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Kautilya presentation lbsaa

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Kautilya's recommendations for foreign policy and military strategy are relevant in modern times too.

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Kautilya presentation lbsaa

  1. 1. HYPOTHESIS Kautilya‟s thoughts onstatecraft and management of waras enunciated in his bookArthasastra are relevant in presenttimes and his thoughts onstatecraft can be utilized to makerecommendations for India‟sForeign Policy.
  2. 2. “War is only a continuance of thestate policy by other means. Butwar must always serve the largerends of policy and not become anend in itself. The statesman‟sobjective must always be thebetterment of the state as a resultof war and not the defeat anddestruction of the enemy.” KAUTILYA
  3. 3. DHARM YUDDHA – ETHICAL OR JUST WAR Aim of the battle was to defeat/ destroy en forces. An honest and chivalrous en was to be fought by honourable methods whereas a cunning/ deceitful en was to be dealt in a similar manner. If attacked by a powerful en, withdraw to a fort. Campaigning season recommended to be from october to march unless victory was certain or en in deep trouble in any other season.
  4. 4.  If the en was stronger than you thenavoid war altogether. In case the en has an upper edgeoffer peace and appease him with gifts,but preserve the will to kill him at theopportune time. If en is equal in str then the result of waris likely to be indecisive therefore seek truce. However old or virtuous the en isnever trust or spare him, opportunitywasted once never returns.
  5. 5.  If the cause of war was just then adopt thephilosophy “Ends justify means”. Truth may be sacrificed to gain an advantagein war. Bluffing (Deception) is as virtuous astruthfulness. In order to defeat en forces their cdrs shouldfirst be eliminated. For formulation of strat and op plans, maxreliance placed on gaining int. Physical fitness, mental robustnessessentials of a Yoddha.
  6. 6. THEME OF ARTHASHASTRAIn the happiness of his subjects lies the king’shappiness; in their welfare his welfare. He shallnot consider as good only that which pleaseshim but treat as beneficial to him whateverpleases his subjects. {1.19.34}
  7. 7. ARTHASHASTRA : THE TREATISE Book 1 : Concerning Discipline : King‟s duties asa ruler, maintaining discipline and creation oforganisation for governance. Book 2 : Duties of Government Officials. Book 3 : Concerning Law. Book 4 : Removal of Thorns : Punishment foroffences, protection and remedy against calamities. Book 5 : Conduct of Courtiers. Book 6 :The Source of Sovereign State :Elements of sovereignty. Book 7 : The End of Six-fold Policy : State craftand diplomacy - Circle of States
  8. 8. ARTHASHASTRA : THE TREATISE Book 8 : Concerning Vices and Calamities Book 9 : Work of an Invader. Book 10 : Relating to War : Various aspects of war. Book 11 : Conduct of Corporation : Causes of dissension and secret punishment. Book 12 : Concerning Powerful Enemies : Intrigue and unorthodox methods of waging war. Book 13 : Strategic Means to Capture Fortress. Book 14 : Secret Means : Biological & Chemical warfare.
  9. 9. STATE CRAFT
  10. 10. CONSTITUENTS OF A STATE• THE KING.• THE MINISTERS.• THE COUNTRY-SIDE.• TREASURY.• FORTIFIED CITIES.• THE ARMY.
  11. 11. CIRCLE OF STATES Kautilya is credited with the theory thatimmediate neighbour is intrinsically hostileand neighbour‟s neighbour is an ally. In Arthasastra Kautilya gives details of amultipolar system that goes far beyond thissimple statement. Kings have been classified into twelvetypes. State has not been conceived as amonolithic identity but as having sixconstituents.
  12. 12. MULTIPOLAR SYSTEM & CIRCLE OF STATES Friend‟s Friend Enemy‟s Friend Friend Enemy B Middle A King NeutralConqueror KingRear Enemy Rear Friend Rear Enemy‟s Friend
  13. 13. MULTIPOLAR SYSTEM & CIRCLE OF STATES Friend‟s Friend Enemy‟s Friend Friend ? ? Enemy BA Middle A King NeutralConqueror KingRear Enemy Rear Friend Rear Enemy‟s Friend
  14. 14. FACTORS AFFECTING POLICY FORMULATION INNER CIRCLE THREE KINGS KING OUTER CIRCLE FORTS MINISTERSSIX CONSTITUENTS EN ALLY EACH INTERPLAY OF 3 X KINGS AND 18 X CONSTITUENTS Please click to proceed
  15. 15. POLICY FORMULATION KING KINGFORTS MINISTERS FORTS MINISTERS EN ALLY EN ALLY KING KING FORTS FORTS MINISTERS MINISTERS EN ALLY EN ALLY INTERPLAY OF 4X KINGS AND 72 X COSNTITUENTS Please click to proceed
  16. 16. POWER OF A STATE Kautilyan Constituents of Power. • Intellectual Strength. • Strength of Sovereignty - possession of a prosperous treasury and strong army. • Physical Strength - the martial power. Ray Cline‟s Formula. PP = (C + E + M) X (S + W) where, PP - Perceived power. C - Critical mass : population and territory E - Economic capability. M - Military capability. S - Strategic purpose. W - Will.
  17. 17. SIX METHODS OF FOREIGN POLICY• Samdhi – MAKING PEACE:ENTERING INTO AN AGREEMENT WITH SPECIFIC CONDITIONS. - ENABLES THE KING TO PROMOTE THE WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIS STATE WITHOUT INTERVENING IN ANY CONFLICT (ACT AS A NEUTRAL KING). - USE IT TO STRENGTHEN AN ALLIANCE. - AWAIT FAVOURABLE OPPORTUNITY FOR PURSUING HIS OWN INTEREST. - USE IT AS ONE ARM OF DUAL POLICY; MAKE PEACE WITH ONE TO ATTACK THE OTHER WITH HIS HELP. Technique of concluding ,observing,violating,and renegotiating treaties is an integral part of peace - Kautilya
  18. 18. SIX METHODS OF FOREIGN POLICY• Vigraha – HOSTILITIES, IS ANOTHER INSTRUMENT OF FOREIGN POLICY.- DIPLOMATIC OFFENSIVE. Mantra Yuddha - INCLUDES MOBILISATIONAND MARCHING TOWARDS A BATTLE FIELD- OPEN WAR. Prakasayuddha - NORMAL BATTLE.- SECRET WAR. Kutayuddha - TAKING EN BY SURPRISE.- UNDECLARED WAR.Gudayuddha - CLANDESTINE ATTACKS USINGSECRET AGENTS AND OCCULT PRACTICES.War in context of foreign policy thus includes everything from undertaking a diplomatic offensive to fighting actual battle – Kautilya.
  19. 19. SIX METHODS OF FOREIGN POLICY• Asna – STAYING QUIET.• Yana - PREPARING FOR WAR.
  20. 20. SIX METHODS OF FOREIGN POLICY• Samsaraya – SEEKING PROTECTION, WHEN THREATENED BY A STRONGER KING OR TAKING REFUGE IN A FORT.Dvaidhibhava - MAKING PEACE WITH ONE IN ORDER TO PURSUE, WITH HIS HELP , POLICY OF HOSTILITY TOWARDS ANOTHER.
  21. 21. KAUTILYA & THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT Debacle with China – 1962. Pakistan foreign policy has demonstratedshrewd application of Kautilyan advice. • Secret War. • Diplomacy. - Middle King – China. - Neutral King - USA.
  22. 22. MILITARYSTRATEGY
  23. 23. HIGHER DEFENCE ORGANISATION The Head of the State (King) Strategic War Council King Policy NSC PM Group & Senapati Security C-in-C CDS Yuvraj Advisory Group Committees Six BoardsInfantry Chariots Elephants DRDO Army Air Force DIA Cavalry Navy
  24. 24. USE OF CIRCLE OF STATES Conqueror Enemy Friend Attacker
  25. 25. TURKEY LAUNCH PAD 4 INF DIV (MECH) Kurdish rebels IRAN SYRIA US - 1 MEF UK 7 ARMD BDE 16 AIR ASLT BDE 101 AND 82 AB DIVS IRAQ EARMARKED FOR 3 CDO BDE CAPTURE OF AIR Hs AND SPEED UP OPSJORDAN US V CORPS KUWAIT SAUDI ARABIA 3 INF DIV (MECH)
  26. 26. KAUTILYAN FOREIGN POLICY & INDIA
  27. 27. FOREIGN POLICY Guiding Principles Circle of States formed basis of all policy formulation. A King shall develop the state and peace is preferred to war. Among the states surrounding a kingdom, there is always one who is the natural enemy. The other states may be hostile, friendly or vassal. The enemy shall be eliminated. Many aspects of foreign policy are analysed in terms of out-manoeuvring the enemy.
  28. 28. RECOMMENDATIONS Pakistan. • Soulless enemy – always be wary. • Resolve contentious issues – end „Proxy War‟. China – Middle King. • Improve relations. • Maintain deterrence. Form strong alliances on flanks of the enemy – Afghanistan & Iran. USA – Neutral King – Improve relations. Russia - natural ally. Israel – enemy of Pakistan therefore an ally. Deal with countries as per relevance to circle of states.
  29. 29. FOREIGN POLICY – THE MANDALA THEORY FRIEND FRIEND FRIEND FRIEND FRIEND FOE FOE FRIEND LAKSHADWEEP ANDMAN & & NICOBAR ISL9 DEGREE MINICOY ISL • MALACCA EQUATOR
  30. 30. CIRCLE OF STATES FAVOURABLE TO PAKISTAN NUETRAL KINGS RUSSIA USA AFGHANISTAN CHINA NEPAL PAKISTAN MYANMAR INDIA IRAN BANGLADESH GULF STATES SRI LANKA
  31. 31. CIRCLE OF STATES FAVOURABLE TO INDIA NUETRAL KINGS RUSSIA CAR STATES USA AFGHANISTAN CHINA NEPAL PAKISTAN MYANMAR INDIAASEAN STATES IRAN BANGLADESH SRI LANKAGULF STATES
  32. 32. THANK YOU

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