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Socialization and China's One Child Policy

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Socialization and China's One Child Policy

  1. 1. China’s One Child Policy Endangered species in China HUMAN TRAFFICKING WHEN FERTILITY ISSUES IN CHINA CHANGES THE SHAPE OF FAMILY. China s One-Child-Per-Couple-Policy and its latent effects on the shape, structure and the future of Family.
  2. 2. Changing: Quantity Quality compromised How efforts to change the ‘quantity’ of family, affected ‘quality’ of family life.
  3. 3. Shape Nuclear, Extended Size, Physical Appearance Happy, sad, divorced…. Brothers, Sisters… What do we mean when we say ‘shape’ of family?
  4. 4. ONE-CHILD POLICY 1978 Aim: Contain China’s overwhelming fertility rate… for the sake of economic growth, national security and environmental preservation.
  5. 5. Clarity: Fertility is not Fecundity Fertility is the ‘actual’ production of live offspring and Fecundity is the ‘potential’ production.
  6. 6. Child Commodity, Male vs. Female Fertility Actual production of commodity Wife We will talk about this later.. So if you can only produce One commodity, you want the commodity that has the most…VALUE
  7. 7. Female vs. Male Commodity How are females and males valued differently in China’s Society? Sons carry on the family name. Girls become Wives.
  8. 8. Under the constraints (1 child only) of China’s One-Child-Policy a few latent effects manifest.
  9. 9. Son-preferential ideologies Lineage: Symbolic Interactionist Perspective More couples want to have sons to carry on the family name.
  10. 10. Son-preference Increasing Practice of sex selection Endangered species in China Lack of Local Wives Gendercide Sex Imbalance BOYS > GIRLS
  11. 11. Lack of Girls = Lack of Wives to fulfill roles in family So let’s think about the Function & Roles of Wives…. Think about the roles filled by women in the family in China's Society. Ovens by which to give birth to children, Household labor, Sexual objects, Serve husband or Career Woman with her own pursuits, Head of the family business...
  12. 12. WHAT does a country typically do when it lacks Something? … when it cannot produce women to fulfill the role of wives in the family?
  13. 13. IMPORT Human Trafficking into China (Forced Labour & Sexual Exploitation) This phenomenon of 'missing girls' has turned China into 'a giant magnet' for human traffickers, who lure or kidnap women and sell them - even multiple times - into forced marriages or the commercial sex trade, says Ambassador Mark Lagon
  14. 14. Latent Effect of HIGH DEMAND: Human Trafficking This is how China’s One-Child-Policy leads to rampant Human Trafficking.
  15. 15. How do these problems connect to FAMILY? Changes in family, due to One-Child-Policy and subsequent sex imbalance.
  16. 16. What would Families under China’s One-Child-Policy look like?
  17. 17. Effect on Families: Socialization no siblings Marriage Bachelorhood/Imported Wives/Matchmaking Families can be seen as a primary socialization group and the building blocks of society.
  18. 18. Effect on Families: Power dehumanization Locality resources/motivation 1-2-4 sandwich generation, strain Families can be seen as a primary socialization group and the building blocks of society.
  19. 19. 1-2-4 sandwich generation, strain
  20. 20. Effect on Families: Poverty perpetuation/rural regions Civil unrest emotional strain Families can be seen as a primary socialization group and the building blocks of society.
  21. 21. Proposed Solutions & Critiques - "Care for Girls" Campaign - Ebenstein 2009, Estimating a Dynamic Model of Sex Selection in China
  22. 22. “CARE for GIRLS” Campaign A pilot programme in RURAL China offering cash and other incentives to families who have daughters.
  23. 23. It is a double-edged sword. By compensating parents of girls in various ways: 1. May improve the status of girls 2. Reinforces the idea that girls are not as valuable as boys A futile effort. This campaign is only applicable to rural China. The situation between urban and rural China are different. China’s “CARE for GIRLS” Campaign A pilot programme in RURAL China offering cash and other incentives to families who have daughters
  24. 24. Estimating a Dynamic Model of sex selection in China Avraham Y. Ebenstein, March 2009 - Changing Fertility Limits - Offering subsidies to parents without a Son
  25. 25. Ebenstein, like Oppenheimer, has addressed the fertility issue through the eyes of an economist. According to the reading on Global Change and Demographic Shifts – “fertility rates are related to both macro social drivers and micro social drivers.” Failure to address most of the macro and micro-perspective in general. The cause for human trafficking and infanticides are built on the importance of lineage Estimating a Dynamic Model of sex selection in China Avraham Y. Ebenstein, March 2009
  26. 26. Connection to other Regions •  •  E.g. Vietnam, South Korea Vietnam: o  Poorer economic status --> Less ability to bring up more children --> Tend to prefer sons to daughters so as to continue lineage •  South Korea: o  Women are expected to stay at home as housewives once they are married •  Gender Inequality vs. Sex Ratio
  27. 27. Discussion Questions 1.  Due to the Chinese “son-preferential ideologies” i.e. lineage, more couples prefer to have boys over girls. Is this a problem that manifests across class boundaries? How can we address or change son-preferential beliefs? How does or how can the “Care for Girls” campaign factor into this? Is it helping? 2.  Do you think an ‘incentives for daughters’ scheme will reduce/eliminate sex selection and gendercide? 3.  Applying other countries policies to China, will it solve the distorted sex-ratio problem? e.g.. Using both surnames of parents in a child’s name to carry on lineage of both (extended) families, Singapore policies’ two or more if you can etc 4.  Why does the issue of lineage occur only in Asian countries even though Western countries are partilineal as well? 5.  Has the status of women increased in the family because of the missing girls issue?

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