Exclusivity of the concept of European Union citizenship


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Exclusivity of the concept of European Union citizenship

  1. 1. Exclusivity of the concept of European Union citizenshipWho are the citizens of European Union? The concept of European Union citizenship is arelatively undiscovered, still a very crucial theme when it comes to the functioning labormarkets in the European area. It is about time to discuss, should European Unioncitizenship without national citizenship involved exist. Changing the concept of statutorycomponents, it is possible to get the labor market more efficient and flexible in theEuropean Union area. By benefitting the understanding of the conceptual context with itsfeatures of inclusivity and exclusivity, it is more convenient to create functions for thelabor markets and to integrate the citizens to European Union. Keywords European Union, citizenship, Europe, labor market policies, privileges, migration Aino Salmi aino.salmi@jyu.fi scoop.it/t/citizenship- in-european-union @estudianteuc3m es.linkedin.com/in/ ainosalmi
  2. 2. HypothesisThe concept of European Union citizenship excludes non-EU -citizens, which causes faultsespecially in the labor markets of Europe. The people coming from non-European Unioncountries to EU -countries do not enjoy the same privileges in the scope of working andmoving whilst living in the European Union area. That results in legal and indentificalproblems especially in the case of migrants and refugees in labor markets. The dilemmahides especially in the distinctions how different EU -countries handle the potentialmigrant workers.New institutional theoryThe new institutional theory concentrates on the profound aspects of social structures andit goes beneath the surface of social behavior. New institutional theories focus on asociological view of institutions and on how the institutions shape the behaviour of humanbeings. According to this theory point of view, a critical look at the institution, theEuropean Union citizenship, is justifiable. It is questionable, for what purposes thisinstitution is created for and for who.Institutionalism is not a theory in a way we understand it, it is moreover an "organisingperspective". New institutionalism does not really ask for any specific theory, with thisapproach it is possible to adapt various theories, what is substantial is to have a criticalstance. The most important institutions in the world have their subjective and objectivefeatures. One of them, is certainly the institution of citizenship. (Marsh etc. 2002)As an institution, the European Union citizenship doesnt appear as something to take forgranted. The concept is relatively new and more or less arguable. European citizenshipitself does not yet have an autonomous definition. Citizenship is still a vital instrument forincorporation in European societies, but absorption of national and European Unioncitizenship doesnt seem to work when it comes to the labor markets. With the newinstitutional theory we can examine how this institution affects human behaviour.
  3. 3. AnalysisEuropean Union citizenship is an unexampled project in the making. The unique way toaccess the European Union citizenship is by having one of the member states nationality. Itcauses a relatively paradoxical situation, when the person coming from a third countrywith the same circumstances will be treated in a different way. Depending on the state, theperson entering the area can get the nationality and become a EU -citizen or be excludedfrom nationality and European Union citizenship. The concept of European Unioncitizenship was built excluding a large amount of third countries nationals that live withinits frontiers.The concept of European Union citizenship at this form delivers problems of distributionand legitimisation of civil, political and social entitlements to non-citizens resident withinthe territory of EU member states. It is considerable to think, if the national citizenship stillis an essential organisational factor in European Union politics as a status that assignsindividuals to a particular political community and enables those who qualify as citizenswith exclusive rights and obligations. (Maarten 2003) The other question to discuss is, whyand to what extent the co-operation of autonomous states in the EU affects the domesticorganisation of extending rights to noncitizens.Any person holding the nationality of a European Union country is automatically also aEU -citizen. EU citizenship is additional to and does not replace national citizenship,giving a European status a distinctively national foundation. It is for every EU -country tolay down the conditions for the acquisition and loss of nationality of the country. (Maarten2003)Referring to Soysal (1995), to note that "national citizenship or a formal nationality is nolonger a significant construction in terms of how it translates into certain rights andprivileges", undervalues the difficulties experienced by third country migrant workers andrefugees who seek access to European labor markets and social welfare. (Maarten 2003)The postnational model of citizenship emerges as migrants gain rights on the basis ofuniversal personhood, rendering national citizenship increasingly irrelevant. The maingrounds for the equal treatment of third country nationals are the association agreementsbetween the EU and third countries, for example the Agreement on the European
  4. 4. Economic are. The status of third country nationals has been on the agenda of Europeanpolicy-makers within a more optimistic track.Europe has to consider pro-active migration policies and measures to identify future laborand skills gaps. In the medium- and long-term the EU and its member states will have tocompete with other countries for attractive potential migrants. Might be that EuropeanUnion should develop a genuine interest in becoming both more attractive for highlyskilled migrants as well as more inclusive towards all employable migrants. (Münz 2008).Citizenship is still a crucial instrument for incorporation in European societies. The limitedimpact of European integration on national citizenship, arguably the result of aversion bymember states to do away with an essential aspect of the nation-state, however alsouncovers in more general terms the limits of European citizenship itself. It should beemphasised that free movement is quite far from complete and unconditional under thesecircumstances. European citizenship entails various good ideas for a more driven transitionto a post-national tableau and it can be the prototype for institutional experimentation oncitizenship on a global scale. EU citizenship has matured as an institution, owing to manyimportant interventions by the European Court of Justice and legislative initiatives, such asthe Citizenship Directive 2004/38/EC. (Konstakopoulou 2007)BibliographyKonstakopulou, D. (2007) "European Union Citizenship: Writing the Future". EuropeanLaw Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5, 623-646.Maarten P. V. (2003): "Limits of European Citizenship: European Integration andDomestic Immigration Policies". Constitutionalism Web-Papers, ConWEB, 4/2003.Marsh, D., Stoker, G. (eds) (2002): Theory and Methods in Political Science. GreatBritain: Palgrave Macmillan.Münz, R. (2008): "Migration, Labor Markets, and Integration of Migrants: An Overviewfor Europe." Social Protection Discussion Paper, 0807.Soysal, Y. (1995): Limits of Citizenship, Migrants and postnational membership inEurope. Chigago: University of Chigago Press.