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AGR154 CHAPTER 4 - NEMATODES

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ONE OF THE TOPIC IN CHAPTER 4 PLANT PATHOLOGY
SEMESTER 2

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AGR154 CHAPTER 4 - NEMATODES

  1. 1. Characteristics of Nematodes AGR154
  2. 2. Chapter Overview Characteristics of nematode Reproduction of nematodes How nematodes affect plant Isolation of nematodes from soil
  3. 3. Introduction Kingdom = Animalia Phylum = Nematoda Important genus: Heterodera = cyst nematode Meloidogyne = root-knot nematode Live in fresh or salt water or in the soil
  4. 4. Morphology of Plant Pathogenic Nematodes Small , 300 to 1000 micrometers long 15-35 micrometers wide (invisible to naked eyes) Eel shape and round in cross section Smooth, unsegmented bodies Without legs or other appendages
  5. 5. Anatomy More or less transparent (covered by a colorless cuticle) The cuticle is produced by the hypodermis The cuticle will extend to the body cavities as four chords The four chords will separating into four bands of muscles The muscles enable the nematode to move Body cavity contains a fluid – circulation and respiration take place)
  6. 6. Anatomy Hollow tube digestive systems- starting from mouth- esophagus- intestine – rectum and anus. 6 lips surround the mouth Have a hollow stylet or spear (use to puncture holes in plant cells and take the nutrients from cell)
  7. 7. Reproduce through eggs May be sexual or parthenogenetic (development of embryos occurs without fertilization by a male) 1. Female reproductive system One or two ovaries Followed by oviduct and uterus terminating in a vulva 2. Male reproductive system Has testis and seminal vesicle Has a pair of protrusible and copulary spicules Reproduction
  8. 8. Cross Section of Female Nematodes
  9. 9. Nematodes Lips
  10. 10. Life Cycle 4 steps/phases Eggs 4 juvenile stages Adult Egg produced
  11. 11. Eggs hatch into juvenile Juveniles will enlarge There are 4 stages of juvenile Each stages will be ended with molting process The first molt occurs in the eggs After the final moult, the nematodes will differentiate into males or females. The female can then produce fertile eggs
  12. 12. Life Cycle
  13. 13. The life cycle may be completed within 2-4 weeks under optimum environmental Usually the first and second juvenile still could not infect the plant Once infective stages are produced, they must feed the host Without host, they might die due to starvation.
  14. 14. Habitat Mostly all of plant pathogenic nematodes spend their life in the soil 1. Feeding habit Ectoparasite : do not enter into the host tissue feed only on the host surfaces Endoparasite : enter and feed the host tissue 2. Feeding sites Migratory : Moves through plant tissue Sedentary : establish specialised feeding sites & stay there until they die.
  15. 15. Location of Feeding Location of feeding Feeding habit Example Endoparasite Migratory Root knot, cyst, citrus Sedentary Lesion, stem, bulb Ectoparasite Migratory Ring Sedentary Stubby root
  16. 16. How Nematodes Affect Plant Because of feeding process Puncture a cell wall Inject saliva- contain enzymes Take the cell contents And moves on within a few seconds
  17. 17. Isolation of Nematodes From Soil Baermann Funnel method: Extract live nematodes from soil Nematodes move out from the soil into the water, Then, they will fall to the bottom of the funnel
  18. 18. Baermann Funnel Set Up Soil sample over wire mesh Funnel Beaker Clamp Rubber tubing Clamp to hold funnel
  19. 19. Put a wire mesh into the funnel. Add a water into the funnel A piece of rubber tube is attached to the funnel . A clamp is used to hold the funnel Put a beaker below the rubber tube Add soil sample into the porous paper Place the sample onto the funnel. Cover the tissue over the soil Incubate for 48 hours and collect the nematodes The nematodes moves actively from the porous paper into the water and sink at the bottom of rubber tubing.
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ONE OF THE TOPIC IN CHAPTER 4 PLANT PATHOLOGY SEMESTER 2

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