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CRISPR

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The Presentations explains the core concepts of CRISPR

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CRISPR

  1. 1. CRISPR Gene Editing is just the Beginning Presented By : Akash Arora (1410105001)
  2. 2. AsWikipedia says : Genome editing is a technique where DNA is inserted,replaced or removed from a genome using artificially engineered nucleases. The nucleases create specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) at desired locations in the genome and harness the cell’s endogenous mechanisms to repair the induced break by natural processes of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ).  Genome Editing
  3. 3.  Approaches of Gene editing?
  4. 4.  Story Behind CRISPR 198 7 • Researchers find CRISPR sequences in Escherichia coli, but do not characterize their function. 200 0 • CRISPR sequence are found to be common in other microbes. 200 2 • Coined CRISPR name, defined signature Cas genes 200 7 • First experimental evidence for CRISPR adaptive immunity 201 3 • First demonstration of Cas9 genome engineering in eukaryotic cell
  5. 5.  CRISPR: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats  First described in E. coli and determined to be part of the bacterial innate immune system versus bacteriophages  Consists of short segments of DNA that are palindromes interspaced with spacer DNA  The spacer DNA is identical in sequence to viral (bacteriophage) DNA  There are additionalCRISPR associated proteins: cas proteins that are typically helicases or nucleases
  6. 6. • CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as phages. • Much easier to design compared to its predecessors zinc finger nucleases andTALENs. • CRISPR loci range from 24 to 48 bp. • CRISPR-associated(cas) genes are attached to the repeater-spacer array • Spacers are fragments of DNA gathered from the viruses that had tried to attack  Some More Important Points
  7. 7. The CRISPR immune system works to protect bacteria from repeated viral attack via three basic steps:  Adaptation  Production of cr RNA  Targeting  How it works
  8. 8.  Structure of cas9 protein
  9. 9.  Structure of crRNA
  10. 10.  Clinical Human Applications of CRISPR • Genetic diseases Remove or add the sequence that is causing the disease • Transplantation Gene editing of mismatched human or even non-human mammals as potential organ donors Editing will reduce risk of immune responses and rejection when using mismatched organs.
  11. 11. • Drug development – optimize biotech manufacture • Disease models • Ecological vector control – mosquito sterilization • Biofuels  Some more Important Application
  12. 12. • CRISPR system are advantageous for industrial processes that utilize bacterial cultures. • CRISPR-based immunity can be employed to make these cultures more resistant to viral attack, which would otherwise impede productivity.
  13. 13. Companies using CRISPR
  14. 14.  Software and databases
  15. 15.  No. of CRISPR paper published year wise
  16. 16.  Rise in Funds
  17. 17.  Key Players
  18. 18. • CRISPR technology has emerged as a powerful and universal technology for genome engineering with wide- ranging innovative implications across biology and medicine. • This technology has proved its potential by being user friendly and has shown its practicality in ensuring health as well as food security of the future. • The tool itself do not pose a threat and we hope that the CRISPR technology will live up to its promise by being used Impact of CRISPER

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