Cell The Unit of Life- 4

595 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
595
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cell The Unit of Life- 4

  1. 1. CELL: THE UNIT OF LIFE PART 4 BY JACQUELINE… GULF ASIAN ENGLISH SCHOOL..
  2. 2. WHAT WE WILL • RIBOSOMES • CYTOSKELETON • CILIA AND FLAGELLA LEARN • CENTROSOME IN • CENTRIOLES THIS CHAPTER • NUCLEUS • MICROBODIES
  3. 3. - Granular structures - Discoverer : George Palade in 1953 -Composed of: Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and Proteins -Not surrounded by any membrane -Eukaryotic ribosomes :80S -Prokaryotic ribosomes:70S -S(Svedberg’s Unit) :Sedimentation coefficient (measure of density and size) - 70S and 80S : composed of 2 subunits
  4. 4. An elaborate network of filamentous proteinaceous structures present in the cytoplasm is called cytoskeleton. Functions in cell : - Mechanical support -Motility - Maintenance in the shape of the cell
  5. 5. -Hair- like outgrowths of the cell membrane. - Cilia: small structures which grow like oars causes movement of either the cell or the surrounding fluid. - Flagella: Comparatively longer, responsible for movement.
  6. 6. -Prokaryotic bacteria possess flagella but they are - different from eukaryotic flagella. -They are covered with plasma membrane. -Axoneme (their core) -Possess a no. of microtubules running parallel to the long axis - They have 9 pairs of doublets of radially arranged peripheral microtubules -Pair of centrally located microtubules. -This is known as 9+2 array. -Central tubules are connected by bridge . -They are enclosed by a central sheath. - They are connected to the tubules by a radial spoke.
  7. 7. Centrosome is an organelle containing 2 cylindrical structures called centrioles. They are surrounded by amorphous pericentriolar materials. Both the centrioles in a centrosome lie perpendicular to each other in which each has an organization called cartwheel
  8. 8. -They are made of 9 evenly spaced peripheral fibrils of tubulin protein. -Each of the peripheral fibril is a triplet. containing -The adjacent triplets are also linked. -The central part are called hub and are connected by radial spokes
  9. 9. -Discoverer: Robert brown(1831) -Stained nucleus: chromatin by Flemming. Contains:-Nucleoprotein fibres-Chromatin - Nuclear matrix -Nucleoli(spherical bodies)
  10. 10. Electron microscopy has revealed that the nuclear envelope, which consists of two parallel membranes with a space between (10 to 50 nm) called the perinuclear space, forms a barrier between the materials present inside the nucleus and that of the cytoplasm. The outer membrane usually remains continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and also bears ribosomes on it.
  11. 11. At a number of places the nuclear envelope is interrupted by minute pores, which are formed by the fusion of its two membranes. These nuclear pores are the passages through which movement of RNA and protein molecules takes place in both directions between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Normally, there is only one nucleus per cell, variations in the number of nuclei are also frequently observed.
  12. 12. -The nuclear matrix /the nucleoplasm contains:- -nucleolus -chromatin. -The nucleoli are spherical structures present in the nucleoplasm. -The content of nucleolus is continuous with the rest of the nucleoplasm. -It is a site for active ribosomal RNA synthesis.
  13. 13. But during different stages of cell division, cells show structured chromosomes in place of the nucleus. Chromatin contains DNA and some basic proteins called histones, some non-histone proteins and also RNA. A single human cell has approximately two metre long thread of DNA distributed among its forty six (twenty three pairs) chromosomes
  14. 14. Every chromosome essentially has a primary constriction or the centromere on the sides of which disc shaped structures called kinetochores are present. Based on the position of the centromere, the chromosomes can be classified into four types (Figure 8.12). The metacentric chromosome has middle centromere forming two equal arms of the chromosome.
  15. 15. The sub-metacentric chromosome has centromere nearer to one end of the chromosome resulting into one shorter arm and one longer arm. In case of acrocentric chromosome the centromere is situated close to its end forming one extremely short and one very long arm, whereas the telocentric chromosome has a terminal centromere. Sometimes a few chromosomes have nonstaining secondary constrictions at a constant location. This gives the appearance of a small fragment called the satellite.
  16. 16. -Membrane bound minute vesicles. -Contains:-Various enzymes, present in both plant and animal cells.

×