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TILLAGE
Secondary Tillage Implements
Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi
Assistant Professor
College of Agriculture, Balaghat
Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Tillage operations performed after primary tillage to create proper soil tilth for seeding and
planting are called secondary tillage.
These operations are lighter and finer operations performed on the soil after primary tillage
operations.
Secondary tillage operations do not cause much soil inversion and shifting of soil from one
place to another place.
These operations consume less power per unit area compared to primary tillage operations.
 The implements used for secondary tillage operations are called secondary tillage
implements they include different types of harrows, rotary tillers, leveller, ridgers, bund
former, rollers and pulverizers, tools for mulching and fallowing, cage wheels etc.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
HARROWS
Harrow is a secondary tillage implement used for a variety of jobs in crop cultivation.
They are listed as follows
Used before ploughing to cut vegetable matter such as corn stock, cotton stalk, and weeds and
mix with soil for soil conservation
Used to pulverize the top soil so that the furrow slices will make better connection with the
bottom of the sole preventing air space when slices are turned
Used after ploughing to pulverize the soil and put it in better tilth for the reception of the seed
Used for the cultivation of crops
Used for summer fallowing
Used to cover the seeds after sowing
There are many kinds of harrows namely, the disc harrow, spike tooth harrow, spring
tooth harrow, rotary cross- harrow, soil surgeon, triangular harrow, acme harrow, blade
harrow , reciprocating power harrow etc.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
HARROWS: Disc Harrow
It is a harrow, which performs the harrowing operation by means of a set of rotating
discs, each set being mounted on a common shaft.
Disc harrow is found very suitable for hard ground with full of stalks and grasses.
It cuts the lumps of soil, clods and roots.
Discs are mounted on one, two or more axles which may be set at a variable angle to the
line of motion.
As the harrow is pulled ahead, the discs rotate on the ground.
Depending upon the disc arrangements, disc harrows are divided into two classes
a) Single action and
b) Double action.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Single Action Disc Harrow
It is a harrow with two gangs placed end to end with an
angle greater than 90o. The discs are arranged in
opposite directions on both gangs so that the right side
gang throws the soil towards right and the left side gang
throws the soil towards left.
Double Action Disc Harrow (Tandem Disc Harrow)
The double action disc harrow is often called a tandem
harrow because a set of two gangs follows behind the front
gangs and is arranged in such a way that the discs on the
front gangs throw the soil in one direction ( usually outward),
and the discs on the rear gangs throw the soil in the opposite
direction (outward) Thus the entire field is worked twice in
each trip
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Offset Disc Harrow
Offset disk harrow has one right-hand gang (throwing the soil to the
right) and one left – hand gang (throwing the soil to the left), operating
in tandem. The harrow is given this name because the harrow can be
operated in offset position in relation to the tractor. A change in hitch can
cause the harrow to run either to the left or right of the tractor. It is
possible to operate the harrow under limbs , near trees in an orchard.
Parts of Disc Harrow
 Disc: It is a circular concave disc which cuts and inverts the soil. Disc is made of heat-
treated hardened steel. Tractor drawn disc harrows have concave discs of size varying
from 35-70 cm diameter. Concavity of the disc affects penetration and pulverization of
soil. Usually two types of disc are used in disc harrows, plain disc and cut away disc.
Plain discs have plain edges and they are used for all normal works. Most of the harrows
are fitted with plain discs only. Cut away discs have serrated edges and they cut stalks,
grass and other vegetation.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Gang: Each set of discs that are mounted on a common shaft is called the gang.
Gang bolt or arbor bolt: It is a long heavy square headed bolt. Discs are mounted on the
gang bolt. The spacing between the discs on the gang bolt ranges from 15 to 25 cm for light
duty and 25 to 30 cm for heavy duty harrows.
Gang angle: The angle between the axis of the gang bolt and the direction of travel is
called the gang angle.
Gang control lever: This lever is used to change the gang angle of the gangs which in turn
alters the width of operation.
Spool or spacer: The flanged tube, mounted on the gang bolt between every two discs to
prevent the lateral movement of the disc on the shaft is called the `spool’ or `spacer’.
Spacer keeps the discs at equal spacing on the gang bolt. It is usually cast in special
shapes and sizes and is generally made of cast iron.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Bearing: Bearing is essential for frictionless rotation of the gang. They also counter act
the end thrust due to soil reaction on the discs. Chilled cast iron bearings are used which
are more durable than other types of bearings
Transport wheel: In trailing type disc harrows, transport wheels are provided for
transport of the harrow on roads without damage to the edges of the discs . Mounted type
harrows do not require wheels for transport work.
Scraper: It removes the soil that may stick to the concave side of the disc while working
and thus prevents clogging of the discs.
Weight box: A box like frame is provided on the main frame of the harrow for putting
additional weight on the implement to increase the penetration of the disc in the soil.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Animal Drawn Disc Harrow:
Disc harrow is used for breaking clods while preparing seed beds.
It has usually six or eight discs fixed in two gangs, each gang has three or four discs.
There is a strong frame made of mild steel, on which gangs with the disc are mounted. As
operator's seat is also provided on the frame.
Usually transport wheels are provided for easy movement of the harrow from place to
place.
The size of the harrow is determined by the maximum width of cut of the soil.
The disc harrow varies between 80 to 100 kg only.
The disc harrow mainly consists of : (i) Disc (ii) Gang frame (iii) Beam (iv) Gang angle
mechanism (v) scraper (vi) Spacer (spool) (vii) Clevis (viii) Axle (ix) Middle type and (x)
Bearings.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Spring Tooth Harrow:
It is a harrow with flexible teeth suitable to work in hard
and stony soils.
Spring tooth harrow is fitted with springs, having loops of
elliptical shape.
It gives spring action in working conditions.
This type of harrow mainly consists of teeth, tooth bars,
clamps, frame, clevis, lever and links.
The spring steel teeth are fastened to the tooth bars by
tooth clamps.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Spike Tooth Harrow:
It is a harrow with peg shaped teeth of diamond cross section
attached to a rectangular frame.
It is used to break clods, stir the soil, uproot the weeds, level the
ground, break the soil crust, and cover the seeds.
 Its principle use is to smoothen and level the soil directly after
ploughing.
Spike tooth type harrows may be of either rigid type or flexible
type.
The animal drawn spike tooth harrows are usually of rigid type.
The tractor drawn harrows are usually of flexible type.
Spike tooth mainly consists of teeth, tooth bars, clamps, guard
braces, levers and hooks. The teeth are made or hardened steel.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Spike Tooth Harrow:
It is a harrow with peg shaped teeth of diamond cross section
attached to a rectangular frame.
It is used to break clods, stir the soil, uproot the weeds, level the
ground, break the soil crust, and cover the seeds.
 Its principle use is to smoothen and level the soil directly after
ploughing.
Spike tooth type harrows may be of either rigid type or flexible
type.
The animal drawn spike tooth harrows are usually of rigid type.
The tractor drawn harrows are usually of flexible type.
Spike tooth mainly consists of teeth, tooth bars, clamps, guard
braces, levers and hooks. The teeth are made or hardened steel.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Acme Harrow:
It is a special type of animal drawn harrow having a transverse
horizontal frame with stiff curved blades. Also known as blade
harrow; curved knife-tooth harrow; pulverizer.
The front part of the knife breaks the soil and crushes the clods .
This harrow obtains a good pulverization. It is good for creating
soil mulch.
Triangular Harrow
It is a spike tooth harrow with triangular frame. The frame is
made of wood and pointed spikes are fitted in the frame.
The teeth of the spikes are fixed and not adjustable.
It is used for breaking the clods and smoothening the soil
surface.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Blade Harrow (BAKHAR OR GUNTAKA)
It is an animal drawn implement used to prepare seedbeds in
clayey soils and soil mulch for soil moisture conservation.
It consists of one or more blades attached to a beam which
works at shallow depth with minimum or nil soil inversion.
Patela Harrow
It is a wooden plank used for smoothening the soil and crushing
the weeds. It is also used for breaking clods, packing and
leveling the ploughed soil and to remove the weeds.
It is made of a wooden plank with a number of curved steel
hooks bolted to a steel angle section, which is fixed to the rear
side of the plank. The cutting edge levels and packs the soil and
the curved hooks uproot and collect the weeds. It is a animal
drawn version
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Power Harrow– Tractor Drawn
A power harrow tills the soil maintaining the same profile of the
field. It pulverizes the upper and lower layer of soil without
turning them up side down and thus it forms a good seed bed as
well as good soil mulch.
It consists of two horizontal cross bars fitted with rigid pegs
which reciprocate taking power from the PTO of a tractor.
The pegs are spaced 200 mm wide and are staggered with
respect to each cross bar.
The two bars move in opposite directions and hence the
implement is dynamically balanced. The oscillating pegs break
the clods and pulverizes the soil to a fine tilth.
The width of the operation is 2000 mm. and the field capacity is
around 1.5 ha/day.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Leveller:
In irrigated areas land leveling is an essential operation of farming. Leveled fields receive
uniform penetration of irrigation water with high efficiency.
The possibility of water logging and soil erosion is reduced considerably.
The entire leveled field becomes ready to receive timely agricultural operations like
ploughing, seeding and interculturing without any delay.
Smooth fields also facilitate the operation of field equipment and are highly desirable for
using mechanical harvesters.
Land leveling is usually done in the slack season when the field is free from crops, and the
Labours and bullocks are idle.
Wooden logs or planks are the most common type of land levelers used by Indian farmers.
They are operated in ploughed land to collect loose soil form high spots and to dump in
into depressions.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Leveller:
While operating in the field, the leveler is raised from the rear to take more cut and then it
is tilted up side down to fill up the low spots elsewhere.
The other improved type of land leveler which is used on the medium size farms, is called
the leveling karaha or scraper.
The scraper essentially consists of a bowl or ‘U’ shaped steel sheet made of 3 mm thick
metal. Its cutting edge is generally made of high carbon steel.
It is also provided with a wooden handle in the middle or two handles on the sides at the
rear end.
Provision is made at the front end for hitching. For taking the wear an extra steel sheet is
welded underneath at the centre.
The implement is pulled by a pair of bullocks. Two men are needed to operate it. One man
controls the bullocks and the other man does the loading and unloading.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Leveller:
The amount of work done in a day depends upon various
factors such as hardness of the soil, transportation distance
(lead) and volume of the soil cut each time.
If the soil is hard, it is always helpful to loosen the soil first
by ploughing or by any other means and then proceed with
leveling.
Tractor mounted type or animal operated improved levelers
are also used in India.
 The laser guided leveler has a transmitter which is fitted
outside the field to be leveled.
The leveler is fixed with a receiver of the laser beam.
It works automatically and the operator need not adjust the
leveling blade.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Ridger:
A ridger is an implement which cuts and turns the soil in two
opposite directions simultaneously for forming ridges. It is
also known as Furrower.
Ridger is used to form ridges, for sowing row crop seeds and
plants in well tilled soil.
The ridger is also used for forming field furrows or channels,
earthing up and similar other operations. Ridgers are also
known ridging plough, middle buster plough and double
mouldboard plough.
The ridger generally has V-shaped or wedge-shaped share,
fitted to the frog.
The nose or the tip of the share penetrates into the soil and
breaks the earth.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Ridger:
It consists of rectangular frame made of mild steel angle or channel section, 3-point hitch
assembly, shanks and ridger body.
The ridger body consists of two mouldboards, share, point and tie bars to vary the
wingspan of ridgers. The share point is made from medium carbon steel or low alloy steel.
Upon wearing or becoming dull the share point can be replaced.
The mould boards lift, invert and cast aside the soil, forming deep channels and ridges of
the required size.
The ridger is operated in tilled soil by a tractor, the share point penetrates in the soil,
ridger body displaces the soil to both sides and a furrow is created. The soil mass between
furrows forms a ridge.
The depth of operation is controlled by hydraulic system of the tractor. A Ridger required
for row planted crops. It is also used for making field furrows or channels, earthing up,
and similar other operations.
SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS
Bund Former:
It is used for making bunds or ridges by collecting the soil.
Bunds are required to hold water in the soil, thereby conserve
moisture and prevent run off.
The size of the bund former is determined by measuring the
maximum horizontal distance between the two rear ends of
the forming boards.
The bund former consists of mild steel angle iron frame;
hitch system, and two blades (wings). The blades are made
by mounting mild steel sheet on an angle iron frame. The
blades are adjusted in converging manner and has wider
opening in the front in comparison at the rear end. The
distance between blades can be adjusted according to size of
bund required. The implement is mounted type and operated
in tilled soil.
Thank You

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Tillage- Secondary Tillage Implements.pptx

  • 1. TILLAGE Secondary Tillage Implements Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi Assistant Professor College of Agriculture, Balaghat Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
  • 2. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Tillage operations performed after primary tillage to create proper soil tilth for seeding and planting are called secondary tillage. These operations are lighter and finer operations performed on the soil after primary tillage operations. Secondary tillage operations do not cause much soil inversion and shifting of soil from one place to another place. These operations consume less power per unit area compared to primary tillage operations.  The implements used for secondary tillage operations are called secondary tillage implements they include different types of harrows, rotary tillers, leveller, ridgers, bund former, rollers and pulverizers, tools for mulching and fallowing, cage wheels etc.
  • 3. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS HARROWS Harrow is a secondary tillage implement used for a variety of jobs in crop cultivation. They are listed as follows Used before ploughing to cut vegetable matter such as corn stock, cotton stalk, and weeds and mix with soil for soil conservation Used to pulverize the top soil so that the furrow slices will make better connection with the bottom of the sole preventing air space when slices are turned Used after ploughing to pulverize the soil and put it in better tilth for the reception of the seed Used for the cultivation of crops Used for summer fallowing Used to cover the seeds after sowing There are many kinds of harrows namely, the disc harrow, spike tooth harrow, spring tooth harrow, rotary cross- harrow, soil surgeon, triangular harrow, acme harrow, blade harrow , reciprocating power harrow etc.
  • 4. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS HARROWS: Disc Harrow It is a harrow, which performs the harrowing operation by means of a set of rotating discs, each set being mounted on a common shaft. Disc harrow is found very suitable for hard ground with full of stalks and grasses. It cuts the lumps of soil, clods and roots. Discs are mounted on one, two or more axles which may be set at a variable angle to the line of motion. As the harrow is pulled ahead, the discs rotate on the ground. Depending upon the disc arrangements, disc harrows are divided into two classes a) Single action and b) Double action.
  • 5. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Single Action Disc Harrow It is a harrow with two gangs placed end to end with an angle greater than 90o. The discs are arranged in opposite directions on both gangs so that the right side gang throws the soil towards right and the left side gang throws the soil towards left. Double Action Disc Harrow (Tandem Disc Harrow) The double action disc harrow is often called a tandem harrow because a set of two gangs follows behind the front gangs and is arranged in such a way that the discs on the front gangs throw the soil in one direction ( usually outward), and the discs on the rear gangs throw the soil in the opposite direction (outward) Thus the entire field is worked twice in each trip
  • 6. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Offset Disc Harrow Offset disk harrow has one right-hand gang (throwing the soil to the right) and one left – hand gang (throwing the soil to the left), operating in tandem. The harrow is given this name because the harrow can be operated in offset position in relation to the tractor. A change in hitch can cause the harrow to run either to the left or right of the tractor. It is possible to operate the harrow under limbs , near trees in an orchard. Parts of Disc Harrow  Disc: It is a circular concave disc which cuts and inverts the soil. Disc is made of heat- treated hardened steel. Tractor drawn disc harrows have concave discs of size varying from 35-70 cm diameter. Concavity of the disc affects penetration and pulverization of soil. Usually two types of disc are used in disc harrows, plain disc and cut away disc. Plain discs have plain edges and they are used for all normal works. Most of the harrows are fitted with plain discs only. Cut away discs have serrated edges and they cut stalks, grass and other vegetation.
  • 7. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Gang: Each set of discs that are mounted on a common shaft is called the gang. Gang bolt or arbor bolt: It is a long heavy square headed bolt. Discs are mounted on the gang bolt. The spacing between the discs on the gang bolt ranges from 15 to 25 cm for light duty and 25 to 30 cm for heavy duty harrows. Gang angle: The angle between the axis of the gang bolt and the direction of travel is called the gang angle. Gang control lever: This lever is used to change the gang angle of the gangs which in turn alters the width of operation. Spool or spacer: The flanged tube, mounted on the gang bolt between every two discs to prevent the lateral movement of the disc on the shaft is called the `spool’ or `spacer’. Spacer keeps the discs at equal spacing on the gang bolt. It is usually cast in special shapes and sizes and is generally made of cast iron.
  • 8. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Bearing: Bearing is essential for frictionless rotation of the gang. They also counter act the end thrust due to soil reaction on the discs. Chilled cast iron bearings are used which are more durable than other types of bearings Transport wheel: In trailing type disc harrows, transport wheels are provided for transport of the harrow on roads without damage to the edges of the discs . Mounted type harrows do not require wheels for transport work. Scraper: It removes the soil that may stick to the concave side of the disc while working and thus prevents clogging of the discs. Weight box: A box like frame is provided on the main frame of the harrow for putting additional weight on the implement to increase the penetration of the disc in the soil.
  • 9. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Animal Drawn Disc Harrow: Disc harrow is used for breaking clods while preparing seed beds. It has usually six or eight discs fixed in two gangs, each gang has three or four discs. There is a strong frame made of mild steel, on which gangs with the disc are mounted. As operator's seat is also provided on the frame. Usually transport wheels are provided for easy movement of the harrow from place to place. The size of the harrow is determined by the maximum width of cut of the soil. The disc harrow varies between 80 to 100 kg only. The disc harrow mainly consists of : (i) Disc (ii) Gang frame (iii) Beam (iv) Gang angle mechanism (v) scraper (vi) Spacer (spool) (vii) Clevis (viii) Axle (ix) Middle type and (x) Bearings.
  • 10. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Spring Tooth Harrow: It is a harrow with flexible teeth suitable to work in hard and stony soils. Spring tooth harrow is fitted with springs, having loops of elliptical shape. It gives spring action in working conditions. This type of harrow mainly consists of teeth, tooth bars, clamps, frame, clevis, lever and links. The spring steel teeth are fastened to the tooth bars by tooth clamps.
  • 11. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Spike Tooth Harrow: It is a harrow with peg shaped teeth of diamond cross section attached to a rectangular frame. It is used to break clods, stir the soil, uproot the weeds, level the ground, break the soil crust, and cover the seeds.  Its principle use is to smoothen and level the soil directly after ploughing. Spike tooth type harrows may be of either rigid type or flexible type. The animal drawn spike tooth harrows are usually of rigid type. The tractor drawn harrows are usually of flexible type. Spike tooth mainly consists of teeth, tooth bars, clamps, guard braces, levers and hooks. The teeth are made or hardened steel.
  • 12. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Spike Tooth Harrow: It is a harrow with peg shaped teeth of diamond cross section attached to a rectangular frame. It is used to break clods, stir the soil, uproot the weeds, level the ground, break the soil crust, and cover the seeds.  Its principle use is to smoothen and level the soil directly after ploughing. Spike tooth type harrows may be of either rigid type or flexible type. The animal drawn spike tooth harrows are usually of rigid type. The tractor drawn harrows are usually of flexible type. Spike tooth mainly consists of teeth, tooth bars, clamps, guard braces, levers and hooks. The teeth are made or hardened steel.
  • 13. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Acme Harrow: It is a special type of animal drawn harrow having a transverse horizontal frame with stiff curved blades. Also known as blade harrow; curved knife-tooth harrow; pulverizer. The front part of the knife breaks the soil and crushes the clods . This harrow obtains a good pulverization. It is good for creating soil mulch. Triangular Harrow It is a spike tooth harrow with triangular frame. The frame is made of wood and pointed spikes are fitted in the frame. The teeth of the spikes are fixed and not adjustable. It is used for breaking the clods and smoothening the soil surface.
  • 14. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Blade Harrow (BAKHAR OR GUNTAKA) It is an animal drawn implement used to prepare seedbeds in clayey soils and soil mulch for soil moisture conservation. It consists of one or more blades attached to a beam which works at shallow depth with minimum or nil soil inversion. Patela Harrow It is a wooden plank used for smoothening the soil and crushing the weeds. It is also used for breaking clods, packing and leveling the ploughed soil and to remove the weeds. It is made of a wooden plank with a number of curved steel hooks bolted to a steel angle section, which is fixed to the rear side of the plank. The cutting edge levels and packs the soil and the curved hooks uproot and collect the weeds. It is a animal drawn version
  • 15. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Power Harrow– Tractor Drawn A power harrow tills the soil maintaining the same profile of the field. It pulverizes the upper and lower layer of soil without turning them up side down and thus it forms a good seed bed as well as good soil mulch. It consists of two horizontal cross bars fitted with rigid pegs which reciprocate taking power from the PTO of a tractor. The pegs are spaced 200 mm wide and are staggered with respect to each cross bar. The two bars move in opposite directions and hence the implement is dynamically balanced. The oscillating pegs break the clods and pulverizes the soil to a fine tilth. The width of the operation is 2000 mm. and the field capacity is around 1.5 ha/day.
  • 16. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Leveller: In irrigated areas land leveling is an essential operation of farming. Leveled fields receive uniform penetration of irrigation water with high efficiency. The possibility of water logging and soil erosion is reduced considerably. The entire leveled field becomes ready to receive timely agricultural operations like ploughing, seeding and interculturing without any delay. Smooth fields also facilitate the operation of field equipment and are highly desirable for using mechanical harvesters. Land leveling is usually done in the slack season when the field is free from crops, and the Labours and bullocks are idle. Wooden logs or planks are the most common type of land levelers used by Indian farmers. They are operated in ploughed land to collect loose soil form high spots and to dump in into depressions.
  • 17. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Leveller: While operating in the field, the leveler is raised from the rear to take more cut and then it is tilted up side down to fill up the low spots elsewhere. The other improved type of land leveler which is used on the medium size farms, is called the leveling karaha or scraper. The scraper essentially consists of a bowl or ‘U’ shaped steel sheet made of 3 mm thick metal. Its cutting edge is generally made of high carbon steel. It is also provided with a wooden handle in the middle or two handles on the sides at the rear end. Provision is made at the front end for hitching. For taking the wear an extra steel sheet is welded underneath at the centre. The implement is pulled by a pair of bullocks. Two men are needed to operate it. One man controls the bullocks and the other man does the loading and unloading.
  • 18. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Leveller: The amount of work done in a day depends upon various factors such as hardness of the soil, transportation distance (lead) and volume of the soil cut each time. If the soil is hard, it is always helpful to loosen the soil first by ploughing or by any other means and then proceed with leveling. Tractor mounted type or animal operated improved levelers are also used in India.  The laser guided leveler has a transmitter which is fitted outside the field to be leveled. The leveler is fixed with a receiver of the laser beam. It works automatically and the operator need not adjust the leveling blade.
  • 19. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Ridger: A ridger is an implement which cuts and turns the soil in two opposite directions simultaneously for forming ridges. It is also known as Furrower. Ridger is used to form ridges, for sowing row crop seeds and plants in well tilled soil. The ridger is also used for forming field furrows or channels, earthing up and similar other operations. Ridgers are also known ridging plough, middle buster plough and double mouldboard plough. The ridger generally has V-shaped or wedge-shaped share, fitted to the frog. The nose or the tip of the share penetrates into the soil and breaks the earth.
  • 20. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Ridger: It consists of rectangular frame made of mild steel angle or channel section, 3-point hitch assembly, shanks and ridger body. The ridger body consists of two mouldboards, share, point and tie bars to vary the wingspan of ridgers. The share point is made from medium carbon steel or low alloy steel. Upon wearing or becoming dull the share point can be replaced. The mould boards lift, invert and cast aside the soil, forming deep channels and ridges of the required size. The ridger is operated in tilled soil by a tractor, the share point penetrates in the soil, ridger body displaces the soil to both sides and a furrow is created. The soil mass between furrows forms a ridge. The depth of operation is controlled by hydraulic system of the tractor. A Ridger required for row planted crops. It is also used for making field furrows or channels, earthing up, and similar other operations.
  • 21. SECONDARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS Bund Former: It is used for making bunds or ridges by collecting the soil. Bunds are required to hold water in the soil, thereby conserve moisture and prevent run off. The size of the bund former is determined by measuring the maximum horizontal distance between the two rear ends of the forming boards. The bund former consists of mild steel angle iron frame; hitch system, and two blades (wings). The blades are made by mounting mild steel sheet on an angle iron frame. The blades are adjusted in converging manner and has wider opening in the front in comparison at the rear end. The distance between blades can be adjusted according to size of bund required. The implement is mounted type and operated in tilled soil.