A Specific View
Social Learning Theory
(Zone of Proximal Development) (More Knowledgeable Others)
-A range of tasks that an -Agents who help or support the
individual cannot yet do alone children to accomplish the -The process to achieve ZPD.
but can accomplish when tasks. -The changing of the level of
assisted by a more skilled -Eg: Teachers, Parents, People support.
partner. around the children who are
Social Learning (Interaction with
Vygotsky is credited with developing the concept of Social Cognition
(aka Social Development Theory of Learning), which proposes that:
• Social Interaction and culture has a dramatic impact on cognitive
• Cognitive processes (language, thought, reasoning) develop through
• Learning is largely mediated by social interaction of students and
"More Knowledgeable Others" (e.g. teachers, parents, coaches,
peers, experts, etc.)
Zone of Proximal Development
• ZPD is the pupils’ performance under the
guidance of adult @ co-operation from their
–To achieve a higher level of potential development.
Pupil’s Actual Zone of Proximal Potential
Development Development Development
• Able to learn and • Able to learn
perform task and perform • Children with
individually. various tasks small area of
• Most difficult task with guidance ZPD: Unable to
that can be from others. learn @
learned @ • Most difficult perform any
performed task that can be task even with
individually. learned @ guidance.
performed with • Children with
guidance from large area of
others. ZPD: Can
• Each individual has his own ZPD.
• Those who posses large area in the ZPD have
greater potential development than others who
have only small area in ZPD.
• Learning process happen when pupils able to
create knowledge by actively involving
themselves in using the existing experience to
• A structure built alongside a building (adults/parents) when a
brand new building is being built @ when a building is being
repaired (knowledge/children). After completion, scaffolding is
removed. (Children applied new knowledge & be independent).
• When a pupil learns a new task @ a difficult skill, the skilled
person may use direct instruction.
• When they begin to understand, less guidance is given.
• Agents of Scaffolding:
– Children’s peers/people/society around
–To let children to learn new information &
develop more complex thinking abilities.
–Private speech (for language skill: Children who
speak to themselves while playing with dolls,
toys and etc. have a greater possibilities to
learn language faster than those who are not.)
• Left to his own devices, could this boy make his sister a birthday cake?
• His mother uses scaffolding to create a situation in which he can begin to move
into a zone of proximal development.
• Picture 1: The boy finds and collects ingredients to make cake but
does not know the process.
• Picture 2: Mom helps the boy by demonstrating first and the boy
• Picture 3: The boy does the process by himself while mom gives less
• Picture 4: The boy has learnt how to bake cake and may apply it in the
future if he wants to bake cake more.
Importance of Vygotsky’s
• ZPD as the key process of construction of higher level &
more complex knowledge through assistance of a qualified
instructor @ peers.
• Education plays a central role, assisting pupils to learn the
tools of the culture.
• Children construct knowledge and acquire skills through
social interaction & sociodramatic activities.
• Strong emphasis on the sociodramatic contexts on
Implications of Vygotsky’s
• Assessment focuses on the ZPD of the child. Teacher should
give exercises @ tasks of varying difficulties to determine
the level of which to begin instruction.
• Teacher offers help only when needed. Give support and
motivation for the children to try & apply the skills to
achieve the goal.
• Monitor & encourage children to use private speech (to
enhance language skills & acquisition).
• Encourage collaborative learning in the
classroom & also organise learning that
involves a community of learners outside the
• Encourage help from skilled peers.
• Give meaningful instructions. Relate the lessons
with daily experiences. Reduce memorizing.
Apply @ practice the knowledge in real
Implications of Constructivism
• In teaching-learning activities:
– Teacher only plays the role as:
– Pupils play the main role.
• Methods use:
– Cooperative model.
– Collaborative model.
• Factors that influence process of cognitive
– Pupil’s knowledge
• Assist pupils to use their acquired knowledge to relate
& apply to learning of new knowledge.
• Foster intrinsic motivation for pupils to learn on their
• Pupils encourage to use:
– Critical & Creative Thinking Skills
• Social Learning (Big Umbrella)
• ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development
• MKO: More Knowledgeable Others
• Scaffolding (Process)