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SYSTEMS OF IC ENGINE:
Ignition System
Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi
Assistant Professor
College of Agriculture, Balaghat
Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
IGNITION SYSTEM
Fuel mixture of I. C engine must be ignited in the engine cylinder at proper time for useful
work.
Arrangement of different components for providing such ignition at proper time in the
engine cylinder is called ignition system.
There are four different systems of igniting fuel:
(i) Ignition by electric spark i.e., spark ignition,
(ii) Ignition by heat of compression i.e. compression ignition,
(iii) Ignition by hot tube or hot bulb and
(iv) Ignition by open flame.
Only the first two are important methods for modern engines.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Spark ignition: The purpose of spark ignition is to deliver a perfectly timed surge of
electricity across an open spark plug gap in each cylinder at the exact moment, so that the
charge may start burning with maximum efficiency. There are two methods in spark ignition:
(a) Battery ignition and (b) Magneto ignition.
Battery ignition
Principle: Battery ignition system includes two circuits: low voltage (primary circuit) and
high voltage (secondary circuit).
The low-voltage circuit consists of : (i) battery (ii) ignition switch (iii) a series register (IV)
primary winding and (v) contact breaker. All are connected in series.
The high voltage circuit consists of: (i) secondary winding (ii) distributor rotor (iii) high
voltage wiring and (iv) spark plugs. They are also connected in series.
Battery ignition system on a modern tractor includes a storage battery, ignition switch,
high tension coil, distributor, contact breaker mechanism, condenser, spark plugs, generator
and cutout.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Working
Electric current is supplied by the battery to the
ignition circuit.
When the distributor breaker points are closed, low
voltage current flows through the primary winding
of the ignition coil to the distributor terminal and
through the breaker points to the ground.
During this time, a strong magnetic field built up in
the coil.
When the piston is at the end of compression
stroke, the distributor points are opened, the
magnetic field in the coil starts collapsing.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Thus, a current is induced in the primary winding of
the coil, which tends to prevent break down of the
magnetic field.
A very high voltage is produced in the secondary
winding due to sudden collapse of the magnetic field.
This sudden collapse of the magnetic field in the
coil, produces a very high voltage across the
secondary winding terminals to a value of 20 to 24
thousand volts.
The high-voltage surge is delivered to the center
terminal of the distributor cap, where it is picked up
by the rotor and directed to the proper spark plug.
The high voltage is capable of jumping the spark
across the gap of the spark plug and ignites the
compressed air-fuel mixture.
IGNITION SYSTEM
This system of a number of components such as: (i) Spark
plug (ii) Distributor (iii) Ignition coil (iv) Condenser (v)
Ignition switch (vi) Dynamo and (vii) Storage battery.
Spark plug
Spark plug ignites the air –fuel mixture in combustion
chamber.
It is a device for the high voltage current to jump and
ignite the charge.
Each spark plug consists of a threaded outer shell with an
outside electrode, insulator and a copper gasket.
The width of the gap between the points of the two
electrodes of a spark plug should confirm to the
manufacturers.
IGNITION SYSTEM
If the clearance is too wide, it does not give satisfactory operation.
Usually the spark plug gap settings are kept between 0.5 and 0.85 mm.
The higher the compression pressure, the more difficult it is for the current to jump the
gap. In this case, the gap setting should be closer.
In adjusting the spark plug gap, it is always the outer electrode that is bent.
The central electrode is never bent, otherwise the porcelain insulator may break.
 Sometimes, one or more cylinders of a tractor engine do not fire, or fire irregularly. This
is generally due to dirty, cracked or ground plugs.
A rich mixture causes carbon deposits on the plugs. Under all circumstances, the plugs
should be taken out and cleaned properly.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Distributor
This is a rotary switch driven by the engine through gears at half the engine speed.
This device used for interrupting the low voltage primary current and distributing the
resulting high voltage current to the engine cylinder in proper sequence and in proper
time.
The main functions of distributor are:
(i) It closes and opens the primary circuit.
(ii) It distributes the resulting high voltage current to the engine cylinder in proper
sequence and in proper time.
Distributor cap is made of Bakelite or similar non-conducting material. High tension cables
connect the terminals in the distributor cap to the spark plug.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Ignition coil
It serves the purpose of a small transformer, which sets up low voltage (may be 6 volts) to
very high voltage (may be 20,000 volts).
It is necessary to jump the gap of the spark plug.
The ignition coil is sealed to prevent entry of moisture which would cause short circuiting
within the coil.
Ignition switch
A switch is provided in the primary circuit for starting and stopping the engine is called
ignition switch.
It may be push pull type or key type.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Condenser
A condenser consists of a pair of flat metal plates, separated by air.
The most common type of condenser is of metal foil strips, separated by wax impregnated
paper.
The condenser in the distributor is connected across the contact breaker points.
It is used to produce a quick collapse of the magnetic field in the coil to obtain extremely
high voltage.
In doing so, the condenser prevents sparking across the contact breaker points, thus
preventing the points from burning.
Dynamo
The purpose of the dynamo is to keep the battery charged and to supply current for
ignition, light and other electrical accessories.
The dynamo supplies direct current to the battery and keeps it fully charged.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Storage battery
Storage battery is a device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy.
There are several types of battery, but lead-acid battery is most common for IC engines,
used for tractors and automobiles.
A battery consists of plates, separators, electrolyte, container and terminal wire.
Plates are of two types: (i) positive and (ii) negative.
All positive and negative plates are rectangular in shape.
All positive plates are connected together to form a positive group and negative plates are
connected together to form a negative group. Positive plates are made of lead and
antimony and negative plates are made of spongy lead.
Separators are used to act as insulators between the plates to prevent them from touching
each other to avoid short-circuiting. Usually separators are made of wood, rubber and
cellulose fibre.
IGNITION SYSTEM
Electrolyte is the chemical solution used in battery for chemical reaction.
It consists of 35% sulphuric acid and 65% distilled water by weight with a specific
gravity of 1.280 in fully charged condition.
The specific gravity is measured by hydrometer.
The electrolyte level should be 12 to 14 mm above the top edge of the plates.
Specific gravity of the electrolyte should be checked at suitable interval.
If the specific gravity is below 1.225, it should be charged.
Container is usually made of hard rubber.
The tops are covered with rubber material and sealed with a water proof compound.
 Terminal wires are two in number, one connects the positive terminal and other connects
the negative terminal with the electric circuit.
Thank You

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SYSTEMS OF IC ENGINE-Ignition system.pptx

  • 1. SYSTEMS OF IC ENGINE: Ignition System Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi Assistant Professor College of Agriculture, Balaghat Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
  • 2. IGNITION SYSTEM Fuel mixture of I. C engine must be ignited in the engine cylinder at proper time for useful work. Arrangement of different components for providing such ignition at proper time in the engine cylinder is called ignition system. There are four different systems of igniting fuel: (i) Ignition by electric spark i.e., spark ignition, (ii) Ignition by heat of compression i.e. compression ignition, (iii) Ignition by hot tube or hot bulb and (iv) Ignition by open flame. Only the first two are important methods for modern engines.
  • 3. IGNITION SYSTEM Spark ignition: The purpose of spark ignition is to deliver a perfectly timed surge of electricity across an open spark plug gap in each cylinder at the exact moment, so that the charge may start burning with maximum efficiency. There are two methods in spark ignition: (a) Battery ignition and (b) Magneto ignition. Battery ignition Principle: Battery ignition system includes two circuits: low voltage (primary circuit) and high voltage (secondary circuit). The low-voltage circuit consists of : (i) battery (ii) ignition switch (iii) a series register (IV) primary winding and (v) contact breaker. All are connected in series. The high voltage circuit consists of: (i) secondary winding (ii) distributor rotor (iii) high voltage wiring and (iv) spark plugs. They are also connected in series. Battery ignition system on a modern tractor includes a storage battery, ignition switch, high tension coil, distributor, contact breaker mechanism, condenser, spark plugs, generator and cutout.
  • 4. IGNITION SYSTEM Working Electric current is supplied by the battery to the ignition circuit. When the distributor breaker points are closed, low voltage current flows through the primary winding of the ignition coil to the distributor terminal and through the breaker points to the ground. During this time, a strong magnetic field built up in the coil. When the piston is at the end of compression stroke, the distributor points are opened, the magnetic field in the coil starts collapsing.
  • 5. IGNITION SYSTEM Thus, a current is induced in the primary winding of the coil, which tends to prevent break down of the magnetic field. A very high voltage is produced in the secondary winding due to sudden collapse of the magnetic field. This sudden collapse of the magnetic field in the coil, produces a very high voltage across the secondary winding terminals to a value of 20 to 24 thousand volts. The high-voltage surge is delivered to the center terminal of the distributor cap, where it is picked up by the rotor and directed to the proper spark plug. The high voltage is capable of jumping the spark across the gap of the spark plug and ignites the compressed air-fuel mixture.
  • 6. IGNITION SYSTEM This system of a number of components such as: (i) Spark plug (ii) Distributor (iii) Ignition coil (iv) Condenser (v) Ignition switch (vi) Dynamo and (vii) Storage battery. Spark plug Spark plug ignites the air –fuel mixture in combustion chamber. It is a device for the high voltage current to jump and ignite the charge. Each spark plug consists of a threaded outer shell with an outside electrode, insulator and a copper gasket. The width of the gap between the points of the two electrodes of a spark plug should confirm to the manufacturers.
  • 7. IGNITION SYSTEM If the clearance is too wide, it does not give satisfactory operation. Usually the spark plug gap settings are kept between 0.5 and 0.85 mm. The higher the compression pressure, the more difficult it is for the current to jump the gap. In this case, the gap setting should be closer. In adjusting the spark plug gap, it is always the outer electrode that is bent. The central electrode is never bent, otherwise the porcelain insulator may break.  Sometimes, one or more cylinders of a tractor engine do not fire, or fire irregularly. This is generally due to dirty, cracked or ground plugs. A rich mixture causes carbon deposits on the plugs. Under all circumstances, the plugs should be taken out and cleaned properly.
  • 8. IGNITION SYSTEM Distributor This is a rotary switch driven by the engine through gears at half the engine speed. This device used for interrupting the low voltage primary current and distributing the resulting high voltage current to the engine cylinder in proper sequence and in proper time. The main functions of distributor are: (i) It closes and opens the primary circuit. (ii) It distributes the resulting high voltage current to the engine cylinder in proper sequence and in proper time. Distributor cap is made of Bakelite or similar non-conducting material. High tension cables connect the terminals in the distributor cap to the spark plug.
  • 9. IGNITION SYSTEM Ignition coil It serves the purpose of a small transformer, which sets up low voltage (may be 6 volts) to very high voltage (may be 20,000 volts). It is necessary to jump the gap of the spark plug. The ignition coil is sealed to prevent entry of moisture which would cause short circuiting within the coil. Ignition switch A switch is provided in the primary circuit for starting and stopping the engine is called ignition switch. It may be push pull type or key type.
  • 10. IGNITION SYSTEM Condenser A condenser consists of a pair of flat metal plates, separated by air. The most common type of condenser is of metal foil strips, separated by wax impregnated paper. The condenser in the distributor is connected across the contact breaker points. It is used to produce a quick collapse of the magnetic field in the coil to obtain extremely high voltage. In doing so, the condenser prevents sparking across the contact breaker points, thus preventing the points from burning. Dynamo The purpose of the dynamo is to keep the battery charged and to supply current for ignition, light and other electrical accessories. The dynamo supplies direct current to the battery and keeps it fully charged.
  • 11. IGNITION SYSTEM Storage battery Storage battery is a device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy. There are several types of battery, but lead-acid battery is most common for IC engines, used for tractors and automobiles. A battery consists of plates, separators, electrolyte, container and terminal wire. Plates are of two types: (i) positive and (ii) negative. All positive and negative plates are rectangular in shape. All positive plates are connected together to form a positive group and negative plates are connected together to form a negative group. Positive plates are made of lead and antimony and negative plates are made of spongy lead. Separators are used to act as insulators between the plates to prevent them from touching each other to avoid short-circuiting. Usually separators are made of wood, rubber and cellulose fibre.
  • 12. IGNITION SYSTEM Electrolyte is the chemical solution used in battery for chemical reaction. It consists of 35% sulphuric acid and 65% distilled water by weight with a specific gravity of 1.280 in fully charged condition. The specific gravity is measured by hydrometer. The electrolyte level should be 12 to 14 mm above the top edge of the plates. Specific gravity of the electrolyte should be checked at suitable interval. If the specific gravity is below 1.225, it should be charged. Container is usually made of hard rubber. The tops are covered with rubber material and sealed with a water proof compound.  Terminal wires are two in number, one connects the positive terminal and other connects the negative terminal with the electric circuit.