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Language differences


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Language differences

  2. 2. LANGUAGE DIFFERENCE IN KARACHI LANGUAGE: is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Any estimate of the precise number of languages in the world depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects. However, estimates vary between 6,000 and 7,000 languages in number. Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli, for example, in graphic writing, Braille, or whistling. This is because human language is modality-independent. When used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs with particular meanings. Oral and sign languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.
  3. 3. Human language is unique because it has the properties of productivity, recursivity, and displacement, and because it relies entirely on social convention and learning. Its complex structure therefore affords a much wider range of possible expressions and uses than any known system of animal communication. Language is thought to have originated when early hominins started gradually changing their primate communication systems, acquiring the ability to form a theory of other minds and a shared intentionality. LANGUAGE DIFFERENCE: The purpose of this study is to examine the difference in language difference and disorder. Language can be defined as the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a community. One is surrounded by language even prior to birth. Language is universal, and is vital to communication. Language can define ones personal style, and also a variation of one's culture. There are numerous languages, and within each language there are numerous dialects as well. A language disorder is a significant discrepancy in language skills compared to the normative standards for a client’s age or developmental level. “A language difference is a
  4. 4. rule governed language style that deviates in some way from the standard usage of the main stream culture”. A dialect refers to a variation in language that is characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. According to Washington and “misclassification based upon in appropriate interpretation of cultural interaction and communication styles may contribute to difficulty with detection of true language problems” The misdiagnosis of these language differences can have lasting effects. Language differences greatly increase communication problems, even if the speakers have some knowledge of the others' language. Language is so much more than words; It is also a way of thinking and seeing and defining the world. As a result, accurate translation, especially of abstract ideas, is very difficult. When this problem is added to all the other problems with communication during conflicts, situations can get very difficult to manage, and the chances for misunderstanding are extremely high. There are many problems which are faced because of this language difference system,other than communication and culture problems there is a problem of businesstrading sytem. If there is no understanding between the people of different languages so definitely business will become more difficult and communication gap will increased. URDU: Urdu, the national language of Pakistan, was created around the 1600’s in Central Asia. The word ‘Urdu’ comes from the Turkish word ‘ordu’ meaning ‘camp’ or ‘army’. It was used as a unifying communication tool between the Muslim soldiers during their
  5. 5. conquest of Ancient India (including Countries east until Myanmar) and Eastern Persia. These soldiers were of Persian, Arab, or Turkish descent. The majority of the soldiers, however, were of Persian origin. This directly affected the language to be used between them. The language of the government and that which dominated earlier on was Farsi, but eventually changed to Urdu to accommodate the other races. Despite the fact, Urdu vocabulary contains approximately 70% Farsi and the rest being a mix of Arabic and Turkish. The grammar takes some elements from Farsi and Arabic but also has elements that are unique and different from all three of its mother tongues. In current times, however, many Urdu speakers have adopted many English and Hindi terms following the effects of globalization and the success of Bollywood, the Indian film industry, in Pakistan. Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan itself. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has lately incorporated and borrowed many words from Pakistani languages like Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi and Balti as well as former East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) Bengali language, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani flavour. Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region since recent times. Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can easily understand one another if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. The syntax (grammar), morphology, and the core vocabulary are essentially identical. Thus linguists usually count them as one single language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons. In Pakistan Urdu is mostly learned as a second or a third language as nearly 93% of Pakistan's population has a mother
  6. 6. tongue other than Urdu. Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other. Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Sialkot, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Jhang, Sargodha and Skardu. It is written, spoken and used in all provinces/territories of Pakistan despite the fact that the people from differing provinces may have different indigenous languages, as from the fact that it is the "base language" of the country. For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose mother tongue is one of the State languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Potwari, Hindko, Pahari, Saraiki, Balti, and Brahui who can read and write only Urdu. It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variation of Urdu is sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu. So while most of the population is conversant in Urdu, it is the first language only of an estimated 7% of the population, mainly Muslim immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of the Indian subcontinent (India, Burma, Bangladesh etc.) PUNJABI: Punjabi is the most widely spoken mother tongue in Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country. They are dominant in key institutions such as business, agriculture, industry, government, army, navy, air force, and police which are why about 70% of Pakistanis can understand or speak Punjabi. Lahore, the historic capital of Punjab, is the largest Punjabi
  7. 7. speaking city in the world. 86% of the total population of Lahore is native Punjabis, and Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, has 71% Native Punjabis of its total population. The Punjabi speakers in Pakistan are composed of various clans, based on a complex mixture of social groups, castes and economic groups. Muslim Rajputs, Jat, Tarkhans, Dogars, Gurjars, Gakhars, Khatri and Punjabi Sheikhs, Kambojs, and Arains, comprise the main tribes in the north, while Awans, Gardezis, Syeds and Qureshis are found in the south (Saraiki speaking area). There are Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the lodhis, which are very much integrated into Punjabi village life. People in major urban areas have diverse origins, with many post-Islamic settlers tracing their origin to Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey, Arabia, Indus Valley civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) and Central Asia. PASHTO: Pashto is spoken as a first language by 15.5% (c. 29 million) of Pakistanis, mainly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in northern Balochistan as well as in ethnic Pashtun communities in the cities of Karachi, Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore. Karachi is one of the biggest Pashto speaking cities in the world although the Pashto speakers constitute only about 25% of the city's population. Pashto is also widely spoken in neighboring Afghanistan where it is has official language status. SINDHI: Sindhi is spoken as a first language by 15.5% of Pakistanis, mostly in Sindh, parts of Balochistan, Southern Punjab and Balochistan. It has a rich literature and is taught in schools. It is an Indo-Aryan (Indo-European) language, derived from Sanskrit, and Arabic
  8. 8. languages. The Arabs ruled Sindh for more than 150 years after Muhammad bin Qasim conquered it in 712 AD, remaining there for three years to set up Arab rule. Consequently, the social fabric of Sindh contains elements of Arabic society. Sindhi is spoken by over 53.4 million people in Pakistan and some 5.8 million in India as well as some 2.6 million in other parts of the world. It is the official language of Sindh province and is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government in India. Balochi: Balochi is spoken as a first language by about 4% of Pakistanis, mostly in Balochistan province. It is believed that the language was brought to its present location in a series of migrations from the Kurdistan region of northeastern Iraq and northwestern Iran. Rakshani is the major dialect group in terms of numbers. Sarhaddi is a sub-dialect of Rakshani. Other sub-dialects are Kalati (Qalati), Chagai-Kharani and Panjguri. Eastern Hill Balochi or Northern Balochi is very different from the rest. Balochi language is very close to the Persian itself. The name Balochi or Baluchi is not found before the 10th Century. Rakshani is the major dialect group in terms of numbers. Sarhaddi is a sub dialect of Rakshani. Other sub - dialects are Qalati, Chagai Kharani, and Makrani. The Eastern Hill Balochi or Northern Balochi is distinct dialects. The Kethran language in North East Balochistan is also a variant of Balochi. It is one of the 9 distinguished languages of Pakistan. Since Balochi is a very poetic and rich language and have a certain degree of affinity to Persian and Urdu. MEMONI: The true origin of the language is still debated among the historians of the regions.
  9. 9. However, it is common to believe that Memoni language actually originated as a dialect of Sindhi language. Within the language itself, there are currently many different dialects, some having more influence of one language, and others having that of others. The language has not been organized greatly, hence, neither having its alphabetical system of reading and writing, nor having its literature and dictionary. This is one of the reasons the disorientation among the speakers themselves for deciding which words are better for what, as there is a wide variety of vocabulary available to. The Memon community is generally divided into three major subgroups: Kathiawadi Memons, Sindhi Memons (who speak the Sindhi language) and Kutchi Memons (who speak Kutchi) the first categories (Memons originating in Kathiawar) are simply called Memons, and they speak the Memon language, the subject of this article. These people are mostly Muslims (and mostly Sunni, Hanafi), who migrated from Sindh to Kathiawar several centuries ago. Sindhi and Kutchi are spoken by both Muslims and non-Muslims, in contrast to the Memon language, which is exclusively spoken by Memons of Kathiawadi origin, who are almost entirely Muslim. In stress, intonation, and everyday speech, Memoni is very similar to Sindhi, but it borrows extensively from Gujarati, Hindustani and lately English. Like most languages of the Indian subcontinent the sentence structure of Memoni generally follows subject– object–verb order. In Pakistan, Memoni has adopted many Urdu words and phrases. Even between different villages of Kathiawar, variations arose. For example, in Ranavav, the word for sugar is khand, while in Jodiya, it is chinni.
  10. 10. SERAIKI: is a southern dialect of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) Language of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) language family. It is spoken by 17 million people across the South Punjab, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and border regions of North Sindh and Eastren Balochistan, with some 20,000 migrants and their descendants in India who migrated as a result of the partition of India, as well as overseas, especially in the Middle East. Saraiki is also spoken by some Hindus in Afghanistan, though the number there is unknown. Saraiki is a dialect of great antiquity in Pakistan. It served as lingua franca among the people living in the Indus Valley for centuries. It also remained the dialect of commerce and trade until recent times. Today, Millions of people from North Sindh, South Punjab, South Khyber Pukhtunkhwa and Eastern Baluchistan province speak Saraiki dialect. BENGALI: Bengali is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh. It is written using the Bengali script. With about 193 million native and about 230 million total speakers, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages (ranked sixth in the world. Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects such as the Magadhi Prakrit and Pali, which developed from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical Sanskrit. Literary Bengali saw borrowings from Classical Sanskrit, preserving spelling while adapting pronunciation to that of Bengali, during the period of Middle Bengali and the Bengali Renaissance. The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th
  11. 11. and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region, a west-central Bengali dialect. PROBLEM SOLVING: There are many steps to overcome and solve these problems which are occurred by the language difference among the people of one region: Unity Faith Discipline Honesty Loyalty Love Patience Usage of Mother tongue UNITY, FAITH & DISCIPLINE: We should unite together to have a strong society so misunderstandings and communication gaps can be decreased. Unity is the major step to overcome the misunderstanding among the people due to less knowledge of our Mother tongue.
  12. 12. We should be faithful and loyal to our native language and our Mother tongue. Our Mother tongue which is Urdu, it is the duty of all individual to respect our mother tongue and to use this language frequently so the communication gaps can be maintained and decreased and business-trading system can be increased due to the more and more communication between the people of different languages. HONESTY, LOYALTY & LOVE: The people of different languages should live together in a united society so love among all people develops. All of the people should be honest and loyal to their mother tongue so the problems such as misunderstanding, communication gap and businesstrading problem could be solved. PATIENCE:
  13. 13. People should be patient to understand the opposite person’s requirement or demand. We should elaborate our thinking and should try to understand other feelings and problems by keeping ourselves calm and patient. USAGE OF MOTHER TONGUE: Usage of our Mother tongue in our society is very essential point by which our language difference problems could be overcome. Urdu which is our Mother tongue should be a common language among all people living in one society or a region so there would be no issue of languages so we could understand each other easily. CONCLUSION: Language is an essential source of identity of any nation or a group of people. By their language people can be identified individually. As in Karachi there are vast communities having different languages. So far, there are approx 10-15 languages communities are living in Karachi. As different communities surviving in Karachi having many problems just because of language difference.
  14. 14. As we talk about the problems earlier, we should also focus on their solutions because we can easily discuss the problems but we don’t talk about their solutions. If we focus on solutions, there are many steps which are unity, faith, discipline, honesty, loyalty, love, and patience.