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SYSTEMS OF IC ENGINE:
Power Transmission System
Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi
Assistant Professor
College of Agriculture, Balaghat
Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Power transmission system
Transmission is a speed reducing mechanism, equipped with several gears.
It may be called a sequence of gears and shafts, through which the engine power is
transmitted to the tractor wheels.
The system consists of various devices that cause forward and backward movement
of tractor to suit different field condition.
The complete path of power
from the engine to the wheels is
called power train.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Function of power transmission system
(i) To transmit power from the engine to the rear wheels of the tractor.
(ii) To make reduced speed available, to rear wheels of the tractor.
(iii) To alter the ratio of wheel speed and engine speed in order to suit the field conditions.
(iv) To transmit power through right angle drive, because the crankshaft and rear axle are
normally at right angles to each other.
The power transmission system consists of:
(a) Clutch, (b) Transmission gears (c) Differential, (d) Final drive, (e) Rear axle, (f) Rear
wheels.
Combination of all these components is responsible for transmission of power.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Clutch
Clutch is a device, used to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the
transmission gears and drive wheels. Clutch transmits power by means of friction
between driving members and driven members.
Necessity of clutch in a tractor
Clutch in a tractor is essential for the following reasons:
(i) Engine needs cranking by any suitable device. For easy cranking, the engine is
disconnected from the rest of the transmission unit by a suitable clutch. After starting the
engine, the clutch is engaged to transmit power from the engine to the gear box.
(ii) In order to change the gears, the gear box must be kept free from the engine power,
otherwise the gear teeth will be damaged and engagement of gear will not be perfect. This
work is done by a clutch.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
(iii) When the belt pulley of the tractor works in the field it needs to be stopped without
stopping the engine. This is done by a clutch.
Essential features of a good clutch
(i) It should have good ability of taking load without dragging and chattering.
(ii) It should have higher capacity to transmit maximum power without slipping.
(iii) Friction surface should be highly resistant to heat effect.
(iv) The control by hand lever or pedal lever should be easy.
Types of clutch: Clutches are mainly of three types-
(1) Friction clutch
(2) Dog clutch
(3) Fluid coupling.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
(1) Friction Clutch: A clutch in which one
part turns the other by the friction between
them. Friction clutch produces gripping action,
by utilizing the frictional force between two
surfaces. These surfaces are pressed together
to transmit power.
While starting the engine, the clutch pedal is
depressed. After the start of the engine, the
clutch pedal is slowly released to increase the
pressure gradually on frictional surface until
there is no slip. Thus the driven plate is
gripped firmly to the driving plate.
Transmission of power depends upon the kind
of material used for the friction members and
intensity of the force, pressing them together.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
(2) Dog Clutch: It is a simple clutch having
square jaws, which are used to drive a shaft in
either direction. It is mostly used in power
tillers.
A dog clutch is a type of clutch that couples
two rotating shafts or other rotating
components not by friction but by interference.
The two parts of the clutch are designed such
that one will push the other, causing both to
rotate at the same speed and will never slip.
 Dog clutches are used where slip is
undesirable and/or the clutch is not used to
control torque.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
(3) Flood Coupling: Fluid coupling consists
of a driving member and a driven member - an
impeller with radical vanes, housed in a
suitable casing. A coupler is mounted on the
engine crankshaft and is 3/4th filled with
suitable oil.
A spring loaded sealing ring is provided to
make the driven shaft oil tight.
At the rotation of the crankshaft, the oil is
thrown out by centrifugal force from the center
to the outer edge of the impeller, increasing the
velocity and the energy of the oil. It then
enters the runner at the outer portion and flows
towards the center, causing rotation to the
runner unit.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Friction clutch is most popular in four wheel tractors.
Fluid clutch is also used in some tractors these days.
Dog clutch is mostly used in power tillers.
Friction clutch may be subdivided into three classes:
(a) Single plate clutch or single disc clutch (b) Multiple
plate clutch or multiple disc clutch (c) Cone clutch.
(A)
(B)
(C)
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Gears:
Speed varies according to the field requirements and so a number of gear ratios are
provided to suit the varying conditions.
Gears are usually made of alloy steels. As the tractor has to transmit heavy torque all the
time, best quality lubricants free from sediments, grit, alkali and moisture, is used for
lubrication purpose.
SAE 90 oil is generally
recommended for gear box.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Differential
Differential unit is a special
arrangement of gears to permit one of
the rear wheels of the tractor to rotate
slower or faster than other.
While turning the tractor on a curve
path, the inner wheel has to travel
lesser distance than the outer wheel.
The inner wheel requires lesser power
than the outer wheel, this condition is
fulfilled by differential unit, which
permits one of the rear wheels of the
tractor to move faster than the other at
the turning point.
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Differential lock:
Differential lock is a device to join
both half axles of the tractor so that
even if one wheel is under less
resistance, the tractor comes out
from the mud etc. as both wheels
move with the same speed and
apply equal traction.
Final drive:
Final drive is a rear reduction unit
in the power trains between the
differential and drive wheels.
Differential lock
Thank You

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SYSTEMS OF IC ENGINE- Power transmission system.pptx

  • 1. SYSTEMS OF IC ENGINE: Power Transmission System Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi Assistant Professor College of Agriculture, Balaghat Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
  • 2. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Power transmission system Transmission is a speed reducing mechanism, equipped with several gears. It may be called a sequence of gears and shafts, through which the engine power is transmitted to the tractor wheels. The system consists of various devices that cause forward and backward movement of tractor to suit different field condition. The complete path of power from the engine to the wheels is called power train.
  • 3. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Function of power transmission system (i) To transmit power from the engine to the rear wheels of the tractor. (ii) To make reduced speed available, to rear wheels of the tractor. (iii) To alter the ratio of wheel speed and engine speed in order to suit the field conditions. (iv) To transmit power through right angle drive, because the crankshaft and rear axle are normally at right angles to each other. The power transmission system consists of: (a) Clutch, (b) Transmission gears (c) Differential, (d) Final drive, (e) Rear axle, (f) Rear wheels. Combination of all these components is responsible for transmission of power.
  • 4. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Clutch Clutch is a device, used to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the transmission gears and drive wheels. Clutch transmits power by means of friction between driving members and driven members. Necessity of clutch in a tractor Clutch in a tractor is essential for the following reasons: (i) Engine needs cranking by any suitable device. For easy cranking, the engine is disconnected from the rest of the transmission unit by a suitable clutch. After starting the engine, the clutch is engaged to transmit power from the engine to the gear box. (ii) In order to change the gears, the gear box must be kept free from the engine power, otherwise the gear teeth will be damaged and engagement of gear will not be perfect. This work is done by a clutch.
  • 5. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (iii) When the belt pulley of the tractor works in the field it needs to be stopped without stopping the engine. This is done by a clutch. Essential features of a good clutch (i) It should have good ability of taking load without dragging and chattering. (ii) It should have higher capacity to transmit maximum power without slipping. (iii) Friction surface should be highly resistant to heat effect. (iv) The control by hand lever or pedal lever should be easy. Types of clutch: Clutches are mainly of three types- (1) Friction clutch (2) Dog clutch (3) Fluid coupling.
  • 6. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (1) Friction Clutch: A clutch in which one part turns the other by the friction between them. Friction clutch produces gripping action, by utilizing the frictional force between two surfaces. These surfaces are pressed together to transmit power. While starting the engine, the clutch pedal is depressed. After the start of the engine, the clutch pedal is slowly released to increase the pressure gradually on frictional surface until there is no slip. Thus the driven plate is gripped firmly to the driving plate. Transmission of power depends upon the kind of material used for the friction members and intensity of the force, pressing them together.
  • 7. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (2) Dog Clutch: It is a simple clutch having square jaws, which are used to drive a shaft in either direction. It is mostly used in power tillers. A dog clutch is a type of clutch that couples two rotating shafts or other rotating components not by friction but by interference. The two parts of the clutch are designed such that one will push the other, causing both to rotate at the same speed and will never slip.  Dog clutches are used where slip is undesirable and/or the clutch is not used to control torque.
  • 8. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (3) Flood Coupling: Fluid coupling consists of a driving member and a driven member - an impeller with radical vanes, housed in a suitable casing. A coupler is mounted on the engine crankshaft and is 3/4th filled with suitable oil. A spring loaded sealing ring is provided to make the driven shaft oil tight. At the rotation of the crankshaft, the oil is thrown out by centrifugal force from the center to the outer edge of the impeller, increasing the velocity and the energy of the oil. It then enters the runner at the outer portion and flows towards the center, causing rotation to the runner unit.
  • 9. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Friction clutch is most popular in four wheel tractors. Fluid clutch is also used in some tractors these days. Dog clutch is mostly used in power tillers. Friction clutch may be subdivided into three classes: (a) Single plate clutch or single disc clutch (b) Multiple plate clutch or multiple disc clutch (c) Cone clutch. (A) (B) (C)
  • 10. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Gears: Speed varies according to the field requirements and so a number of gear ratios are provided to suit the varying conditions. Gears are usually made of alloy steels. As the tractor has to transmit heavy torque all the time, best quality lubricants free from sediments, grit, alkali and moisture, is used for lubrication purpose. SAE 90 oil is generally recommended for gear box.
  • 11. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Differential Differential unit is a special arrangement of gears to permit one of the rear wheels of the tractor to rotate slower or faster than other. While turning the tractor on a curve path, the inner wheel has to travel lesser distance than the outer wheel. The inner wheel requires lesser power than the outer wheel, this condition is fulfilled by differential unit, which permits one of the rear wheels of the tractor to move faster than the other at the turning point.
  • 12. POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Differential lock: Differential lock is a device to join both half axles of the tractor so that even if one wheel is under less resistance, the tractor comes out from the mud etc. as both wheels move with the same speed and apply equal traction. Final drive: Final drive is a rear reduction unit in the power trains between the differential and drive wheels. Differential lock