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OBJECT ORIENTED
DATABASE
NAME- AJAYKANT JHA
EXAM NO- 2845
TY BCA SEM 6TH
SDJ INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE
1
OUTLINE
 Types of database
 Object oriented database
 Objects
 Comparison of oodbs and rdbs
 Conclusion
 References
2
TYPES OF DATABASE
 Hierarchical
 Network

 Relational
 Object Oriented
3
DIFFERENCES
 The first database systems (early ‘60s and before) used
a hierarchical arrangement where, for example, parts
were stored as sub-elements of the supplier that
supplied them.
 This approach had several disadvantages, including the
introduction of an unnecessary degree of asymmetry.
4
DIFFERENCES
 To overcome the asymmetry problem, network
databases (mid ‘60s) came into being.
 These were mainly pointer-based structures. Querying
and traversal was a low-level procedural affair.
5
DIFFERENCES
 Relational systems were born in 1969 and were soon
recognised as a drastic simplification over the previous
models.
 Everyone agreed that relational was a good thing.
 However it took a good decade before the commercial
systems could catch up with the theory.
6
DIFFERENCES
 The late ‘80s saw the emergence of object oriented
database systems as a response to the requirements of
applications like CAD which dealt with many complex,
nested objects.
 The field is still evolving very rapidly and, although
everyone agrees that some degree of objectness is
useful, there is no unanimous consensus on what
exactly an OODBMS should be.
7
RELATIONAL MODEL OF A
‘CAT’
RELATIONAL MODEL OF A
‘CAT’
8
OO MODEL OF A ‘CAT’
Applications
9
OBJECT ORIENTED
DATABASE
 Object-Oriented DBMS(OODBMS) are DBMS based
on an ObjectOriented Data Model inspired by OO
programming languages
 OODBMS are capable of storing complex objects,
I.e., objects that are composed of other objects,
and/or multi-valued attributes
10
OBJECT ORIENTED
FEATURES
 User-defined data types
 Nested objects
 Containers: sets, lists, bags...
 Methods (precursor: stored procs)
 Preserve strong typing across interface
11
KEY BENEFITS OF ODBMS
 Sharing in highly distributed environment
 Easier to share and distribute objects than tables
12
KEY BENEFITS OF ODBMS
 Better memory usage and less paging 1.
 Bringing only objects of interest Object-oriented
databases can reduce the need for paging b
13
STRENGTHS
 Rich type system
 Better at modelling complex objects
 Better performance on certain data structures
 No impedance mismatch
14
OBJECTS
 Objects are used in object oriented languages such as C++,
Java, and others.
 Objects basically consist of the following:
 Attributes - Attributes are data which defines the
characteristics of an object. This data may be simple such as
integers, strings, and real numbers or it may be a reference
to a complex object.
15
OBJECTS
 Methods - Methods define the behavior of an object and
are what was formally called procedures or functions.
 Therefore objects contain both executable code and
data.
 There are other characteristics of objects such as
whether methods or data can be accessed from outside
the object.
16
WHEN TO USE OBJECT
DATABASES
 Object databases should be used when there is complex
data and/or complex data relationships.
 This includes many to many object relationship.
 Object databases should not be used when there would
be few join tables and there are large volumes of simple
transactional data.
17
WHY OBJECT-ORIENTED
DATABASES?
 Because object-oriented databases are good at handling BLOBs,
and the new world of information is all about BLOBs.
 BLOB - Binary Large Object. Like:
• Images
• Video
• Audio
• Animations
• Mixed Media
18
DIFFERENT FROM RDBS
 An OOD and its database management system (DBMS) is
aware of how to
 Access or extract internal components of an object. For
example, one or two frames of a video.
 Execute operations or functions against objects without
exporting them to the client.
19
DIFFERENT FROM RDBS
 Extract enough about the object to develop an "intelligent"
search plan to optimize performance.
 For example: The user wants multiple frames of a video, plus
info on actors, royalties and rights.
 The OODBMS gauges the speed of retrieval for each item and
optimizes a retrieval plan using SERVER resources, freeing the
client to continue work.
20
HOW DATA IS STORED
 Two basic methods are used to store objects by different
database vendors
 Each object has a unique ID and is defined as a subclass of a
base class, using inheritance to determine attributes.
 Virtual memory mapping is used for object storage and
management.
21
COMPARISON
Criteria RDBMS ODBMS
Support for object oriented
programming
Poor Direct and extensive
Simplicity of use Table structures easy to
understand
OK for programmers; some
SQL access for end users
Extensibility and content None users can write methods and
on any structure
Complex data relationships Difficult to model Can handle arbitrary
complexity
22
ADVANTAGES OVER RDBMS
Reduced paging
Better concurrency control - A hierarchy of objects may be locked
 Data model is based on the real world.
Less code required when applications are object oriented.
23
DISADVANTAGES COMPARED TO
RDBMS
 Lower efficiency when data is simple and relationships are simple.
 Relational tables are simpler.
 Standards for RDBMS are more stable.
 Support for RDBMS is more certain and change is less likely to be
required.
24
CONCLUSION
 Object Oriented Database deals with the complex data
or we can say object which are not accessed by any of
the database.
 Blobs like Videos, Animation and Image.
25
REFERENCES
 www.cs.sfu.ca/CourseCentral/354/zaiane/material/note
s/Chapter9/node13.html
 people.cs.pitt.edu/~chang/156/19oodb.html
 www.axswave.com/weblibry/relobjdb.htm
26
THANK U
27

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Object Oriented Database Management System

  • 1. OBJECT ORIENTED DATABASE NAME- AJAYKANT JHA EXAM NO- 2845 TY BCA SEM 6TH SDJ INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE 1
  • 2. OUTLINE  Types of database  Object oriented database  Objects  Comparison of oodbs and rdbs  Conclusion  References 2
  • 3. TYPES OF DATABASE  Hierarchical  Network   Relational  Object Oriented 3
  • 4. DIFFERENCES  The first database systems (early ‘60s and before) used a hierarchical arrangement where, for example, parts were stored as sub-elements of the supplier that supplied them.  This approach had several disadvantages, including the introduction of an unnecessary degree of asymmetry. 4
  • 5. DIFFERENCES  To overcome the asymmetry problem, network databases (mid ‘60s) came into being.  These were mainly pointer-based structures. Querying and traversal was a low-level procedural affair. 5
  • 6. DIFFERENCES  Relational systems were born in 1969 and were soon recognised as a drastic simplification over the previous models.  Everyone agreed that relational was a good thing.  However it took a good decade before the commercial systems could catch up with the theory. 6
  • 7. DIFFERENCES  The late ‘80s saw the emergence of object oriented database systems as a response to the requirements of applications like CAD which dealt with many complex, nested objects.  The field is still evolving very rapidly and, although everyone agrees that some degree of objectness is useful, there is no unanimous consensus on what exactly an OODBMS should be. 7
  • 8. RELATIONAL MODEL OF A ‘CAT’ RELATIONAL MODEL OF A ‘CAT’ 8
  • 9. OO MODEL OF A ‘CAT’ Applications 9
  • 10. OBJECT ORIENTED DATABASE  Object-Oriented DBMS(OODBMS) are DBMS based on an ObjectOriented Data Model inspired by OO programming languages  OODBMS are capable of storing complex objects, I.e., objects that are composed of other objects, and/or multi-valued attributes 10
  • 11. OBJECT ORIENTED FEATURES  User-defined data types  Nested objects  Containers: sets, lists, bags...  Methods (precursor: stored procs)  Preserve strong typing across interface 11
  • 12. KEY BENEFITS OF ODBMS  Sharing in highly distributed environment  Easier to share and distribute objects than tables 12
  • 13. KEY BENEFITS OF ODBMS  Better memory usage and less paging 1.  Bringing only objects of interest Object-oriented databases can reduce the need for paging b 13
  • 14. STRENGTHS  Rich type system  Better at modelling complex objects  Better performance on certain data structures  No impedance mismatch 14
  • 15. OBJECTS  Objects are used in object oriented languages such as C++, Java, and others.  Objects basically consist of the following:  Attributes - Attributes are data which defines the characteristics of an object. This data may be simple such as integers, strings, and real numbers or it may be a reference to a complex object. 15
  • 16. OBJECTS  Methods - Methods define the behavior of an object and are what was formally called procedures or functions.  Therefore objects contain both executable code and data.  There are other characteristics of objects such as whether methods or data can be accessed from outside the object. 16
  • 17. WHEN TO USE OBJECT DATABASES  Object databases should be used when there is complex data and/or complex data relationships.  This includes many to many object relationship.  Object databases should not be used when there would be few join tables and there are large volumes of simple transactional data. 17
  • 18. WHY OBJECT-ORIENTED DATABASES?  Because object-oriented databases are good at handling BLOBs, and the new world of information is all about BLOBs.  BLOB - Binary Large Object. Like: • Images • Video • Audio • Animations • Mixed Media 18
  • 19. DIFFERENT FROM RDBS  An OOD and its database management system (DBMS) is aware of how to  Access or extract internal components of an object. For example, one or two frames of a video.  Execute operations or functions against objects without exporting them to the client. 19
  • 20. DIFFERENT FROM RDBS  Extract enough about the object to develop an "intelligent" search plan to optimize performance.  For example: The user wants multiple frames of a video, plus info on actors, royalties and rights.  The OODBMS gauges the speed of retrieval for each item and optimizes a retrieval plan using SERVER resources, freeing the client to continue work. 20
  • 21. HOW DATA IS STORED  Two basic methods are used to store objects by different database vendors  Each object has a unique ID and is defined as a subclass of a base class, using inheritance to determine attributes.  Virtual memory mapping is used for object storage and management. 21
  • 22. COMPARISON Criteria RDBMS ODBMS Support for object oriented programming Poor Direct and extensive Simplicity of use Table structures easy to understand OK for programmers; some SQL access for end users Extensibility and content None users can write methods and on any structure Complex data relationships Difficult to model Can handle arbitrary complexity 22
  • 23. ADVANTAGES OVER RDBMS Reduced paging Better concurrency control - A hierarchy of objects may be locked  Data model is based on the real world. Less code required when applications are object oriented. 23
  • 24. DISADVANTAGES COMPARED TO RDBMS  Lower efficiency when data is simple and relationships are simple.  Relational tables are simpler.  Standards for RDBMS are more stable.  Support for RDBMS is more certain and change is less likely to be required. 24
  • 25. CONCLUSION  Object Oriented Database deals with the complex data or we can say object which are not accessed by any of the database.  Blobs like Videos, Animation and Image. 25