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Resistance and types of resistance to change

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Resistance and types of resistance to change

  1. 1. Resistance and Types of Resistance to change
  2. 2. The Nature of Change • Change is any alteration occurring in the work environment that affects the ways in which employees must act. • Organizations tend to achieve an equilibrium in their social structure. • When change comes along, it requires employees to make new adjustments as the organization seeks a new equilibrium. • Disequilibrium occurs when employees are unable to make adequate adjustments.
  3. 3. Resistance to change • Resistance to change consists of any employee behaviors designed to discredit, delay, or prevent the implementation of a work change. • Employees resist change because it threatens their needs for : – Security – Social Interaction – Status – Competence – Self-Esteem
  4. 4. Resistance to organizational change • Blind resistance • Political resistance • Ideological resistance
  5. 5. Rationale for Resistance • I want to stay where I am because… – my needs are already met here – I have invested heavily here – I am in the middle of something important • I do not want to change because… – I do not understand what is being proposed – the destination looks worse than where I am now – there is nothing to attract me forwards – I do not know which way to move – the journey there looks painful – the destination or journey is somehow bad or wrong – I do not trust those who are asking me to change
  6. 6. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change
  7. 7. Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change
  8. 8. Causes of resistance to change • Interference with need fulfilment • Selective perception • Habit • Inconvenience or loss of freedom • Economic implications • Security in the past • Fear of the unknown • Threats to power or influence • Knowledge and skill obsolescence • Organizational structure • Limited resources
  9. 9. Stages of Resistance to Change
  10. 10. Four Phases of Transition Denial Resistance Exploration Past Future Commitment
  11. 11. Change Model
  12. 12. Benefits of Resistance • Contrary to popular opinion, resistance to change is not bad. • Resistance can bring some benefits: – Encourage the management to re-examine its change proposals – Identify specific problem areas where change is likely to cause difficulties – Encouraged to do a better job of communicating the change – Resistance also gives management information about the intensity of employee emotions on an issue – Encourage employee to think and talk more about a change
  13. 13. Sources of resistance to change may be rational or emotional. • Rational resistance – occurs when people do not have the proper knowledge or information to evaluate the change. – providing information (in the form of data, facts, or other types of concrete information) reduces the resistance • Emotional resistance – involves the psychological problems of fear, anxiety, suspicion, insecurity, and the like. – these feelings are evoked because of people’s perception of how the change will affect them.
  14. 14. Ways to reduce resistance to change • Involve interested parties in the planning of change by asking them for suggestions and incorporating their ideas. • Clearly define the need for the change by communicating the strategic decision personally and in written form. • Address the "people needs" of those involved. Disrupt only what needs to be changed. Help people retain friendships, comfortable settings and group norms wherever possible.
  15. 15. Ways to reduce resistance to change • Be open and honest. • Do not leave openings for people to return to the status quo. If you and your organization are not ready to commit yourselves to the change, don't announce the strategy. • Focus continually on the positive aspects of the change. Be specific where you can. • Deliver training programs that develop basic skills as opposed to processes such as: conducting meetings, communication, teambuilding, self- esteem, and coaching.
  16. 16. Ways to reduce resistance to change • Design flexibility into change by phasing it in wherever possible. This will allow people to complete current efforts and assimilate new behaviours along the way. Allow employees to redefine their roles during the course of implementing change.
  17. 17. Overcoming Resistance To Change • Education & Communication • Participation & Involvement • Facilitation & Support • Negotiation & Agreement • Manipulation & Co-optation • Explicit & Implicit Coercion
  18. 18. 10 Strategies You Can Use to Overcome Resistance to Change • Address Personal Concerns First • Link the Change to Other Issues People Care About • Tap into People’s Desire to Avoid Loss • Tailor Information to People’s Expectations • Group Your Audience Homogeneously • Take Advantage of People’s Bias—Buy Now, Pay Later! • Make the Change Local & Concrete • Appeal to the Whole Brain • Beware of Overloading People • Know the Pros and Cons of Your Change
  19. 19. Stages of Overcoming Resistance
  20. 20. Type of Resistance • Logical Resistance or Rational Resistance • This is based on disagreement with facts, rational reasoning, logic, and science. • It occurs because of the time and efforts which is needed to adjust to change.
  21. 21. Type of Resistance • Psychological Resistance or Emotional Resistance • This is typically based on emotions, sentiments, and attitudes. • It is internally logical from the perspective of the employees’ attitudes and feelings about change because they may fear the unknown, mistrust the management’s leadership, or feel that their security and self-esteem are threatened.
  22. 22. Type of Resistance • Sociological Resistance or Social Resistance • Sociological resistance also is logical, when it is seen as a product of a challenge to group interests, norms, and values.
  23. 23. Steps in managed change • Develop new goals and objectives • Select an agent for change • Diagnose the problem • Select methodology • Develop a plan • Strategy for implementation of the plan • Implementation of the plan • Receive and evaluate feedback
  24. 24. How to make the change the permanent • Use of group forces, • Use of leadership, • Shared rewards, • Working with unions, and • Concern for employees.
  25. 25. Stress • A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important
  26. 26. Model of Stress
  27. 27. Environmental Factors • Economic uncertainties of the business cycle • Political uncertainties of political systems • Technological uncertainties of technical innovations • Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
  28. 28. Organizational Factors • Task demands related to the job • Role demands of functioning in an organization • Interpersonal demands created by other employees
  29. 29. Individual Factors • Family and personal relationships • Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity • Personality problems arising from basic disposition
  30. 30. Individual Approaches for Managing Stress • Implementing time management • Increasing physical exercise • Relaxation training • Expanding social support network
  31. 31. Organizational Approaches for Managing Stress • Improved personnel selection and job placement • Training • Use of realistic goal setting • Redesigning of jobs • Increased employee involvement • Improved organizational communication • Establishment of corporate wellness programs
  32. 32. Relationship Between Stress and Job Performance

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