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Kazakhstan diplomacy and role in international area after 24 years of independence

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The history and modern stage of Kazakhstan diplomacy and international relationships development

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Kazakhstan diplomacy and role in international area after 24 years of independence

  1. 1. KAZAKHSTAN DIPLOMACY AND ROLE IN INTERNATIONALAREA after 24 years of independence
  2. 2. “From its President to its painters, poets, economists and entrepreneurs, this is a nation confidently on the move. We need to understand the new national identity of this increasingly successful player on the world stage” – Jonathan Aitken, the author of the book “Kazakhstan: Surprises and Stereotypes”
  3. 3. KEY FACTS ABOUT KAZAKHSTAN - Kazakhstan is the 9th large territory in the world (2,7 millions sq.km) with 17,6 million population - The capital is Astana city established in 1998 - Became independent in 1991, 16th of December - More than 150 nations and ethnics live in Kazakhstan with Kazakhs (66%), Russians (21%), Uzbeks (3%), Ukrainians (1,7%), Uigurs (1,4%), etc. - Kazakh is the state language, Russian has a status of official - Contains rich oil recourses with 1.6 million barrels per day production, minerals (ferrous and non-ferrous metals) - GNI per capita is $11,7 millions (2014, Worldbank.org) - GDP per capita is $12,4 millions (2014, Worldbank.org)
  4. 4. ORIGINS OF KAZAKH-RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIPS XVIII-XX CENTURIES • Leaders of Kazakh tribes (Hans) asked patronage of Russian Empire to provide a defence against jungar invaders in the south-east boarders • Rebellion of Kazakhs protested against Russian colonisation • Renaissance of Kazakh literature: Abai – a great philosopher of the time • New generation of Kazakhs – the raise of communist wave in the steppe
  5. 5.  Our close relationships with Russia began in 1731. It was trouble times for Kazakh Khannate as Kazakhs tried to defend their territories from Chinese Jungar invaders. The war of protecting the lands lasted around 100 years, the nation suffered many deprivations and that was why the leader of Western Kazakh tribes Han Abulkhair made a decision to ask for a patronage from Russian Empire’s Queen Elizabeth II.  From that time the factual colonisation of the vast Kazakh territory began. Thus the threat of jungars invaders was terminated Kazakhs became aware of coming new invader from the North who implanted new rules and laws in a freedom-loving steppes and counted themselves as occupiers with extremely bad relation to the local people. It was a reason why rebellious leaders of several Kazakh tribes began to undermine the process of colonisation attacking Russian fortresses. But it’s clear that all these rebellions were depressed and the leaders were killed. Despite the resistance to colonisation positive changes came to steppe as well. The representatives of the richest Kazakh society having finished education in the Russian institutes came back to steppes educated, fluently speaking Kazakh and Russian. They were aware of own people illiteracy and that was why began to open public schools for children. Still laws predominated in steppes which restricted the rights of girls to study. Despite this fact, all the children could learn at schools run by rich and educated Kazakhs.  One of the brightest philosophy of that time was Abai Kunanbayev who left a rich literature heritage after him – the most known today is his words of edification to his nation which are actual even in modern times.
  6. 6.  With coming of XX century the moods in steppes changed as they changed in whole Russian Empire. A new political course was being formed which proclaimed equality among all the people and authority which must be given to the working class, also what is very important that this course promised independence to the States which were been colonized. Kazakh intellectuals found these ideas impressing as they thought it would be a chance for their nation to become independent and to develop the country in its own way.  Among those Kazakhs were writers, poets, civil activists, owners of first newspapers and schools Akhmet Baitursinov, Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Magzhan Zhumabayev, Mirzhakip Dulatov, Iliyas Djansugurov and plenty of others who were apparently repressed and killed after years of Communism settled down as a new political system in Kazakhstan.
  7. 7. ORIGINS OF KAZAKH-RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIPS XX CENTURY  1917 October revolution and its consequences  Severe communist politics and dark times of 1930-40: hunger in steppes, repressions, World War II (Great patriotic war 1941-45)  Resettlement of nations and tragic testing of nuclear weapons in Kazakhstan  Growth of national consciousness – Jeltoksan (December) movement  Nursultan Nazarbayev – a new political figure
  8. 8.  In 1917 there was a military coup and change of the power in Russia. Communists killed all the members of Russian monarchy in the Winter Palace and took the power into their hands. It was a new Soviet State created in 1921. The communists promised a freedom and equal opportunities for poor and working people; so people who were deprived by the Tsarism power completely supported a new Communism leaders. But proclaimed freedoms with the years turned to totalitarianism which restricted all the freedoms mainly the freedom of expression. Those ones who criticised the system were sent to prisons or shot down. All these “black” methods of fighting with opposition were initiated by Joseph Stalin who ruled a new formed Soviet Union from 1922 to 1953.
  9. 9.  So that was why 1930-s was the most difficult times for Kazakh people who initially supported a new political system but soon were depressed with its consequences came to the steppes. Kazakhs from ancient times raised domestic animals such as horses and ships and the richness of the families were evaluated by a quantity of domestic animals. During 1930-s all the domestic animals were deliberately confiscated which led strictly to the starvation and death of the nation in the severe climatic conditions.  Only in modern society those mistakes were admitted. Thus, the fact is that more than 6 mln. Kazakhs died during hunger and repressions of XX century which was almost 65% of 1913 population. Moreover, part of those who stayed alive left Kazakhstan and settled down in Mongolia, China, Uzbekistan, Turkey and Iran. The World War II also took lives of millions people across all Soviet Union, Kazakhs were in those dreadful lists as well.
  10. 10. If to ask how Kazakhstan became a multi-national country the answer could be find in 1960-s. There was a big resettlement of ethnic Russians to Kazakhstan as it was declared a big project of developing virgin lands in the north of Republic. So the number of Russians in Kazakhstan peaked at 70% point whereas local people reached only 20%. Together with Russians ethnic Ukranians, Belarusians, Germans, Koreans, Uigurs and others came to work and live in Kazakhstan.
  11. 11. XX century for Kazakhstan was very tough times. Nevertheless, the nation all the time was united and was stronger than outer troubles. Kazakhs also stayed alive after nuclear weapons testing in Eastern Kazakhstan, Semei city, but no longer could stay silent. The testing began in 1949 and only in 1991 Semei polygon was closed as a damage caused to the environment was too high. There were 456 explosions which all together caused a bigger negative effect on environment and health of local people than tragic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
  12. 12.  In 1980-s all these biases in policy towards local people became a trigger for people’s resistance against a system. The fact that exposed people’s anger was change of First secretary of Communist party in Kazakhstan who never lived in Kazakhstan and didn’t know the interests and needs of local people. He was appointed by Moscow leaders. Young people of Almaty city went out to the streets protesting this fact. It was a cold December (in Kazakh Jeltoksan), outside was -30 degree below 0. New appointed Secretary was too afraid of such people’s behaviour so he appealed to Moscow and said that it was armed demonstration against ruling party thus the demonstration was originally peaceful. So then soldiers of the Special Army Forces arrived to Almaty and fiercely punished locals by beating them with sticks and drenched with cold water right in the cold streets. A lot of people were arrested and imprisoned. But nobody left indifferent. So the protests against the system spread all over the country.
  13. 13. In that time a new figure came to political arena. He was Kazakh, born and raised in ordinary Kazakh family, who understood all the willing of his nation and knew how to communicate with Moscow rulers, so he succeeded in his political career. His name was Nursultan Nazarbayev. Those times was crucial in his own representation as a politician. He heard people’s anger and he did all the best to negotiate with Moscow to solve problematic aspects. It was he who closed Semei polygon, made Kazakh a state language, created Semei-Nevada organization for supporting non-nuclear world. In 1990 he became a President of Kazakhstan socialistic Republic and in 1991 after Soviet Union collapsed he became a President of independent Kazakhstan. He is still on his position.
  14. 14. ORIGINS OF KAZAKH-RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIPS XX AND XXI CENTURY  Creation of CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States)  An idea of Eurasian world  “Napkin” diplomacy and assigning Caspian Sea’s borders
  15. 15.  A new history of independence began from creating a new non-political organization CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) in 1991 which members became 11 ex-Soviet countries. 3 years later in 1994 President Nazarbayev sounded his idea of Eurasian world which key point was an integration on economic and social levels with Eurasian countries. Nobody paid attention to the idea in those times but it became actual in recent times and obtained clear forms in 2008. First Custom Union was created then in 2014 it renamed to Eurasian economic community (EAEC) which opened borders to commodities and established a free trade zone between 3 member countries – Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus. EAEC is a prototype of European Union but in Eurasian part of the world.
  16. 16.  It is now Kazakhstan is a stable developing country which has achieved economic success but in late 90-s was time for so-called “napkin” diplomacy. The problem was in dividing a territory of Caspian Sea which is known as cornucopia of oil. After several years of discussions Russia did not tend to ratify memorandum about division of Caspian Sea borders, so President Nazarbayev personally visited President Yeltsin in his apartment. There Nazarbayev after long hours of discussions took a napkin and draw the borders of Caspian Sea which Boris Yeltsin understood and accepted. Then it took another several hours to decrypt Presidents’ handwritings and to create a document which delineated seabed borders of Caspian in accordance with a median line modified by two Presidents. This was an illustration of personal diplomacy of the President Nazarbayev who then became known in the world as a competent negotiator.
  17. 17. SINO-KAZAKH RELATIONSHIPS Hu Jintao: “China has no better friend in today’s world than Kazakhstan” (China- Kazakhstan summit, 2011).
  18. 18. SINO-KAZAKH RELATIONSHIPS  Affirming State’s borders – negotiations with Jiang Zemin  During 2009-2013 period Kazakhstan received about $23 billions of Chinese investment mostly into oil output and manufacturing industry  Ambitious mutual projects including expansion of oil and gas pipelines between the countries, a creation of Europe-China highway with running across Kazakhstan’s 3 000 km. territory, free trade zone at the new border crossing of Khorgos
  19. 19.  As China remains the 2nd biggest investment partner of Kazakhstan the relationships with this state are build up in a friendly way. So, ex-chairman of PRC Communist party Hu Jintao said during China-Kazakhstan summit in 2011 that China has no better friend in today’s world than Kazakhstan.  And it were not just beautiful words with no meaning. The confirmation to these words was vast investments to Kazakhstani economics and realisation of large interethnic projects.  During 2009-2013 period Kazakhstan received about $23 billions of Chinese investment mostly into oil output and manufacturing industry.  The big common projects launched the last 5 years including expansion of oil and gas pipelines between the countries, a creation of Europe-China highway which is running across Kazakhstan’s 3 000 km. territory, free trade zone at the new border crossing of Khorgos.
  20. 20.  The origins of successful cooperation began in 1991 when President Nazarbayev and Chairman Jiang Zemin affirmed borders of independent Kazakhstan. They both spoke Russian fluently and understood each other as both were acquainted with Soviet political system. Mr. Zemin finally said: “We must settle these border issues now, while we are both in charge. One day in the future a new generation may come to lead China who I am not so sure will be so eager to reach an agreement”. Shortly afterwards the territorial issues were solved which gave 53% of the contested regions to Kazakhstan and 47% to China.
  21. 21. WESTERN DIPLOMACY  OSCE as a big diplomatic effort of Kazakhstan  Astana – is a centre of holding international events  Drawing international investments  Kazakhstan – member of UN, OIC (Organization of Islamic Cooperation), TURKSOI (International organization of Turkic culture)  A position of negotiator of international conflicts
  22. 22.  It’s urgent demand for modern Kazakhstan to build up strong partnership relationships with Western world including Europe and USA. That was why Kazakhstan diplomats and the President himself did their best to promote its new capital Astana in international environment.  The one of the biggest Kazakhstani diplomatic efforts was holding OSCE (Organization for security and co-operation in Europe) summit in 2010. The idea of Kazakhstan chairmanship sounded by President Nazarbayev was met with confrontation in high political circles especially by American administration. However, Nazarbayev began to lobby his proposal visiting all the leaders of states-members of organization and influenced them to accept the chairmanship of Kazakhstan arguing that the world was changing in the XXI century and it was time to trust an Eurasian and Asian nation with presidency. In 2006 Nazarbayev met with George W Bush and personally questioned him why America was so against of Kazakhstan taking chairmanship. This question was unexpected and President of America had to reply that the question would be reconsidered. After several rounds of diplomatic debates Kazakhstan eventually took chairmanship in 2010 and held summit in Astana.
  23. 23.  Apart from holding OSCE summit which was visited by first political figures from Europe and USA, Astana hosted 7th Asian winter games with participants from 26 Asian countries, World Islamic Economic Forum with participants from 55 Islamic states, Shanghai Cooperation Council and International forum for a nuclear weapons-free world. All these events brought wide opportunities to Kazakhstan and its capital to be recognizable in the world and also to draw investments in its economics.  For instance, this month President Nazarbayev visited UK where he met with the Royal family, Prime Minister David Cameron and representatives of English business elite and afterwards visited France where he met with François Hollande and representatives of business elite. These personal meetings brought more than $5 billion of investments into state economics.  Kazakhstan position in international relations is to encourage all the confronting countries to establish a dialogue in finding solution. Kazakhstan is one of those few countries who has friendly relationships with all countries in the world.  Recently, presenting his speech in UN General Assembly in New-York on 29th of September, 2015 President Nazarbayev underlined a huge role of negotiations in international conflicts on example of Ukrainian crisis and asked of full implement of Minsk agreements. He also told about creating zones free of nuclear weapons particularly in the Middle East.
  24. 24. 3 LANGUAGES POLICY “BOLASHAK” SCHOLARSHIP
  25. 25.  As Kazakhstan aspires to find its niche in international world it is a priority of the country to bring up a new generation of specialists fluently speaking in English. This was a reason why a presidential scholarship called “Bolashak” (literal translation is Future) were established in 1993. The scholarship gives opportunity to Kazakhstani university graduates to study further abroad and covers all the tuition fees and living expenses of scholarship’s holders. After getting education students should return to Kazakhstan and work there for minimum 5 years. During 21 years more than 11 thousands people have been getting education abroad mostly preferring UK and USA as their study destinations. This programme is changing a situation in language policy of country whose people fluently speak 2 languages – Kazakh and Russian, and younger ambitious generation speaks English as well. The programme also gives opportunity to Kazakhstani people to integrate deeply with global community.
  26. 26. Tobias Ellwood, Parliamentary under Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth office: “Both commercially and politically, the Kazakhstan of today is on the verge of becoming a significant player on the regional and international stage”.

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