Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIRevision of ELE3102 – Principle of English Language TeachingTheories of second language acquisition Structuralise / Analyzed / Explicit Non- structuralise / Unanalysed / Implicit The fact that a learner knows about Information that is automatically and language and the ability to articulate spontaneously used in the language those facts in some way. task. Learner aware about the structure of Learner not aware about the structure knowledge of knowledge Controlled AutomaticsExample: Children implicitly learn phonology, syntactic & semantic rules for language. But donot have accessed to an explanation explicitly of those rules.Developing classroom skillsThe roles of teachers in class: Build the good relationship with the pupils. This will encourage the social skills among pupils too. Make the remedial activity during lesson if needed. Not all the pupils can achieve the learning outcomes faster. Attract the pupils’ interest to learn the language. The teacher must creative in planning the lesson. Encourage the usage of the language in the class by the group activity, roles play and others communicative activities. Manage the discipline rules among pupils in the class. So that the pupils will more discipline and cultured with good manner.The roles of pupils as the learners are: Give full attention and participation to the lesson prepared by the teacher. So, they can understand and enjoy the lesson. Try to follow the rules that fixed by the teacher. This will help to build the good attitude pupils. Try to do the activities ask by the teacher. If have the problem to finish it up, ask the help from the teacher.
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIManaging group work Be certain that group activities further the course objectives. Unless there is a compelling reason Explain to students to do otherwise, the nature and aim for value of the heterogeneous proposed activities. groups. Keep the group Be certain to give size small. clear instructions. Provide students with a sense of closure. To ensure heterogeneity, form teacher formed teams. Keep groups together long enough to establish positive working relationships. Allow time for team building. Encourage students to monitor, as you will, group processing. Use Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) to determine student progress. Encourage students to practice and reinforce positive social skills. Structure activities to promote positive interdependence Promote individual accountability. Set up a clear, non-competitive, criterion-referenced grading scheme. Anticipate problems and don’t be afraid to seek constructive help.
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIManaging multiple classroom teaching A method of teaching and learning in which students team together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project. A group of students discussing a lecture or students from different schools working together over the Internet on a shared assignment are both examples of collaborative learning.
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRI DISCOVERY LEARNING - Encourages students to ask questions and formulate their own conjectures An inquiry – - To deduce generalbased learning principles from approach practical examples or experience
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRI“Inquiry" is defined as "a seeking for Through the process of truth, information, inquiry, individuals construct or knowledge -- much of their understandingseeking information of the natural and human- by questioning. designed worlds. Inquiry implies a "need or want to know" premise. Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer -- because often there is none -- but rather seeking appropriate resolutions to questions and issues Inquiry Based Learning Identify the concept to be learned and skills that lead to understanding of that concept Carefully plan and develop a sequence of questions that should be asked to help your students ‘discover’ concept concerned. Prepare a set of specific examples and arrange them in a progression leading to concept discovery. Make readily available relevant reference materials and equipment for student use.
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIMixed ability class • Involve the students in drawing up start the behavior codes and the penalties for breaking the rules. discipline • Draw up a class charter and display it on a poster on the wall. strategies small- • Use mixed ability groups sometimes and appoint a group leader with group strengths to help the weaker ones. • Use same-ability groups to allow techniques people to work at their own pace strive to coordinate the students into consider the functional learning curriculum to be groups based on utilized. their skills and learning pace analysis of the needs of the students
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIMultiple class (different age) Understanding that Understanding that students need to we need to address work at their own all the students in the level. class.Understanding that Understanding that students come to students are at class with a lot ofknowledge of things different levels of English. other than English. Understanding that Techniques for students have dealing with mixed different learning ability students: styles. graded dictation. Understanding that students work at different speeds and energy levels
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIQuestioning technique Chunking questions: Chunk up and down for more or less detail. Clear questions: That are simple and unambiguous. Columbo technique: Asking stupid questions that get the answers you want. Double bind questions: Whichever way you answer, the result is the same. Tag questions: Some questions encourage agreement, dont they?Open questions are good for: Developing an open conversation: "What did you get up to on vacation?" Finding our more detail: "What else do we need to do to make this a success?" Finding out the other persons opinion or issues: "What do you think about those changes?"Closed questions are good for: Testing your understanding, or the other persons: "So, if I get this qualification, I will get a raise?" Concluding a discussion or making a decision: "Now we know the facts, are we all agreed this is the right course of action?" Frame setting: "Are you happy with the service from your bank?"Funnel questions are good for: Finding out more detail about a specific point: "Tell me more about Option 2." Gaining the interest or increasing the confidence of the person youre speaking with: "Have you used the IT Helpdesk?", "Did they solve your problem?", "What was the attitude of the person who took your call?"Asking probing questions is another strategy for finding out more detail.Probing questions are good for: Gaining clarification to ensure you have the whole story and that you understand it thoroughly; and Drawing information out of people who are trying to avoid telling you something. Tip:
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRI Use questions that include the word "exactly" to probe further: "What exactly do you mean by fast-track?", "Who, exactly, wanted this report?"Leading questions try to lead the respondent to your way of thinking.Leading questions are good for: Getting the answer you want but leaving the other person feeling that they have had a choice. Closing a sale: "If that answers all of your questions, shall we agree a price?"Rhetorical questions arent really questions at all, in that they dont expect an answer.Questions are a powerful way of: Learning: Ask open and closed questions, and use probing questioning. Relationship building: People generally respond positively if you ask about what they do or enquire about their opinions. If you do this in an affirmative way "Tell me what you like best about working here", you will help to build and maintain an open dialogue. Managing and coaching: Here, rhetorical and leading questions are useful too. They can help get people to reflect and to commit to courses of action that youve suggested: "Wouldnt it be great to gain some further qualifications?" Avoiding misunderstandings: Use probing questions to seek clarification, particularly when the consequences are significant. And to make sure you avoid jumping to conclusions, the Ladder of Inference tool can help too. Diffusing a heated situation: You can calm an angry customer or colleague by using funnel questions to get them to go into more detailThe Focal Question - Focuses on a well articulated issue
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIClassroom management
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRI Retain theObserve the rules and students procedure of behaviour classroom Increase CooperationMANAGING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIPurpose of teaching language skills 1. Increase Comprehensibility Krashen’s theory of comprehensible input involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students providing many nonverbal clues such as pictures, objects, demonstrations, gestures, and intonation cues building from language that is already understood, using graphic organizers, hands-on learning opportunities, and cooperative or peer tutoring techniques Native Language the advantage of incorporating a student’s native language into their instruction using a student’s native language as a support can be seen as both a general method or as any of a number of specific strategies. Many of the strategies including implicitly or explicitly, the use of a student’s native language to increase his or her understanding. 2. Increase Interaction Drawing from Swain’s emphasis on comprehensible output a number of strategies have been developed that increase students’ opportunities to use their language skills in direct communication and for the purpose of "negotiating meaning" in real-life situations. cooperative learning, study buddies, project-based learning, and one-to-one teacher/student interactions. 3. Increase Thinking Skills Drawing from Cummins’s theories of academic language and cognitively demanding communication ways to develop more advanced, higher order thinking skills as a student’s competency increases. These include asking students higher order thinking questions (e.g., what would happen if…?), modeling "thinking language" by thinking aloud, explicitly teaching and reinforcing study skills and test-taking skills, and holding high expectations for all students. Strategy of teaching language 1. General principles and motivation Intrinsic motivation as the learners willingness "to engage in the activities for their own sake". This kind of motivation will bring about "internally rewarding consequences, namely feelings or competence and self determination". Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, refers to behaviors encouraged by external factors. Typical extrinsic rewards such as moneys, prizes, praises and encouragement.
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRI Integrative motivation is associated with the learners intention of blending with the cultures of the native-speakers. Motivation has been identified as the learners orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language Instrumental motivation is related to the view that to be competence in a language provides economical and practical advantages. This is generally characterized by the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language2. Levels of ability understanding focus ABILITIES hearing analyzing
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIRemedial and enrichment activity Enrichment Activity Remedial Activity Have specific function that to be used Prepared for pupils to ensure they master the skills To be used after the lesson delivering finish Prepared are suitable with pupils’ level Can encourage the interest of pupils and motivate them to learn the language Specifically prepared only for the pupils To empowering the understanding on what which have problem in understand and have been teach to the pupils master certain skill Can measure the understanding of pupil on The weak pupils will be given remedial certain skill activities based on weaknessTo empowering the certain skill that teach to To drills on a skill that pupils weak. the pupils Can be manipulated as remedial for weak Cannot be used for enrichment activity – the pupils good pupils will be bored Can combine more than one skills together Only a skill to be drilledMaterials selection, adaptation, and simplification based on ability and interest. 1. Ability Adaption of material (by modify / simplify) to meet the learners’ ability needs Eg: Article about Aerospace that can be modified by teacher suitable with language ability of primary school 2. Interest Adaption of material (by modify / simplify) to attract learners to use the material Summarize the articles into mind map or interesting chart.Lesson planning: introduction, purpose, and formatIntroduction Subject Year Date / Day Time
Cg Mohd Ridzuan Al-Kindy IPG KDRIPurposes Theme (World of Self / Word of Knowledge / World of Story) Topic Focused skills Integrated skill Skills Intended Learning Outcome (Behavioral Objective) Vocabulary Sentence pattern Previous knowledge Moral values Thinking skills Multiple intelligenceFormat Stages/Time Content Activity Resources RationalInduction Set Introduce(5 minutes) the topicPresentation Teacher(15 minutes) diliver cont.Practice Pupils pract.(15 minutes) skillsProduction Pupils do(20 minutes) exerciseClosure Summaries(5 minutes) of lessonHow do you prepare scheme of work? 1. Use the syllabus, textbooks and workbooks to break the syllabus into a number of themes or topics. 2. Use the inventory of skills, grammar items and prescribed vocabulary to decide which skills/items should go with each topic/theme. 3. Decide on an appropriate sequence for presenting the themes. 4. Decide the amount of time can be spent for each topic/theme Example Scheme of Work: