Development of the education system in malaysia edu3101
The Education System Before Independence (1400-1956) During British Before BritishColonization (1400- Colonization (1786- Before World War II 1786) 1956) (1786-1941) Islamic After World War II (1946-1956) Education -Primary & Secondary Education -Cheeseman Plan (1946) -National Teacher Training -Barnes Report (1951) - Teacher’s house -Fenn-Wu Report (1952) -Vocational & -Mosque, surau, -Education Ordinance Technical Education (1952) & madrasah -Higher Education -Razak Report (1956) -Pondok/hut -National Teachers Trainee -Higher Education
Primitive & Feudal Period (1400-1786) Education during this period was typical offeudal societies. Only the royalties and nobility had thebenefits to formal education. For the society, education wasINFORMAL & LIMITED to acquiring skillsvital for survival. Eg: Fishing & farming forboys, cookery & weaving for girls.
However, the Islamic clergyestablished a small number ofQur’anic schools @ pondok forthe purpose of religiouseducation. Phase 1: Teachers’ houses Phase 2: Mosque, surau & madrasah Phase 3: Religious Institute (Hut Schools)
Phase 1: Teachers’ housesStudents learnt to study al-Quran & Fardhu Ainfrom teachers who were known as the scholars attheir houses.
Phase 2: Mosques, Surau & Madrasah Existed due to the increasing number of students. The scholars were respected and praised by the society & sometimes they were being invited to teach the royalties at the palace.
Phase 3: Religious Institute (Hut Schools)Prior traditional religious school.There were no standard syllabuses.The syllabuses and the way theyteach were based on the Al HaramMosque’s curriculum.
The subjects Hadith Language included: Nahu & Jawi Tauhid Sufi knowledge Tasawwuf Al-Quran & Akhlaq Fiqh ArabStudents assembled in the hut provided & studiedat madrasah owned by Tok Guru.After graduated, most of them worked at theirvillages.Some continued their studies to Mecca, Cairo,Pakistan or India.
3 phases of Colonial period: 1786-1941•[Divide and Rule] 1941-1945•[Japanese occupation] 1945-1957•[After Japanese occupation]
The British Colonial Period (1786-1957) The main concern of the British was to maintain peace& order to facilitate the exploitation of the economicresources of Malaya especially tin & rubber.British encouraged mass immigration of workers fromChina & India to work in the tin mines & rubberplantations respectively.The Malays remained in rural areas, the towns weredominated by the Chinese & a minority of Indians whoeventually controlled commerce & industry.
1786-1941DIVIDE AND RULE (Laissez faire) No clear policy on education. Through their divide & rule policy, British did not intend to establish rapport between the different races in Malaya through a standardized education system. Various vernacular schools were presented to only particular ethnic group run by either missionaries, rubber & coffee plantation owners, & local residents’ association.
Each ethnic group were to be educated intheir own language & learn to accept theirroles in life. British were to govern, Malays to cultivatethe fields, Chinese were to run the miningindustry & businesses, while Indians wouldbe confined to plantations & estates. This had contributed to the status quo ofthe different races in Malaya & identifyingthem with their previous economicactivities.
There were 4 types ofschool during Britishcolonization. English-medium. Malay-medium. Chinese-medium. Tamil-medium.
Malay Vernacular SchoolsStudents were taught with the basic of reading,writing & arithmetic as well as academic subjectssuch as Malay history & geography.Schools were set up to ensure the youngergenerations were able to provide themselvesand their future generations with living skills.However, it garnered little response from theMalay society because skills like reading, writing& arithmetic were of little use to the village folk.In addition, children were expected to carry outduties at home or in the fields.
Thus, the British governmentimplemented compulsory education inthe late 1880s and early 1890s. Malay Chiefs were commissioned toencourage parents to send theirchildren to school. The number of students increased to8000 in 1909.
Number of Malay Schools in 1916 States Number of Enrolment Attendance SchoolsThe Straits Settlements 191 12, 934 11, 034(Penang, Malacca &Singapore)The Federated Malay States 365 18, 034 14, 535(Selangor, Perak, NegeriSembilan & Pahang)The Unfederated Malay 137 >7, 923 >6, 940States (Johor, Kedah,Kelantan, Perlis &Terengganu)
The pondok schools were still a very importantmeans in the Unfederated States since the Britishgovernment paid more attention on development inthe Straits Settlements & the Federated MalayStates.The year 1916 was significant as the Britishestablished the post of Assistant Director ofEducation for Malay schools & other new posts forChinese & Indian education.1919, there was a Chief Inspector for Englishschools.1924, Assistant Director of Education for Chineseschools was created.1930, an Inspector for Tamil schools.
The Malay vernacular schools providededucation only in the primary level. The British feared that Malay communitywould not maintain their status quo &remain as farmers and fishermen. It was enough for them that thegovernment administration positions wereheld by Malays princes and sons of theelite Malays who studied in Englishschools.
Teachers’ training courses wereprovided by: Malay College in Singapore. Malay College in Malacca Malay College in Matang, Perak. Sultan Idris Training College in Tanjung Malim, Perak. (1922) Malay Women’s Training College, Malacca. (1935)
Education for Chinese• In the hands of the Chinese community.• Teachers were imported from China.• Textbooks were written & printed in China, comprised of the history, culture & geography of China.• Examples of schools: – Cantonese schools, Kampong Glan, Singapore. – Hokkien school, Perkin Street.• Mandarin (kuo yu) was introduced to enable various groups with different dialects to communicate.
• China achieved victory in its Republican Revolution of 1911 & began focusing their attention on Chinese communities overseas.• Aimed to instill the pride of being Chinese & ensuring their loyalty.• Brought nationalistic literature to the Chinese communities in Malaya.• The British were fearful of the increasing politicization of Chinese schools might disrupt their government administration in Malaya.
Steps taken by British government to curb the growing anti- foreigner sentiments among Chinese.• 1919, School Registration Enactment was passed to control political activities in school.• 1929, the British had to remove all xenophobic elements in Chinese texts.• Put a stop to the influx of teachers imported from China.• Appointed more government officials to keep an eye on the progress of Chinese schools.• 1935, introduced more teacher-training programmes & formalized Mandarin as the official medium of instruction for Chinese schools.
Education for the Indians• Early 19th century, the missionaries ran formal Indian education but garnered less response from the Indians.• 1923, the British passed the Labour Ordinance which stipulated that plantation owners in the Federated Malay States were required to provide education for the children of labourers at their own expenses.• Tamil schools existed were of poor quality due to no guidelines or provision to enforce Indian education.• Most of the teachers were either not trained or equipped with little training.• They were mainly comprised of Indian labour recruiters (kangani), clerks & other estate labourers.
• The mediums of instruction were Tamil, Thelugu, Malayalam, Punjabi or Hindi.• Indian schools imported school textbooks & materials from India.• 1937, the British government decided to intervene & appointed an official Inspector of Tamil schools.• A new training scheme for Tamil teachers was introduced but only were carried out in primary schools.
English-medium Schools• Schools were run by missionaries & the British government.• Provided primary & secondary education under the provision of the colonial government.• Examples of English schools: – Penang Free School. (1816, by Reverend R.S Hutchings). – Malacca High School (1826). – Singapore Free School (1834). – Victoria Institution (1893).
• They were the least popular schools in the late 19th & early 20th century, especially among Malays.• Most schools were established in the urban areas & out of reach of the rural folk, in term of distances & school fees.• Furthermore, the Malays felt English education did not suit their religion & culture.• They (The Malays) were afraid that the younger generation would be influenced by the Christian missionaries.
• However, Malay princes & sons of aristocratic families attended English schools who would eventually be employed as government clerks & lower officials in the British administration.• A cunning way for the British to ensure the Sultans & aristocrats felt that they were part of the government administration.
Japanese Colonization (1941-1945)• During World War II, education was used a tool for PROPAGANDA to inculcate love & loyalty for the Japanese emperor.• The English & Mandarin languages were banned in schools.• Several Malay schools in Kedah & Chinese vernacular schools in Sarawak were reopened by the Japanese & used to spread propaganda.• Almost all secondary schools in Kedah were used as army operation centres by the Japanese.
• The Japanese language, Nippon-Go became the official medium of instruction for all subjects in schools.• The language was also taught by teachers who had to attend Japanese language courses conducted by Japanese officials once a week.• Compulsory for students to sing the Japanese national song each morning before classes began to demonstrate their love for the Japanese emperor.
• Those who served in the government were required to have a command of the Japanese language.• Established the Shonan Korenjo Sihan Gakko, a Japanese Language Institution in Johor, to promote patriotism towards Japan.• The Development of Malaya ( Marei Koa Kunrensho) was set up in Malacca to offer courses on the Japanese language, culture & army training.
Education After World War II (1946-1957)• The Cheeseman Plan.• The Barnes Report.• The Fenn-Wu Report.• The Education Ordinance.• The Razak Report.• The Rahman Talib Report.• The Education Act 1961.
THE CHEESEMAN PLAN 1946• Free basic education for all.• Medium of instruction in secondary school: – English language – Malay language – Mandarin – Tamil• English language compulsory for all vernacular schools.
• The Cheeseman proposal was abandoned in 1949 with the demise of the Malayan Union.• The Barnes Committee was set up in 1950 to look into reforming and integrating the educational system.
1951, THE BARNES REPORT• Proposed all primary vernacular schools maintained one single standard & become national school using the same syllabus with bilingual languages; Malay & English.• Secondary schools had to maintain English as medium of instruction.• Replacement of Jawi script with Islamic education.
1952, THE FENN-WU REPORT• Medium of instruction for vernacular schools are English, Mandarin and Malay.• Argument: Country still can achieve unity though there was diversity in the medium of instructions.
1952, THE EDUCATION ORDINANCE• Based on Barnes Report.• 5 types of schooling systems: – English schools with English as medium of instruction. – Malays schools with Malay as medium of instruction. – Chinese schools. – Tamil schools. – Religious schools.• Curriculum according to individual school system.
1956, THE RAZAK REPORT• Chaired by Dato’ Abdul Razak Hussein.• Received 151 memorandums.• The report proposed: – One common school system for all: • Malay language as the medium of instruction for all stages of schooling. • Centralized curriculum & school examination.
• Both types of primary school should enforce Malay as a compulsory subject.• All national secondary schools should use a common syllabus & examination & enforce Malay & English as their compulsory subjects.• All teachers should be trained with a common syllabus in teachers’ training colleges.
1960, THE RAHMAN TALIB REPORT• Malay language as main language in schools.• Free secondary school education.• Automatic promotion until form 3.• Establishment of technical & vocational schools.• Emphasis on religious & moral education.
THE EDUCATION ACT 1961 Aspect ElaborationLevels of education i. Primary school education. ii. Lower secondary school education. iii. Upper secondary school education. iv. Education in other educational institutions; eg: colleges, teacher training colleges, etc.Primary education i. Compulsory for all children of school-going age ii. Free for all. iii. Offered in national schools & national-type schools.Secondary education i. Normal lower secondary ii. Normal upper secondary iii. Trade iv. Technical (upper secondary) v. Vocational (upper secondary) vi. Secondary (approval from Ministry of EducationIslamic Education i. Only offered if there were more than 15 Muslim pupils. ii. Taught by trained Agama teachers. iii. Two periods a week during school hours.
HUSSEIN ONN REPORT 1971• Provide a basic education for all children of school-going age.• Acknowledge the Malay language as the main medium of instruction.• Maintain the status of English language as second language.• Time allocated for teaching of English language will be increased & teachers given the necessary training.
1979, MAHATHIR REPORT• Chaired by Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad.• Main objective: “…to review the goals and effectiveness of the present education system for the purpose of meeting the manpower needs of the country both for the short and long terms. Besides this, to also ensure that the education system meets the country’s goals of producing a united, disciplined and skilled society.”
• Recommendations: – Focus on the 3 basic skills; reading, writing & arithmetic. – Teaching of English language as a second language. – Emphasis given for a sound spiritual education & other disciplines, wherever appropriate. – Secondary education to be divided into two streams; academic & vocational. – Extension of educational opportunities from 9 to 11 years. – Emphasis on curriculum ala Malaysia. – Review of Bahasa Malaysia in-service courses.
Education act 1996• Aims: – To further consolidate the national education system for the young generation in accordance with the country’s aspirations of making Malaysia a center of excellence for education. – To outline the legislation related to education.• 3 general legislative provisions: – The National Philosophy of Education which was proclaimed in 1988 & forms the underlying basis;
• The consolidation of the national education system to include the following: – All levels of schooling, from pre-school until tertiary education; – All categories of schools, for example, government schools, government-aided schools & private schools;• The National Language became the main medium of instruction under the national education system, besides being a compulsory subject for all schools & educational institutions.
National Philosophy of Education 1989• "E d u c a t i o n i n Ma l a y s i a i s a n o n -g o i n g e f f o r t t o wa r d s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a h o l i s t i c a n d i n t e g r a t e d ma n n e r , s o a s t o p r o d u c e i n d i v i d u a l s wh o a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , s p i r i t u a l l y , e mo t i o n a l l y a n d p h y s i c a l l y b a l a n c e d a n d h a r mo n i o u s , b a s e d o n a f i r m b e l i e f i n a n d d e v o t i o n t o Go d . S u c h a n e f f o r t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e
National Education Policy• Goals: – To produce a united bangsa Malaysia; – To produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable, God-fearing, well-behaved, competent & harmonious. – To provide a competent work force to meet the needs of a growing nation – To offer equal educational opportunities for all Malaysian citizens.
ETeMS• Teaching of Mathematics & Science in English (ETeMS) began in 2002.• Aim to ensure that our country would not be left out in the globalisation era.• Complete abolishment of ETeMS on the year of 2012
Compulsory Education• Compulsory for parents to send children to school.• Duration of compulsory schooling is 6 years.• Failure for parents to register their children to school will be fined by the law with RM5000 or prison sentence not more than 6 months or both.• Reasons: – Various ethnic groups to have equal access to education. – Rights of children with poverty are uphold.
Elective Subjects• Rationale: – An inadequate number of pupils in Government schools. – An increase in the number of non-Chinese pupils in Chinese vernacular schools.• Examples of elective subjects in school: – Chinese – Tamil – Kadazandusun – Iban etc.
Smart School• Rationale: – To achieve Vision 2020 & to keep pace with rapid development in the era of science & technology. – The establishment is supported with technology initiative. – Promote the development of a work force prepared to meet challenges of the next century.• Concept: – A change in the learning culture based on memory & examination-orientation to creative thinking & problem-solving.
• Goals: – To produce a knowledge-based work force who will navigate our country towards an information-based economy. – Students will be absorbed into the workforce for the Multimedia Super Corridor. – Assist in the transformation of technology ultimately leading to a highly technology-based local industry.• Implementation: – Production of a computer-savvy workforce equipped with thinking-skills – Democratisation of education. – Increment of stakeholders’ involvement. – Holistic development with due consideration to individual capability. – Emphasis on physical, emotional, spiritual & intellectual domains.
• Strategies: – A multi-perspective curriculum which encompasses elective subjects – Vertical, horizontal & multi-disciplinary integration. – Reasoning, values, creativity & language across the curriculum. – Use of technology in teaching & learning. – Care & concern for diversity in learning abilities & styles.• Levels of Technology: – Level A: 9 new school equipped with modern technology. – Level B+: 2 Smart Schools equipped with computers in 15 science laboratories, classrooms & office. – Level B: 79 Smart Schools equipped with a laboratory & computers in the Resource Center & computers for teachers.
Vision Schools• Aims: – Initiative to produce a Malaysian race (bangsa Malaysia) built on love for the country & abolition of ethnic differences amongst its citizens. – The importance of fostering racial unity early in an individual’s life.• Concept: – Nation Primary School, Chinese National-type Primary School & Tamil National-type Primary School will have their students to study in a common area.
• Rationale: – Pupils from diversified races interact with one another from an early thus ensuring that our country is moving towards national unity.• Issues: – Inculcation of ethnic & cultural diversity through printed & non-printed materials, co-curricular activities & celebration of festivals. – Equality in the implementation of school rules in accordance to the culture & beliefs of each ethnic group. – Academic & non-academic staff of all races to enhance social interaction with the pupils. – Fostering of positive ethnic identity awareness & the absence of superiority or inferiority complex founded on ethnicity. – Open communication across ethnic groups through interaction during recess & co-curricular activities.
• Considerations: – Inadequate practice of collaborative teaching for pupils to be exposed to & comprehend different cultural & social viewpoints. – Inadequate specialized training for Vision Schools teachers in areas such as cross-cultural communication skills, cultural sensitivity. – Balance between teachers’ & pupils’ background so as to bridge the social gap & enhance mutual understanding.• Challenges: – Encounter stiff challenges from the private sector & community. – Eg: Chinese schools were reluctant to get themselves involved will probably lead to a loss of the Chinese identity & culture.
Basic Reading & Writing Classroom Intervention Program (KIA2M)• Why? – The problem of pupils’ failure to master basic reading and writing skills was a huge concern & given serious attention.• Goals: – To assist Year 1 pupils to master the basic reading & writing skills in the Malay language. – To provide opportunities for pupils to learn according to their individual ability levels. – To enhance pupils’ self-confidence – To nurture an interest for learning.• KIA2M is compulsory for all national schools whereas national-type schools are given option.
Target Those whoGroup- need to be sent to aYear 1 special pupil remedial class The slow learners who have yet to Those who master the basic need reading andremediation in class writing skills
1 Nomination 2 6 ScreeningFollow-up test 6 Steps of Teaching & Learning Strategies 5 3Evaluation Planning 4 Teaching
Steps DetailsNomination & Based on the number of Year 1 pupils.Screening Test No addition to the number of classes or teachers. Students initially undergo a nomination process and screening test before get selected. Pupils are classified into test scores: 0-9: Referred to medical practitioner 10-44: Undergo KIA2M program 45-60: Continue with teaching and learning in a normal class.Planning Teachers plan their teaching using teaching module provided as a guide and reference. Teachers are given autonomy to modify the activities and exercises in the module according to pupils’ abilities.
Suggested Strategies • Planning and implementation of teaching is carried out by the teacher on an individual basis.Teacher- • Pupils are required to follow the teacher’scentered instructions and learn what has been taught. • Active pupil involvement in all the activities planned Pupil- by the teacher, on an individual, group or class.centered • Learning materials are prepared and arranged to be used by pupils after they have been given clearResource- explanations by the teacher.centered
CHOICE OF APPROACHESIndividual Approach• Focus on one student only.• Peer assistance can be sought (if necessary).Group Approach• Pupil-centered.• Pupils who are facing the same or almost the common learning problems.• Teacher teaches using the module provided.Class Approach• Pupils involve themselves in group activities to help foster their self-confidence.
TEACHING Story- telling Quizzes DrillsPlays Techniques Demonst Suggested rations Question Songs -and- answer Role play
EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP• KIA2M pupils are allowed to go back to mainstream if they passed: – Ujian Pelepasan 1 – Ujian Pelepasan 2• Observation & monitoring: – Curriculum Development Center & other interested divisions in the Ministry of Education – School Inspectorate – State Education Departments – District Education Offices – School heads (Headmasters @ headmistress)
Education Development Master Plan (EDMP) 2006- 2010• Goals: To produce quality education for all through the following 2 main approaches: – 1st Approach: • Ensure equity & equality. • Strategies: – Given fair & just educational opportunities. – Given the opportunities to master 3R: Reading, Writing, Arithmetic. – Improvement of ICT access.
– 2nd Approach: • Fully develop the potential of all schools. • To fall within the excellence cluster. • Achieve measurable success to chart our country & the education system on the world map. • Strategies: – Identify cluster schools from the following types of schools: » National » National-type » Boarding » Premier » Secondary technical » National religious secondary » Centennial » Smart Schools » Schools situated in Putrajaya & Cyberjaya. – Introduce various programs to enhance the strengths & competitiveness of schools in the education cluster.
EDMP 6 STRATEGIC THRUSTS T1: Nation- building T6: Accelerating T2: Developing Excellence of Human Capital Educational Institutions EDMP T3: T5: Enhancing Strengthening the Teaching National Profession Schools T4: Bridging the Education Gap
Education And Vision 2020• Aim: To gain the status of "a fully developed country" for Malaysia by the year 2020.• "B y t h e y e a r 2020, Ma l a y s i a c a n b e a u n i t e d n a t i o n , wi t h a c o n f i d e n t Ma l a y s i a n s o c i e t y , i n f u s e d b y s t r o n g mo r a l a n d e t h i c a l v a l u e s , l i v i n g i n a s o c i e t y t h a t i s d e mo c r a t i c , l i b e r a l a n d t o l e r a n t , c a r i n g , e c o n o mi c a l l y j u s t a n d e q u i t a b l e ,
9 challenges as stated in Vision 2020:• 1) The challenge of establishing a united Malaysian nation with a sense of common and shared destiny. This must be a nation at peace with itself, territorially and ethnically integrated, living in harmony, full and fair partnership, made up of one "Bangsa Malaysia" with political loyalty and dedication to the nation.• 2) The challenge of creating a psychologically liberated, secure and developed Malaysian Society with faith and confidence in itself, justifiably proud of what it is, of what it has accomplished, robust enough to face all manner of diversity. This Malaysian Society must be distinguished by the pursuit of excellence, fully aware of all its potentials, psychologically subservient to none, and respected by people of other nations.• 3) The challenge of fostering and developing a mature, democratic society, practicing a form of mature consensual, community-oriented Malaysian democracy that can be a model for many developing countries.
• 4) The challenge of establishing a fully moral and ethnic society, whose citizens are strong in religious and spiritual values and imbued with the highest of ethical standards.• 5) The challenge of establishing a matured, liberal and tolerant society in which Malaysians of all colours and creeds are free to practice and profess their custom, cultures and religious beliefs, yet feeling that they belong to one nation.• 6) The challenge of establishing a scientific and progressive society, a society that is innovative and forward-looking, one that is not only a consumer of technology but also a contributor to the scientific and technological civilization of the future.
• 7) The challenge of establishing a fully caring society and a caring culture, a social system in which society will come before self, in which the welfare of the people will revolve not around the state or the individual but around a strong and resilient family system.• 8) The challenge of ensuring an economically just society in which there is fair and equitable distribution of the wealth of the nation, and there is full partnership in economic progress. Such a society cannot be in place so long as there is the identification of race with economic function, and the identification of economic backwardness with race.• 9) The challenge of establishing a prosperous society, with an economy that is fully competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient.
Strategies to achieve VISION 2020• Vision 2020 emphasizes Malaysia as “a fully developed country, which is developed in every aspect - economically, politically, socially, spiritually, psychologically and culturally.”• The National Philosophy of Education calls for "developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious".
• Introduce the subjects of Islamic Studies and Moral, which are compulsory for students.• Increasing the intake of Science students.• Encouraging the use of computers and multimedia technology in educational institutions and providing courses in Information Technology.• The government is already in the process of setting up 90 pilot Smart Schools.• These schools are one of the 7 flagships of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project and aim at transforming the education system from memory-based learning into simulative thinking and creativity, through access to modern technology.
Thank you Pr e s e n t e d b y : Mc e l l e y L o r i e n c eP I S MP T E S L J A N 2011 Ai l e e n