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Intelligence and counter terrorism

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Intelligence as a set of permanent institutions dates back only to the second half of the nineteenth century. But as information and news - in the dictionary meaning used in English since the middle of the fifteenth century, of 'knowledge as to events, communicated by or obtained from another, especially military' - it has always been collected as part of warfare
For a military, it can mean knowledge of the enemy and can distinguish between to defeat and to lose because information means knowledge and knowledge are power. Analysts see it as a package of information pending for clarification, and policymakers consider they should be informed so that they can meet the needs, stated or understood.
Intelligence gathers under the same umbrella the informational component of national security, internal and external policies, as well as certain aspects of international security in the case of global cross-entities (states, organizations).

This presentation is built up by gathering information from different references (Book, Articles, and Newspapers) by the author.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Intelligence and counter terrorism

  1. 1. INTELLIGENCE AND COUNTERTERRORISM AishaAL9
  2. 2. Outline I. What is Intelligence? II. What Intelligence is for? III. What is counter terrorism? IV. Approaches of CounterTerrorism V. Intelligence and Counterterrorism VI. Functions of Intelligence in CounteringTerrorists VII. Humint Intelligence VIII.Covert Action IX. Intelligence Law Enforcement X. Intelligence and MilitaryAction XI. International IntelligenceCooperation XII. Outcomes
  3. 3. Presentation Question: Can Intelligence’s Agencies success in CombatingTerrorists?
  4. 4. What is Intelligence? Means "knowledge capacity", "understand", "good understanding“. Walter Laqueur: "the term intelligence refers to a body that collects information, and on the other hand, to the information that was processed and ready for use by consumer.” In terms of political: “the collection of information of military or political value.” Michael Herman: “Intelligence is power component (like military force), it is part of hyperpowerness, allowing the state to project military force and dominate.” GeraldTempler: “It is an essential aid to policy-making and military planning and should ideally provide timely warning of events which we would wish to anticipate and intelligence background for policy decisions.”
  5. 5. What Intelligence is For? 1. It is separated from decision-taking; its basic role is providing information and not giving advice on what should be done about it. 2. Most of its targets are foreign. 3. Its special emphasis on forecasting; on foreign targets it is government's right arm. 4. Gathers>> national security, internal and external policies, and international security. 5. Defence against terrorism. Melanie M.H. Gutjahr: “intelligence is the process by which certain types of information considered important to national security are required, collected, analyzed and presented to the factors of decision.”
  6. 6. What Intelligence is For?
  7. 7. What is Counterterrorism? Terrorism: the calculated use of violence, or threat of violence to induce the fear in order to coerce or intimidate governments and societies in order to achieve some political, religious or ideological goals. The phenomenon of terrorism, passed to a new level with 9/11. Counter-Terrorism: responsibility to protect those within the government jurisdiction from extremist attacks. “Anything that cuts the roots of terrorism” CT: Incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. Counter-T Anti-T
  8. 8. Approaches of CT First International Conference: International Conference of Rome for the Social DefenseAgainst Anarchists, 1898 UN CounterTerrorism committee, 2001 How to CT: 1. Police and Intelligence. 2. Direct military operation (SpainX ETA). 3. Knowing terrorists environment and cutting their support. 4. Negotiation with Government orTerrorist groups (Private Public).
  9. 9. Intelligence and Counterterrorism Form of Intelligence: a. Tactical Intelligence : human intelligence, open source intelligence, imagery intelligence and direct observation. needed by soldiers, to identify the most simple behavioral changes , and avoid potential unwanted conflicts with insurgents. b. Strategic intelligence: "the information is required for stating/planning strategies, policies and military operations nationally and in the theater of operations“.
  10. 10. Function of Intelligence in CT 1. Provide strategic sense: which group are dangerous, their areas of operations. 2. Provide detailed information for diplomacy: what such group demarches, and their financial assets. 3. Provide how terrorists could be eliminated: infrastructures, locations, cells, operation connections and biographic data.
  11. 11. Humint Collection Human Intelligence: is any information that can be gathered from human sources. (Spies informers) It danger and more risk must take in concern. Individuals must be able to provide valuable information. Trained Language HUMINT work beside exchange data and law enforcement. Historical narratives on war and strategy are replete with stories of spies: Chinese strategist SunTzu: “dispositions of an enemy are ascertainable through spies and spies alone;” France’s main counter-terrorism force, “humint’s importance was highlighted by the fact that nearly all terror plots in France have been foiled thanks to it”.
  12. 12. Humint Collection The modern day terrorist is adept at counter-surveillance skills, minority engaging in communication systems which can be traced and monitored. (bin Laden stopped using his satellite phone as early as 1998 when he realized that his conversations about the African embassy bombings were being monitored. ) However,The infiltration of terrorist cells has helped counter-terrorism officials to gain good intelligence. Potential Complications: 1. Imprisonment in Foreign countries and loss of friendly lives. 2. Revelation of covert efforts. (awry). 3. Terrorist do not usually appear on the diplomatic cocktail. 4. In-depth knowledge of local dialects and customs.
  13. 13. Covert Action Why we use clandestine, while we can cooperate with the concerned states? (Relations) Covert Action: is using whenever you do not have diplomatic relation And if you want deal with illegal NGOs (terrorists and militias). Advantages are: 1) Negotiations are deniable by both sides. (Iran –America) 2)Terrorist will accept talking with intelligence than diplomats. (British- IRA)
  14. 14. Intelligence-Law Enforcement In counterterrorism efforts, Intelligence agencies work alongside law enforcement agencies (gathering evidence, developing leads, and maintaining retrievable databases). Law Enforcement agencies: Police, FBI. This cooperation has been seen after 9/11. Law enforcement Intelligence 1. Ensure that law enforcement agencies have better access to information acquired by intelligence agencies about potential terrorist activities. 2. Suspected terrorists are arrested and prosecuted. 3. Using intelligence’s gathering information in investigations. Terrorism is a crime
  15. 15. Intelligence and Military Operations in CT Military operations against terrorists require collecting and transmitting precise intelligence to military commanders. Using Humint/ imagery (unmanned aerial vehicles, manned aircrafts, and satellites). Using intelligence to transform the nation’s defense strategy and force structures. The linkage of such platform to platform armed led to Allied success in the Persian GulfWar (1991), and Allied Force in Kosovo (1999). Military Operations advantage: 1. Dramatic results to resolve 2. Destroy terrorist capabilities. 3. Deterrent effects on terrorists groups and supporters. Terrorism is a war
  16. 16. International Intelligence Cooperation Cooperation Against Al Qaeda: After 911, the necessity for cooperation among security and intelligence agencies- nationally and internationally. There were awareness that Al Qaeda will be eliminated only if done globally. (Military operation against Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, established liaison relationships with Middle East and Central Asian countries). United States benefited from Russia, Pakistan, China and Libya intelligence services in combating Al Qaeda. US’ Joint Inquiry Staff- which investigated the events of 911- argued that this cooperation were not efficient because foreign services were unable to look after the Al Qaeda networks. A BILATERAL nature of intelligence liaison are usually the most productive, MULTILATERAL arrangements have been considered and most of them AD HOC. Why to cooperate? 1. No one agency can do or know everything. 2. Getting more experiences and less cost. 3. Replacing nonexistent diplomatic relations.
  17. 17. International Intelligence Cooperation Dilemmas of Intg. Cooperation: 1.Differences in perceptions of a threat and foreign policy objectives. 2. Differences in the distributions of power (unequal). 3. Fear to pass intelligence’s information to third party. Multilateral Arrangements: NATO during ColdWar NATO, South Korea and Japan UKUSA The Club of Berne The Kilowatt Group Bilateral Arrangement: MOSSAD Jorden’s intelligence ASIO and CSIS
  18. 18. Outcomes Intelligence is a powerful agency in the state. Intelligence must invest more in counter terrorism. More cooperation are required to reduce terrorists (LE, Military and International). Intelligence should range its knowledge.
  19. 19. References I. Edmund F. McGarrell, Joshua D. Freilich, & Steven Chermak. “Intelligence-Led Policing As a Framework for Responding toTerrorism”, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, May 1, 2007, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/10439862073013 II. Mărcău Flavius-Cristian & Ciorei Mihaela Andreea. “The Role Of Intelligence InThe Fight AgainstTerror”, European Scientific Journal, January 2013 edition vol.9, No.2. http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/708/792 III. Martin Innes. “Policing Uncertainty: CounteringTerrorThrough Community Intelligence And Democratic Policing”,The Annals of The American Academy, May, 2006. https://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/people/aldrich/vigilant/policinguncertainty.pdf IV. Michael Herman. “Intelligence power in peace and war”,The Royal Institute Of I International Affairs, 1996. V. Richard A. Best, Jr. “Intelligence to CounterTerrorism: Issues for Congress”, CRS Report for Congress, February 21, 2002. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2505/m1/1/high_res_d/RL31292_2002Feb21.pdf VI. Stéphane Lefebvre. “The Difficulties and Dilemmas of International Intelligence Cooperation”, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 2003, 16:4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/716100467 VII. United Nations ActionTo CounterTerrorism, http://www.un.org/en/counterterrorism/

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