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ROLE OF ESSENTIAL AND TRACE METAL      IS BIOLOGICAL PROCESS          Prof. S.K. Nigam      Department of Chemistry     Go...
Respected Chair persons and invites    welcome to all of you.
Introduction   The Role of essential in biological process this is all    related to bio inorganic chemistry. This branch...
The Classification of Bio Inorganic elements      Essential elements                       Trance                   Ultra ...
Bio logical functions of metals ionSodium Ion : The main source of sodium is Nacl salt in cooking in     addition to salte...
PotassiumSource and Requirement –   –   High content of K is present is Chicken, beef liver, bananas.       Juice of orang...
CalciumSource and Requirement –   –    It is present in milk, eggs beans, nuts figs cabbage cauliflower and        aspergu...
IronSource –  – The best dietary sources of iron and organ. Meats,    liver, heart, other source are egg york. Wheats nuts...
Iron cont. Function –     –       It require for tissue growth and blood hemoglobin.     –       The role of iron in body ...
CopperSource – Nuts, Liver, Fish, Cow, MilkRequirement –   –   Adult 2.5 mg/daily   –   Infant and children – 0.5 mgFuncti...
PhosphorusSource – It is present nearly all foods.Requirement – 1 – 1.5 gm/dailyFunction :   –   It is found in every cell...
MagnesiumSource –   –    It is present in Cocoa various nuts, soyabean and sea foods.   –    It also present in beans peas...
ZincSource :  –   The main source are meats liver, eggs, sea foods milk, whole      grains.Requirement –  –   Adult – 15 m...
Cobalt       This element constitutes vitamin B12, which is        necessary for normal RBC formation.Source : It is foun...
Sulphur   It is present in cell protein along with amino    acids. It is also present along with co-enzyme    A and Lipon...
IodineSource :  – It is found in traces of Iodine in case of water food    common salt sea food, iodinized salt.  – Adult ...
Chlorine   Intake in diet as sodium chloride.Function :    –   The chloride ion is essential in water balance and osmotic...
References: The books of bioinorganic bio organic and  bio physical chemistry. Books of Bio chemistry Book of B- Pharmacy
Role of essential and trace metal is biological
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Role of essential and trace metal is biological

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Role of essential and trace metal is biological

  1. 1. ROLE OF ESSENTIAL AND TRACE METAL IS BIOLOGICAL PROCESS Prof. S.K. Nigam Department of Chemistry Govt. Model Science College Rewa (M.P.)
  2. 2. Respected Chair persons and invites welcome to all of you.
  3. 3. Introduction The Role of essential in biological process this is all related to bio inorganic chemistry. This branch of chemistry explain the physiological and biochemical process of the metals and trace elements. We know that our living body are made up of fifty many compounds such as protein, amino acids and they are possesting various elements. About fifty to sixty occurring elements has been detected in living system. i.e. Animals, Human as well as Plants also.
  4. 4. The Classification of Bio Inorganic elements Essential elements Trance Ultra elementsNa, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, Fe, Cl, Si Mo, Mn, Fluorine, Iodine, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Se, B, W, (They are also called macro Sn elements) They are known as possible trace elementToxic elements :The presence of these elements arises bad effect on body and some timethey caused typical diseases. Elements Av. Qty Excess of Qty caused diseases As 18 mg Cancerous Sn 6.0 mg Cancerous Bi 0.20 mg Cancerous Te 0.1 mg Cancerous Pb 121 mg Plambism Cd 5.0 mg High B.P. Sb 8.0 mg Poisoning Be 0.04 mg Causes Hearts diseases Cr (VI) 1.5 mg Cancer
  5. 5. Bio logical functions of metals ionSodium Ion : The main source of sodium is Nacl salt in cooking in addition to salted foods. The content of sodium is high is Bread Cheese, Clams, Carrots. Cauliflower, Eggs, Milk, Nuts, Spinach.Daily Requirement : 5 to 10 g. of Nacl for adult Na+ is the major contains of blood. Plasma of vertebrates white K+ is major cations of the cytoplasma which is present in cells.Function of Sodium : – It maintain O.P. of body. – It play important role to absorption of glucose, amino acids and galectose. – It is associated with chloride and biocarbonate in regulator of acid base balance.Deficiency of Sodium Causes : – Due to high environmental temperature extreme sweating may causes loss of sodium ion. This regard is muscular cramps of the abdomen, headches. – High intake of table salt causes high blood pressure.
  6. 6. PotassiumSource and Requirement – – High content of K is present is Chicken, beef liver, bananas. Juice of orange and pine apples and potatoes yams. – Intake about 4 g/d.Function : – Its principal cation of Intra cellular fluid i.e. Cytoplasma of cell. Increase the activity of muscles specially cardiac muscles. – Maintain acid base balance and osmotic pressure of body. – It increase activity of glycolic enzyme, pyruvate kinase. – It stopped blood coagulation. – It regulate heart beat also. – It play important role to synthesis of Ribosomes.Deficiency : – Depression and low activeness of cardiac and nervous system. – Causes muscular weakness (Cramping of muscles)
  7. 7. CalciumSource and Requirement – – It is present in milk, eggs beans, nuts figs cabbage cauliflower and aspergus. – It needs about 800 mg darty of the age of 18th for men and women and below 18th age it require 1 – 1.2 gm/dailyFunction : – It is major constituent of bones teeth. About 90% of the body calcium is in the skelton, where it is maintained as deposits of calcium phosphate is a soft fibrous matrix. – Ionized calcium is of great importance in blood coagulation. – It maintains the normal excitability of heart also.Deficiency : – Low concentration of calcium causes irritation. – Low concentration of calcium causes weakness of bones in childs. (i.e. Rickets) – It also caused Osteoporasis in adults.
  8. 8. IronSource – – The best dietary sources of iron and organ. Meats, liver, heart, other source are egg york. Wheats nuts, beaus, spinach and molasses, apples , bananas.Requirement – – Children – (1-8 yrs) 15 mg – Adult – 10 mg daily – Female - 18 mg (During pregnancy and Lection) – After 51 years age – 10 mg daily
  9. 9. Iron cont. Function – – It require for tissue growth and blood hemoglobin. – The role of iron in body is almost confined to the pressure of cellular respiration. – Iron porphysin (i.e. Harme) groups are essential component of hemoglobin and myoglobin which is responsible for intake oxygen and cerculation of oxygen then also removal of Co2. Deficiency : – Specially in women after the 45 age causes black dot spot on skins. It is due to low concentration of H.b. – Fe deficiency leads anemia type of hypo chronics and microcytics type. – Deficiency of Fe, causes the bone marrow to produce small cells (Microcytics) with less than optimum. Hemoglobin contant (Hypo chromic) – Low concentration of Fe causes slower rate of formation of RBC. It develop the disease with Pale Skin. – Its deficiency causes low energy palpitation and shortness of breath. – All these problems can be cure by supply Ferous Salts.
  10. 10. CopperSource – Nuts, Liver, Fish, Cow, MilkRequirement – – Adult 2.5 mg/daily – Infant and children – 0.5 mgFunction – – It is essential constituents of many proteins metallo enzyme and some natural occurring pigments. – It is also essential for formation of hemoglobin normal bone formation. – The hemoglobin is a copper protein complex which is present in blood of certain invertibrates and function as like hemoglobin.Deficiency : – Deficiency effect of copper has never been positively demonstrated but it has been suspected in case of spours or in nephrosis.
  11. 11. PhosphorusSource – It is present nearly all foods.Requirement – 1 – 1.5 gm/dailyFunction : – It is found in every cell of body. – It is present combined with calcium in the bones and teeth. (about 80%) – It is required for phosphorylation associated with energy obtained metabolic reactions.Deficiency : – Phosphorus deficiency leads to poor meneralization of bones and teeth causes Osteomalacia, and poor growth.
  12. 12. MagnesiumSource – – It is present in Cocoa various nuts, soyabean and sea foods. – It also present in beans peas also in small quarterly.Requirement – – It need few about 300 mg/daily for adult women and 350 mg/daily for adult men.Function : – The body contains about 21 mg of magnesium, 70% combined with calcium and phosphorus is complex salt of bones. – Mg++ ion is one of essential cation of soft tissue. – In muscles and other tissue intra cellular Mg++ ions probably functions as activators of phosphate group transfer enzyme.Deficiency : – In case of mean lead neuro muscular disfuctioning (Hyper excita bility)
  13. 13. ZincSource : – The main source are meats liver, eggs, sea foods milk, whole grains.Requirement – – Adult – 15 mg/daily – Female – During pregnancy and lactation 10-12 mg/dailyFunction : – It is essential for normal, growth. – It is essential for tissue repearing and wound healing. – It is essential components of enzymes present in human body. Such as alcohol dehydrogenase alkaline, phosphatase carbonic anhydrase. – It is maintain normal concentration of Vitamin A in plasma. – The function of Insulin is also regulate with zinc.
  14. 14. Cobalt This element constitutes vitamin B12, which is necessary for normal RBC formation.Source : It is found in the liver, kidney and bones.Function : – It is main constituent of vitamin B12. – It is required for enzyme activity included methyl malonyl enzyme. Co-enzyme A maltose oxido- reductase, homocysteine ribo nucleotide reductase.
  15. 15. Sulphur It is present in cell protein along with amino acids. It is also present along with co-enzyme A and Liponic acid.Function : It participates in the structure of insulin and many more proteins. Specific sulphydryl groups of crystalline residues in some enzyme molecules are essential for catalytic activity. It play important role to formulate of acetyl co enzyme A and S acetyl Lipotate.
  16. 16. IodineSource : – It is found in traces of Iodine in case of water food common salt sea food, iodinized salt. – Adult – 100-150 µg/dayFunction : – It is well require for the biosynthesis of iodinated + hyroid. Hormones such as T3 Tri Iodothyromine – T4 = Tetra – T5 = Penta IodothyromineDeficiency : – I2 deficiency causes thyroid hypertropy.
  17. 17. Chlorine Intake in diet as sodium chloride.Function : – The chloride ion is essential in water balance and osmotic pressure regulation. – It maintain acid fase equilibrium the chloride plays a special role in the blood by the action of chloride shift. – In gastric juice chloride shows special importance in the production of HCl acid.Deficiency : – We know that loss of sodium as in diarrhea. – Profuse seating and certain endocrine disturbance chloride elicit is like was observed. – In loss of gastric juice by vomiting or by duodenal obstruction there is a loss of chloride ion with sodium leads to decrease the plasma chloride and it increase bicarbonate concentration resulting hypocloromic alkalosis.
  18. 18. References: The books of bioinorganic bio organic and bio physical chemistry. Books of Bio chemistry Book of B- Pharmacy

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