• INTRODUCTION CONTENTS• DEFINITION• STRUCTURE AND BASIC WORKING• DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING• DNA BIO CHIPS• ADVANTAGES• DISADVANTAGES• FUTURE• CONCLUSION• REFERANCE
INTRODUCTION• Identifies us uniquely• Can be used to track our location• Size- uncooked grain of rice• Injected under the skin using syringe• Respond to signal from detector• Daniel Man holds the patent for a chip that can be tracked by satellite
DEFINITION• Collection of micro arrays arranged on a solid substrate• Can perform millions of mathematical operations• Can perform thousands of biological operations• Human Genome Project• Increased speed of identification of genes• Also used in toxicological, protein & biochemical research• Motorola, Hitachi, IBM, Texas Instruments
STRUCTURE• Two parts- Transponder & Reader or Scanner Transponder :
Cont…• Actual biochip implant• Uses RFID system• Two types- Active & Passive• Not harmful to human body• Four parts- Microchip, Antenna coil, Capacitor & Glass capsule
Cont… Microchips:• Stores unique identification number, 10-15 digit.• AVID stores 70 trillion unique numbers.• ID number etched to surface.• Cannot be altered.• Electronic circuitry transmit ID number to reader.
Cont… Antenna coil:• Copper around ferrite or iron core.• Simple, tiny, primitive.• Receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner. Tuning capacitor:• Stores small electrical charges(< 1/1000 of a watt)• Tuned to same frequency as reader.
Cont… Glass capsule:• Houses all components• Made of biocompatible material• Polypropylene sheath• Injected using hypodermic syringe
Cont… Reader:• Exciter coil provides energy to activate chip• Receiving coil receives data• Decodes the data• Displayed in LCD• All done in milliseconds
Basic Working• Generates low power electromagnetic field• Enables biochip• Receiver amplifies code• Data displayed
DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING Oxy sensors:• Size of a button• Monitor breathing inside ICU• Sends light pulse into body to detect oxygen• Act as a pulse monitor• Application range from sick children to chemotherapy patients
Cont… Brain On-Off switch:• Activa implant – Medtronics Inc., US• Turns off brain signals• Uses high frequency eletric pulses• Primarily interfere with abberrant brain functions
Cont… Adding sound to life:• Cochlear implant• Electrical pulses directly to nerve cell• Mimics the job of hair cell• Splits incoming noises to channels• Clarion & Nucleus
Cont… Experiments with lost sight:• Joseph Rizzo , John Wyatt (Massachusetts)• 20 electrode 1 mm sq chips- mimics photoreceptors• First on rabbit• Final setup- pair of glass with camera detect & encode• Send as laser pulse
Cont…• Eugene de Jaun- Hoplkins Wilmer Eye Inst.• Inserted electrodes• Completely blind saw well defined flashes.• Latest- implanted at surface or retina
DNA BIOCHIPS• Tuan Vo-Dinh- at DOE of ORNL• Gene probe based• Matched box sized• Less blood, no sacrifice on accuracy• No radioactive labels• Reduces disposal cost• Distinguish b/w bacteria, virus, chemical or biological species
ADVANTAGES• Small in size• Faster & powerful• Detect multiple viral agents in parallel• Aids deaf, dumb, blind• Stores personnal data• Ease of use• Human tracking etc..
DISADVANTAGES• Loss of privacy• End of human freedom and dignity• Expensive• Cannot be fabricated at high density and mass
FUTURE• Widely established in veterinary field• In the case of humans future lies in the hand of users
CONCLUSION• Developing• Have advantages and disadvantages• Future is unpredictable
REFERANCE• http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumb er=4129415• Herold, KE; Rasooly, A (editor) (2009). Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Fabrication and Microfluidics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-46-2.• Fan et al. (2009). "Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis in a Chip". Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: Biomolecular Separation and Analysis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1- 904455-47-9.