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Are we really Runners?Summit Paleo 2014


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A new approach of our runner past

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Are we really Runners?Summit Paleo 2014

  1. 1. Why should we consider Evolution in Running? Airam Fdez, Ms PaleoTraining Fundator Running Coach Barcelona 2014
  2. 2. Learning without thought is labor lost Thought without learning is perilous. Confucius
  3. 3. Everything should be made as simple as possible...but not simpler. Albert Einstein
  4. 4. A man’s errors are his portals of discover James Joyce
  5. 5. Nothing is biology makes sense without the light of evolution Theodosious Dobzhansk
  6. 6. I always encourage people to be pragmatic above all else and to question their beliefs, whatever they may be. Rob Raux
  7. 7. True prevention is not allowing the condition to evolve Unknow
  8. 8. Every single action in live, but drink, eat, breath and sleep , is an skill, even is art. Me
  13. 13. La naturaleza nos diseñó para correr…
  14. 14. Y así…
  15. 15. No la cambiémos…
  16. 16. 80% Runners get injured once a year
  18. 18. Running in Evolution We run since 2.000.000 years… We shoe or feet since 40.000 years… We cushione our shoes since 35 years… …What´s new/What´s old?
  19. 19. A Brief History of Running For millions of years, humans have gone without shoe running very long distances for hunting pursuing them to death!
  20. 20. Endurance Running Hypothesis The hypothesis suggests that endurance running played an important role for early homínids in obteining food. Researchers have proposed that endurance running began as an adaptation for scavenging and later for persistence hunting
  21. 21. The clue: To be economic…to get NOT injured Cells´ aim is being economic All natural procedure last forever if the are economic and safe
  22. 22. Running Vs Walking There are structures that improve running only , and are not used in walking. Running was an Adaptation for surviving , not became as a byproduct of walking.
  24. 24. So… What can 35 years of f***ing shoes & fitness industry may do against 2M years of evolution? Lee Saxby
  25. 25. Until quite recently in our history, most humans lived out their lives unshod. Untrammeled feet of natural men are free from the disabilities c o m m o n l y n o t e d among shod people : hallux valgus, b u n i o n s , hammer toe a n d p a i n f u l feet
  26. 26. 99,9 of Human Evolution running one way… …why should we change it?
  27. 27. Harmful effects of modern running shoes
  28. 28. The wisdom beggins with the definitions of terms. Socrates
  29. 29. Walk, Run, Sprint
  30. 30. Strike frequency Stride frequency measured the number of foot contacts per minute Highest frecuency= Encoureges Knee Bent Posture at Initial Contact Decreases Stance Time Closers Foot Contact to COM Shortens lenght
  31. 31. Stride length Stride length was defined as the distance from the point of touchdown of one foot to the point of touchdown of the opposite foot
  32. 32. Ground Contact Time GCT = duration from touchdown to toe-off (150-220ms) The short GCT is related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion
  33. 33. Barefoot/minimalist The Barefoot or Minimalist phylosophy does not just relate to shoes, also technique, strike, posture and rythim.
  34. 34. COM
  35. 35. COM
  36. 36. COM
  37. 37. COM
  38. 38. POSTURE
  39. 39. The best nike …
  40. 40. Sagebrush Bark Sandals (9000 b.C)
  41. 41. Protection Sole-Status Symbol 10.000-8.000 BC 5000 BC 3.000 BC 1.000 BC 0 AC Meso and South America and the volcanic islands of the South Pacific worn Similar sandals The early Polynesians used sandals to cross old lava flows and when fishing on the razor-sharp coral. Pharaohs are all represented as barefoot. Sandals in Egypt were common in court and were worn by soldiers. In Mesopotamian,King known to have worn a wedged sandal in contrast to his flat-soled courtiers. Greek tragedians are known to have very thick-soled low boots been worn by to increase their height.
  42. 42. From Status to Fashion 1000 AC 12th-14th The Mongols, who on horseback ravaged the Middle East between Damascus and Moscow from the centuries, are credited for the introduction of the block heel presumably developed to better grip the stirrup plate. From the time of the Greeks, Count Fulk of Anjou introduced long pointed toes to cover up some deformity of his feet, and courtiers quickly adopted. But in the French court of Louis XIV, the rugged Mongolian heel underwent a radical cosmetic transformation eventually leading to the ultimate idiotic expression of modern fashion - the stiletto heel adopted the fashion 15th-16th
  43. 43. Chronology of the running shoe. •  In 1830 by the Liverpool rubber company owned by John Boyd Dunlop, , called as sand shoes because they were worn on the beach by the Victorian middle classes •  In 1933, Dunlop launched its Green Flash range of trainers. •  In 1920 Adi Dassler (and his brother Rudolf) started making sports shoes in Herzogenaurach, Germany •  In 1948 ADIDAS (Adi Dassler) was formed with the now famous three stripes logo developing from three support leather bands used to bolster the sides.
  44. 44. … •  In 1956 Rudolf Dassler broke away to form PUMA. •  In 1971,Americans Phil Knight, and his coach Bill Bowerman founded NIKE. •  In 1977 ASICS first introduced its shoes in North America •  In 1979 REEBOCK (species of an African gazelle) entered the US Market •  In 1987 was declared the Year of the Running. Also NIKE launched it's flagship running-shoe, the Air Max.
  45. 45. The wrong solution for impact TOE SPRING DROP FOOT BED
  46. 46. The inverse reaction Dr. Benno Nigg
  47. 47. More $ & More Injury Dr. Marti, 1989 In 1989, Dr. B. Marti studied 5,000 runners $95 had twice cost&injury than $40 The more high-tech, advanced, and fancier shoe, the more dangerous it was.
  48. 48. The fancier shoe, the more dangerous…
  49. 49. Why are super shock-absorbing athletic shoes causing more running injuries? Why do modern running shoes screw it up? Dr. Steven Robbins The lower extremity is a rugged, flexible, active, well designed structure wired to a spinal cord and a b r a i n a n d f u l l y capable of handling t h e i m p a c t s o f running.
  50. 50. Diabetes can cause a gradual destruction of the sensory nerve The diabetic feet Increase in lower extremity injuries
  51. 51. Cushions, raised heel, lancets rob the system almost all the sensory information Push Inelastic fascia to became as a checkrein of flattering Blocks awareness sense
  52. 52. No signals to the spinal cord
  53. 53. The ankle, knee and hip joints flex to absorb impact in response to “information” flowing in from the foot.
  54. 54. Arch Support or orthotics, support midfoot arch fighting to the flattering and leading to atrophy of the intrinsics muscle with complete loss or active muscular control
  55. 55. Foot actively changes his landing strategy to prevent injury.
  56. 56. Absence of alert scanning the ground for irregularities
  57. 57. The shod runner becomes a careless runner.
  58. 58. Flat Feet Rao and Joseph (1992) Flat Feet was more than three times greater in those children who used footwear
  59. 59. More Used-More Control Hamill and Bates,1988. Shoes get better with age
  60. 60. Perceptual Illusion Robbins and Gouw,1991 It might be more appropiate to clasify athletic footwear as “safety hazard” rather than “protective devices”
  61. 61. Deceptive Message Robbins and Waked (1997) Running injury rates are greatest in users of the most expensive shoes
  62. 62. Conclusion Shoes are the primary cause of running injuries is strongly supported by the scientific literature Young children should be encouraged to spend as much time as possible barefoot. We know that this is especially important for the proper formation of the foot arch in the first six years of life. Runners should consider incorporating sessions of barefoot running into their training. "Running barefoot a couple of times per week can decrease your risk of injury and boost your 'push-off' power." Your feet will need to toughen-up so start with small doses Runners may want to consider switching to a lightweight shoe that provides less cushioning and no arch support
  63. 63. Run & Run Economic/Elastic Expensive/Muscled
  64. 64. The reality is… 80% of runners suffer from injuries yearly... 80% of runners heelstrike...
  65. 65. Overuse often compounded by an underlying mechanical abnormality such as overpronation or flatfeet. The traditional answer is…
  66. 66. Modification of training Physiotherapy Stretching Close look at the runner's footwear with recommendations about motion control, stability, cushioning Orthotics The classic treatment is… Why are two of every three runners sidelined every year because of a running injury?
  67. 67. Not the only guilty… The modern running shoe itself may be the major cause of running injuries
  68. 68. Most common mistakes in Running Harmful Heel Strike Land Step away from COM Fore Foot Strike Over Striding Hit the ground hard Low Frecuency
  69. 69. The Big Things of Running Lean forward from your ankles Upright posture Relaxed posture Midfoot stride Short lenght stride Land with knee flexed High Frequency
  70. 70. The “Small” Things of Running Big Pull Heel to Glute Clustered Body Minimal Vertical Oscilation Minimal Ground Support Time Aligned COM Soft Ground Contact Elastic/bouncy Running
  71. 71. % of Running Injuries Knees (52%) Tibias (26%) Achilles Tendons (12%) Plantar fascias (10%)
  72. 72. The Cause? Acumulative micro-trauma caused by repetitive impact experienced during running.
  73. 73. The Wrong Situation The heel of a runner upon striking the ground generates a force that can equal 2.5 times body weight at the foot and as much as 7 times body weight at the hip. ¡¡Repeat this 1000 times per mile !!
  74. 74. Is not just about change shod shoes for barefoot and we become Tarahumara That leads you to injuries The Wrong Situation
  75. 75. We had heelstrike runners injuries and now… we have barefoot injuries The Wrong Situation
  76. 76. Why? …Because running is a skill The Wrong Situation
  77. 77. Jogging is a confuse moving for brain!!!!! The Wrong Situation
  78. 78. Everything considers skillfull does not use shoes: martial art, gymnastic.. The Wrong Situation
  79. 79. Why we run so badly? RUNNING IS AN ABILITY AND… WE LOST IT!!
  80. 80. Past Today We run We love to run We run wronly We lost the ability Big issues about running We did run We needed to run We did run properly We had the ability
  81. 81. ¿Por qué todos lo hemos olvidado y corremos de forma patológica?
  82. 82. Correr descalzo mejora la economía de carrera ¿Mito o realidad?
  83. 83. Apoyo de antepié+calzado minimalista = coste energético un 2.41% menor A p o y o d e t a l ó n + c a l z a d o minimalista = coste energético un 3.32% menor
  84. 84. Barefoot Running Simulado Vibram Five Fingers® (VVF) Lactato en sangre, frecuencia cardíaca y frecuencia de zancada. Aumento la frecuencia de zancada y la economía de carrera mejoró con las VFF hasta un 2.5%.
  85. 85. El calzado minimalista gastaron menos energía en su carrera que aquellos con calzado tradicional, aunque esto no parece ofrecer una ventaja metabólica significativa
  86. 86. Lieberman, Harvard 2102 52 experienced runners 69% heel strikers/31% midfoot strikers 74% get injured last year Heel striker twice posibility of being repetitive stress injured than midfoot striker Causes: one Hypothesis is the absence of a marked stress pick in the ground reaction force during the forefoot strike.
  87. 87. Harvard study shows that heel strikers are 2x more likely to get injured than runnrs who forefoot strike
  88. 88. What studies conclude In running, biomechanical factors can contribute to success in performance in terms of improving running economy and preventing injury (Williams, 2007).
  89. 89. Lower extremity injuries are related to altered running mechanics (Willems et al., 2005) and imbalances in muscle strength (Orchard et al., 1997). What studies conclude
  90. 90. Running economy h a s b e e n s h o w n t o correlate with certain gait characteristics such as stride length (Morgan et al.,1994), ground contact time (Nummela et al., 2 0 0 7 ) , v e r t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n a n d lower extremity angles (Williams and Cavanagh, 1987). What studies conclude
  91. 91. Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners Daniel E. Lieberman Nature 463, 531-535 (28 January 2010) Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years1, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners. Correr descalzo genera menor i m p a c t o d e c o l i s i o n q u e c o r r e r c o n c a l z a d o amortiguado en el talon debido a l m o d o d e apoyo
  92. 92. Barefoot Running Myths
  93. 93. 1.  Barefoot running is going against decades of research, studies and common sense. Decades of… market research. º No studies which show that… running in shoes reduces the risk of injury. What truly makes "sense”? Placing your feet in padded boxes? It is at least…debatable! Barefoot Running Myths
  94. 94. 2. You're going to step on glass and rocks. What your eyes see, your feet don't step on Small rocks and bits of garbage quickly become non-issues Minimalist shoes provides mental protection for the environment. Barefoot Running Myths
  95. 95. 3. You should listen to your podiatrist. Never trust those whose livelihood depends on your purchasing products and services(orthotics) Barefoot Running Myths
  96. 96. 4. Pronation is unnatural. Pronation is the natural, inward roll of the foot. Pronation is good, while absorbs some of the impact when you run. Barefoot Running Myths
  97. 97. 5. No Elite runners run barefoot. Running companies sponsor a tremendous amount of athletes. The athletes need money, the shoe companies need their products tied to elites so that normal runners will be convinced of their effectiveness. The formula works. Barefoot Running Myths
  98. 98. 6.After 20, 30, 40+ years of being shod, my feet need shoes Feet support your feet. The more shoe, the more support , the less fuction, the less strenght Barefoot Running Myths
  99. 99. 7.Modern surfaces are much harder than the soft earth our ancestors ran on, therefore we need cushioning. There is no evidence for the claim. It’s speculation made by people who never run barefoot. Barefoot Running Myths
  100. 100. 8.You have to be tough Pain, to the barefoot runner, means bad, inefficient form. Barefoot Running Myths
  101. 101. Barefoot Running Could Get You Gold! In 1960, Abebe Bikila ran the Olympic marathon in a time of 2 hours 15 minutes and 16 seconds to earn a gold medal. He did this in his bare feet. An isolated native tribe in Mexico known to the rest of the world as the Tarahumara run ultra-marathon races lasting up to 200 miles or more and do so in bare feet or minimalistic sandals called huaraches.
  102. 102. Abebe Bikila
  103. 103. Bruce Tulloh
  104. 104. Siraj Gena
  105. 105. Zolla Budd
  106. 106. Herb Elliot
  107. 107. ABOUT POSE METHOD® OF RUNNING? Pose Method® of Running technique, aka POSE Running, is a better way to run. Developed in Soviet Union in the 70’s, Pose Running was published in America in the 90's and is now taught and practiced all over the world. It is used by athletes of all levels and non-athletes of all ages POSE METHOD by Dr. Romanov
  108. 108. There are 20 studies and scientific papers, studies and scientific paper including 5 dissertations on Pose Method® published to date in Russia, South Africa, Great Britain, New Zealand and United States. POSE METHOD by Dr. Romanov
  109. 109. 1. S-like body position with slightly bent knees 2. Forward lean from the ankles to employ gravity and work with it not against it 3. Pulling or lifting feet up under the hip not behind the buttocks 4. Ball of foot landing under your body (your GCM - general center of mass) POSE METHOD by Dr. Romanov
  110. 110. Did you know? In 2008, several major Health Insurance Companies in the European Union, accepted Pose Running Clinics as “a preventative measure according to German health legislation”.
  111. 111. Pose running: a running style with a midfoot strike pattern and a flexed knee in stance. -forward lean of the trunk -vertical alignment of shoulder, hip, and heel of the supporting limb. -POSE Stance=elastic energy. POSE METHOD by Dr. Romanov
  112. 112. POSE METHOD by Dr. Romanov Track and Field Running Test Oxygen Consuption Mask + HeartPace Monitor =Same speed with 10 bits less=More Economical Running Foto del estudio
  113. 113. POSE METHOD POSE Drill 1. Pose Stance To learn the Running Pose (Pose Stance) start with it in the static position , keeping your balance on one leg, bent at the knee, with the body weight located on the ball of the foot.
  114. 114. POSE Drill 4. Hop in Place Keep the Pose for 4-5 seconds then change the support from one foot to the other. Repeat. Do 2-3 sets of 10-15 reps of each drill to let your body "memorize" the pose. Incorporate it in a few short (30-50 meters) runs at any comfortable for you speed. POSE METHOD
  115. 115. ©2004The American College of Sports Medicine POSE METHOD by Dr. Romanov
  116. 116. Descripcion del estudio The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical changes during natural heel- toe running with learned midfoot and Pose running.
  117. 117. stride lengths vertical oscillations vertical impact force knee flexed IC ankle nuetral position at IC knee power absorption and eccentric work ankle power absorption and eccentric work Heel to Toe MidFoot POSE
  118. 118. Conclusions Pose running in comparision with either midfoot or heel-toe running was associated with : •  shorter stride lengths •  smaller vertical oscillations of the sacrum and left heel markers •  neutral ankle joint at initial contact, •  lower excentric work and power absorption at the knee.
  119. 119. The biomechanical variables associated with specific running styles change with: -running speed. -inclination of the running surface. -the use of running shoes. -the use of treadmills. Conclusions
  120. 120. Conclusions Sustaining the horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (CoM) is the biomechanical goal of running and represents the summation of body and limb motions. Less reduction in horizontal velocity of the CoM during the braking phase should be beneficial to a runner
  121. 121. Dallam et al. [4] found in the Pose® group a significant increase in stride rate and reduction in vertical oscillation of the CoM in comparison to the heel-toe group at a given treadmill speed following the Pose® method intervention. Pose® runners in the barefoot condition had less horizontal braking and propulsive GRF than when heel-toe running.
  122. 122. Running Style Running style may be described by the overall action, body angle, arm swing, foot placement, rear leg lift, and length of stride.
  123. 123. Good running form comparision BGFMaximum Trunk Counterrotation
  124. 124. Marathon pace Haile Gebrselassie
  125. 125. Sustaining the horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (CoM) is the biomechanical goal of running and represents the summation of body and limb motions. Less reduction in horizontal velocity of the CoM during the braking phase should be beneficial to a runner. Range of motion of the lower limb(knee flexion and extension), affect stride length and stride frequency.
  126. 126. . Avariety of angles for knee flexion have been found for support, ranging from 38 to 50° for speeds of 3.4 m/s to 7.5 m/s. At terminal stance, the knee does not fully extend
  127. 127. Knee extension also correlates with vertical oscillation of the CoM Lower vertical oscillation of the CoM is a trend found in faster runners.
  128. 128. Running economy is often proposed to be a primary determinant of competitive endurance running success 54% of the variation in running economy attributed to biomechanical variables.
  129. 129. “A simple force diagram will reveal that the further ahead of the body the foot strikes the ground, the more acute the angle and the greater the deceleration from ground resistance” Slocum and Bowerman highlight the cause of deceleration of the CoM during the braking phase:
  130. 130. Running/Walking Barefoot is Healthy Spending time in your own feet strengthens the muscles is your feet and aligns your spine, which in turn helps maintain good posture and balance. Running barefoot reduces the amount of impact stress that your lower body endures, minimizing the potential for injury normally associated with running.
  131. 131. Does it exist supernatural people ?
  132. 132. Unnatural Stride The resulting shoes cause most runners to run with an unnatural heel-to-to stride If you tried to run this way in bare feet, the pain would be extraordinary: the shoes block the pain, but they do not stop the impact.
  133. 133. The Natural Stride Running Barefoot forces runners to stay on the balls of their feet. The heels are almost entirely eliminated during running. This stride significantly reduces impact and increases running efficiency.
  134. 134. Footwear Alternatives Running barefoot can be dangerous in many modern conditions. Rocks, broken glass, sharp rusty metal and many other dangerous obstacles may be encountered while running barefoot. Thankfully, there are alternatives…
  135. 135. Live Barefoot and…