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Chapter 6:  Prospective  Analysis: Forecasting
Key Concepts in Chapter 6 <ul><li>Strategy, accounting, and financial performance analyses provide valuable information th...
Overall Structure of the Forecast <ul><li>Typically a few key strategic drivers are critical to forecasting future firm pe...
Performance Behavior: A Starting Point <ul><li>Past performance may be used to understand the behavior of key measures suc...
Key Accounting Measures <ul><li>Sales Growth Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rates tend to be mean-reverting. See Fi...
Sales Growth Rates Over Time
Key Accounting Measures <ul><li>Return on Equity Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROE behavior is dependent on both earnings...
ROE Behavior Over Time
Decomposing ROE for Further Analysis <ul><li>ROE may be decomposed ultimately to the following components: </li></ul><ul><...
How Forecasting Relates to Other Analyses <ul><li>Preliminary analyses can assist with conducting forecasts. </li></ul><ul...
Sales Growth and Macroeconomic Factors <ul><li>Impact of changing macroeconomic conditions on the cyclical consumer electr...
NOPAT Margins <ul><li>Reduction in suppliers’ excess capacity will decrease Loewe’s bargaining power. </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Other Measures for Loewe <ul><li>Working capital to sales – likely to revert to its pre-2008 level because the beginning t...
Making Forecasts, Loewe <ul><li>Though Loewe exhibits superior performance in the short run, mean-reverting behavior is ex...
Loewe Overall Forecast <ul><li>Besides the mean-reverting behavior of returns, there are other assumptions that drive an o...
Loewe’s Financial Statements
Sensitivity Analysis <ul><li>Forecasts should be done with more than one possible set of assumptions in mind. </li></ul><u...
Concluding Comments <ul><li>Forecasting is the first step in prospective analysis of firm performance. </li></ul><ul><li>P...
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  1. 1. Chapter 6: Prospective Analysis: Forecasting
  2. 2. Key Concepts in Chapter 6 <ul><li>Strategy, accounting, and financial performance analyses provide valuable information that help to shape forecast assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasts of future performance should be comprehensive, including all condensed financial statements. </li></ul><ul><li>The starting point for forecasts should be the time series behavior of key measures such as sales growth, earnings, and ROE (and its components). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overall Structure of the Forecast <ul><li>Typically a few key strategic drivers are critical to forecasting future firm performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, breakthrough technologies, business alliances, and business line expansions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A practical approach begins with deriving condensed financial statements that contain key elements of the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, estimating future sales is the critical first step in arriving at forecasted financial statement information. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Performance Behavior: A Starting Point <ul><li>Past performance may be used to understand the behavior of key measures such as sales or earnings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying the time series of measures such as earnings can provide insights into trends for future performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures from prior periods provide benchmarks to compare forecasts against. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Key Accounting Measures <ul><li>Sales Growth Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rates tend to be mean-reverting. See Figure 6-1 on the next slide. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earnings Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On average, follow a random walk or random walk with drift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term trends tend to be sustained, on average. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sales Growth Rates Over Time
  7. 7. Key Accounting Measures <ul><li>Return on Equity Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROE behavior is dependent on both earnings and the asset base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns tend to be mean-reverting. See Figure 6-2 on the next slide. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ROE Behavior Over Time
  9. 9. Decomposing ROE for Further Analysis <ul><li>ROE may be decomposed ultimately to the following components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROE = NOPAT margin * Operating asset turnover + Spread * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net financial leverage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the behavior of the components from 1992 – 2008 provided the following insights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating asset turnover and net financial leverage tend to be rather stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOPAT margin is the most variable component of ROE, and drives changes in the spread </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How Forecasting Relates to Other Analyses <ul><li>Preliminary analyses can assist with conducting forecasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Using Loewe as an example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business strategy analysis: Has Loewe been able to create a brand reputation and a retailing infrastructure, allowing it to dominate the market for luxury audio and video systems in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Benelux? Will Loewe be able to replicate this market dominance outside these countries? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting analysis: Are there any aspects of Loewe’s accounting that suggest past earnings and assets are misstated, or expenses or liabilities are misstated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial analysis: What are the sources of superior performance, and is it sustainable? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sales Growth and Macroeconomic Factors <ul><li>Impact of changing macroeconomic conditions on the cyclical consumer electronics industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near-term impact of recession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer-term impact is sufficiently unpredictable to focus on the firm’s competitive position and strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations, increased brand awareness and expansion into new geographical markets will support longer-term sales growth. </li></ul>
  12. 12. NOPAT Margins <ul><li>Reduction in suppliers’ excess capacity will decrease Loewe’s bargaining power. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing differentiation should help Loewe to further increase its price premium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation requires higher investments in SG&A and R&D </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Other Measures for Loewe <ul><li>Working capital to sales – likely to revert to its pre-2008 level because the beginning trade receivables is abnormally high (successful 2007Q4). </li></ul><ul><li>Non-current assets to sales – likely to deteriorate as R&D investments increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital structure – reduction in excess cash will lead to an increase in leverage. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Making Forecasts, Loewe <ul><li>Though Loewe exhibits superior performance in the short run, mean-reverting behavior is expected in the long run. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Loewe Overall Forecast <ul><li>Besides the mean-reverting behavior of returns, there are other assumptions that drive an overall forecast for Loewe’s performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales growth is affected by the recession, future technological innovations, increased brand awareness and international expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOPAT margin can be increased given Loewe’s further development of its differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative cost of debt will be similar to prior years But leverage will increase after the disposal of excess cash. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The magnitude of Loewe’s competitive advantage over its rivals will decline over time. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Loewe’s Financial Statements
  17. 17. Sensitivity Analysis <ul><li>Forecasts should be done with more than one possible set of assumptions in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>In Loewe’s case, there are at least two likely alternative situations to those used for the forecasted financial statements in Table 6-6: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upside case: Loewe captures a greater market share and grows in line with the LCD televisions market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downside case: Selling expense (as a percent of sales) grows explosively if Loewe is unsuccessful in the development of its differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Concluding Comments <ul><li>Forecasting is the first step in prospective analysis of firm performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary business strategy, accounting, and financial analysis should form the basis for many assumptions used in forecasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasts should be comprehensive and include key elements of the financial statements. </li></ul><ul><li>When forecasting, the time series behavior of various statistics should be kept in mind. </li></ul>

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