator Speed Line Fit Plot-test rig/1997 RPM/pto Residuals Plot-Polynomial Model 6 4 2 Residuals Yield: t/ha 8 y = 0.0001x 2 - 0.0714x + 15.337 R2 = 0.9815 0 150 200 250 300 Speed/rpm Yield: t/ha Poly. (Yield: t/ha( 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 4 -0.1 -0.15 4.5 5 5.5 rpm/pto Residuals 26 6 6.5
  27. 27. Table 2- The regression equation 27
  28. 28. Slope Test Discussion    1- Slope Effect: Ceres2 yield error at each slope could not be estimated because of using a definite batch of the grain for each trial and the technical problem of cascading back and down the grain into the bottom auger and elevator respectively. These tests also completely confirmed findings of 1995 Ceres2 tests on the stationary working combine and need to develop models based on a practical range of field slopes (i.e. 0°- 30°) for each orientation of different combine types and models. Indeed, without implementing these slope sensors, Ceres2 yield measurements would not be reliable under realised field slope conditions. 28
  29. 29. Speed Test Discussion   2- Elevator Speed Tests: The importance of using a constant combine velocity and elevator speed is recommended by Birrel et al., (1995) and Schueller (1983) to keep a steady grain flow for reliably measuring yield. However, the speed may change when entering and leaving the crop, at headlands and when combining very dense and moist standing crop or over-loading grain into elevator (Klemme et al, 1992; Reitz & Kutbatch, 1993, 1995). 29
  30. 30. Conclusion     In general, the above test rig experiments suggested both linear (r sq= 95 %***) and 2nd order polynomial (r sq= 98 %***) models of yield variation with elevator speed between 180-300 rpm. These correspond with a mean yield difference between 5.5 to 8.5 t/ha (Figures 2-6). This revealed serious errors of excess yield up to 54% when the combine elevator speed decreased from 300 to 180 rpm. Though yield errors affected by unexpected changes of speed might be removed to improve data, the performance of each type and model of combine harvester will require testing to preserve a constant elevator and travel speed under fluctuated field conditions when harvesting. 30
  31. 31. References             Birrel et al. (1995). Ciha, A. J. (1984). Slope Position and Grain Yield of Soft White Winter Wheat. Agronomy Journal , 76 , PG193-196. Reitz, P., & Kutzbach, H. D. (1993). Measurement Techniques for Yield Mapping During Grain Harvesting With Combine. In XXV CIOSTA CIGR Congress , (pp. 4853). Germany Reitz, P., & Kutzbach, H. D. (1995). Investigations on a Particular Yield Mapping System for Combine Harvesters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture , 14 , 137-150. Hammer, R. D.; Young, F. J.; Wollenhaupt, N. C.; Barney, T. L. & Haithcoate, T. W. (1995). Slope Class Maps from Soil Survey and Digital Elevation Models. Soil Science Society American J. , 59 (-), 509-519. Klemme et al. (1992) Kent et. al. (1990) Yule, I. J. ; Sanaei, A. ; Hodgkiss, A. & Korte, H. (1995). Yield Mapping Combinable Crops: Field Experience, Problems and Potential. In Agricultural And Biological Engineering Conference; New Horizons, New Challenges , 1 (pp. 2). Newcastle - England: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. England Sanaei, A. & Yule, I. J. (1996a). Accuracy of Yield Mapping Systems: The Effects of Combine Harvester Performance. AgEng’96 Conference, Paper 96G-016. Madrid. Spain 8. Sanaei, A. & Yule, I. J. (1996b). Yield Measurement Reliability on Combine Harvesters. In ASAE (Ed.), ASAE Annual International Meeting , Paper No. 961020 (pp. 14). Phoenix Arizona: ASAE. USA 9Sanaei, A. (1998).Instrumented Combine Harvester Based Related Yield Mapping Aided by GIS/GPS. Unpublished PhD Dessertation. Agricultural and Environmental Science Department. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. England. 10Sanaei, A. (2008). Slope and Wheel Slip’s Variations Based Continuous Cereal Yield Monitoring on Combine Harvester Aided by GPS/GIS. A case study of field-workshop experience. World Conference on Agricultural Information and IT-IAALD AFITA WCCA, Tokyo, Japan, 24-27 August, 2008 31