Syntax 334 lecture 3

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A summary of constituent structures

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Syntax 334 lecture 3

  1. 1. Lecture 3 Constituents Word Order Syntax 334 Dr. Amira Kashgary 2011
  2. 2. Word Order <ul><li>Grammatical Vs. ungrammatical </li></ul><ul><li>Grammaticality vs. acceptability </li></ul><ul><li>Marked stylistically </li></ul><ul><li>Unmarked </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Possible word orders </li></ul><ul><li>General rules for sentence formation </li></ul>
  4. 5. Describing a sentence in English : <ul><li>Sentences are made up of units at one level. </li></ul><ul><li>These units are the words </li></ul><ul><li>SO : a sentence consists of words OR words are CONSTITUENTS of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>We can write it in a short way BY using S for the sentence , and an arrow , to mean consists of.. </li></ul>
  5. 6. ” Tests used to identify strings such as “at Harvard” as constituents (p. 24)
  6. 8. Sentence Types FUNCTIONAL WORD CATEGORIES LEXICAL WORD CATEGORIES
  7. 10. <ul><li>What is subordination? </li></ul><ul><li>It is one way of joining clauses together, by introducing a less important clause with the main clause to form one sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinate clause is embedded in the main clause </li></ul>
  8. 11. subordinators <ul><li>If, when, </li></ul><ul><li>whether, before, </li></ul><ul><li>because, since, </li></ul><ul><li>although, that </li></ul>
  9. 12. What is coordination? <ul><li>It is a way of joining clauses together by using a coordinator such as “and”, “but”, and “or”. </li></ul><ul><li>All coordinated clauses are main clauses, i.e. they have equal importance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to coordinate clauses as well as phrases. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Coordinators <ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINER + NOUN + VERB + DETERMINER + NOUN </li></ul><ul><li>the girl likes the dog </li></ul><ul><li>this + boy + eats + this + apple </li></ul><ul><li>that dog chased that gir l </li></ul>
  12. 15. Tree Diagrams <ul><li>Another way to representing that abstract structure “that is shown before” is in diagrammatic form. </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>determiner noun verb determiner noun </li></ul><ul><li>e.g : a dog chased that girl </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Both type of formula serve two purposes : </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : they describe sentences that we already know </li></ul><ul><li>( grammatical sentences of English.) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : they serve as a pattern or template to make more sentence with . </li></ul>
  14. 17. Phrase and Phrase Structure
  15. 18. Definition of a phrase: <ul><li>A phrase consists of one or more than one word. </li></ul><ul><li>A phrase can be a unit or a constituent within a sentence </li></ul>
  16. 19. Whether <ul><li>Determiner + noun </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>One word ( NOUN ) </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun ( He – she – it – they – you ….) </li></ul><ul><li>consists of one or more than one word this unit is called a PHRASE </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>A dog chased that girl. </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>phrase A verb phrase B </li></ul><ul><li>chased </li></ul><ul><li>Determiner noun noun Determiner </li></ul><ul><li>A dog that girl </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>The dog chased that girl. </li></ul><ul><li>S determiner+noun + verb + determiner+noun. </li></ul><ul><li>( determiner + noun ) functions as a single unit.. </li></ul><ul><li>( the pronoun ) can replaces the entire unit.. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase A verb phrase B </li></ul><ul><li>Determiner + noun Determiner + noun </li></ul><ul><li>The man the girl </li></ul><ul><li>Noun chased Noun </li></ul><ul><li>Henry carol </li></ul><ul><li>PRO PRO </li></ul><ul><li>He her </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of phrase is called a NOUN PHRASE or NP as a short form. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>NP verb NP </li></ul><ul><li>DET NOUN DET NOUN </li></ul><ul><li>a dog chased that girl </li></ul>
  21. 25. Form vs. Function <ul><li>• In terms of forms , a sentence consists of a </li></ul><ul><li>noun phrase and a verb phrase . </li></ul><ul><li>• In terms of function , a sentence consists of a </li></ul><ul><li>subject and a predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>subject and a predicate . A predicate must contain </li></ul><ul><li>a predicator which is a verb. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Tree diagrams and phrase structure rules <ul><li>A tree diagram is a notational device which is equivalent to labeled bracketing. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides the same information about the syntactic structure of the sentence </li></ul>
  23. 27. On a tree diagram <ul><li>The two way split into noun phrase NP </li></ul><ul><li>(SUBJECT).. </li></ul><ul><li>And verb phrase VP ( PREDECATE ).. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like this : </li></ul>
  24. 28. Predicate Subject
  25. 29. What is meant by “phrase structure rules”? <ul><li>A convention used to sum up the system of expanding one unit into other units. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a set of instructions called </li></ul><ul><li>PS rules </li></ul>

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