Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY              (5th Ed)       Chapter 12       Motivation     James A. McCubbin, PhD       Clemson Univers...
Motivation  Motivation    a need or desire that energizes and    directs behavior  Instinct    complex behavior that is ri...
Motivation  Drive-Reduction Theory   the idea that a physiological need   creates an aroused tension state   (a drive) tha...
Motivation  Homeostasis    tendency to maintain a balanced or    constant internal state    regulation of any aspect of bo...
Maslow’s Hierarchy ofNeeds          Self-actualization needs                    begins at the             Need to live up ...
Motivation-Hunger   Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger Subject swallows   balloon, whichmeasures stomac...
Motivation-Hunger  Glucose   the form of sugar that circulates in   the blood   provides the major source of   energy for ...
Motivation-Hunger  Set Point    the point at which an individual’s “weight    thermostat” is supposedly set    when the bo...
Motivation-Hunger               The               hypothalamus               controls eating               and other body ...
Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa   when a normal-weight person diets and   becomes significantly underweight, yet, still ...
Eating Disorders-Anorexia Nervosa  when a person is less than 85% of  their normal body weight  95% of sufferers are femal...
Women’s BodyImagesThinnest                                                Fattest           Women’s                       ...
Sexual Motivation   Sex is a physiologically   based motive, like hunger,   but it is more affected by   learning and values
Sexual MotivationSexual Response Cycle  the four stages of sexual responding described  by Masters and Johnson    exciteme...
The Sexual Response Cycle  Orgasm                                         Resolution                                      ...
Sexual Motivation  Estrogen   a sex hormone, secreted in   greater amounts by females than   by males
Forces AffectingSexual Motivation              Imaginative                stimuli   External                 Physiological...
Sexual Disorders  Problems that consistently impair  sexual arousal or functioning    In Men      premature ejaculation   ...
Sexual Motivation Sexual Orientation  an enduring sexual attraction toward  members of either one’s own gender  (homosexua...
Motivation   Achievement Motivation    a desire for significant    accomplishment      for mastery of things, people, or  ...
Motivation Intrinsic Motivation   desire to perform a behavior for its own   sake or to be effective Extrinsic Motivation ...
Rewards AffectMotivation Mom: “I’ll give you $5 for every A.’’ Controlling reward                                  Child: ...
Motivation Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology   sub-field of psychology that studies and   advises on workplace be...
Motivation   Task Leadership     goal-oriented leadership that sets     standards, organizes work, and focuses     attenti...
Motivation Theory X  assumes that workers are basically lazy,  error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by  money  should ...
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12 motivation

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 12 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  2. 2. Motivation Motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Instinct complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  3. 3. Motivation Drive-Reduction Theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
  4. 4. Motivation Homeostasis tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level Incentives a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
  5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy ofNeeds Self-actualization needs begins at the Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential base with physiological Esteem needs needs that must Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, first be satisfied and independence; need for recognition and respect from others then higher-level Belongingness and love needs safety needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid become active loneliness and alienation then Safety needs psychological Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable needs become active Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
  6. 6. Motivation-Hunger Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger Subject swallows balloon, whichmeasures stomach contraction Subject presses key each time Stomach contractions when hungry Hunger pangs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time in minutes
  7. 7. Motivation-Hunger Glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood provides the major source of energy for body tissues when its level is low, we feel hunger
  8. 8. Motivation-Hunger Set Point the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight Metabolic Rate body’s base rate of energy expenditure
  9. 9. Motivation-Hunger The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions
  10. 10. Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve usually an adolescent female Bulimia Nervosa disorder characterized by private “binge- purge” episodes of overeating, usually of highly caloric foods, followed by vomiting or laxative use
  11. 11. Eating Disorders-Anorexia Nervosa when a person is less than 85% of their normal body weight 95% of sufferers are female most are between the ages of 18-30 30% of persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa die
  12. 12. Women’s BodyImagesThinnest Fattest Women’s Women’s ideal current What women What men body image believed men actually preferred preferred
  13. 13. Sexual Motivation Sex is a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values
  14. 14. Sexual MotivationSexual Response Cycle the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson excitement plateau orgasm resolutionRefractory Period resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
  15. 15. The Sexual Response Cycle Orgasm Resolution without orgasm Plateau ResolutionExcitement Resolution with orgasm Males Females
  16. 16. Sexual Motivation Estrogen a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
  17. 17. Forces AffectingSexual Motivation Imaginative stimuli External Physiological stimuli readiness
  18. 18. Sexual Disorders Problems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioning In Men premature ejaculation • ejaculation before they or their partners wish impotence • inability to have or maintain erection In Women orgasmic disorder • infrequent or absent orgasms
  19. 19. Sexual Motivation Sexual Orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation)
  20. 20. Motivation Achievement Motivation a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things, people, or ideas for attaining a high standard McClelland and Atkinson believed fantasies would reflect achievement concerns
  21. 21. Motivation Intrinsic Motivation desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective Extrinsic Motivation desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
  22. 22. Rewards AffectMotivation Mom: “I’ll give you $5 for every A.’’ Controlling reward Child: “As long as she pays, I’ll study.’’ Extrinsic motivation Mom: “Your grades were great! Let’s celebrate by going out for dinner.’’ Informative reward Child: “I love doing well.’’ Intrinsic motivation
  23. 23. Motivation Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology sub-field of psychology that studies and advises on workplace behavior I/O Psychologists help organizations select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, and design products and assess responses to them
  24. 24. Motivation Task Leadership goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals Social Leadership group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
  25. 25. Motivation Theory X assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money should be directed from above Theory Y assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity

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