VYGOTSKY’S THEORIES ZPD Social Scaffolding Learning
A Specific View Social Learning Theory ZPD MKO(Zone of Proximal Development) (More Knowledgeable Others) Scaffolding -A range of tasks that an -Agents who help or support the individual cannot yet do alone children to accomplish the -The process to achieve ZPD. but can accomplish when tasks. -The changing of the level of assisted by a more skilled -Eg: Teachers, Parents, People support. partner. around the children who are more experienced.
Social Learning (Interaction with Adults)Vygotsky is credited with developing the concept of Social Cognition(aka Social Development Theory of Learning), which proposes that:• Social Interaction and culture has a dramatic impact on cognitive development.• Cognitive processes (language, thought, reasoning) develop through social interaction.• Learning is largely mediated by social interaction of students and "More Knowledgeable Others" (e.g. teachers, parents, coaches, peers, experts, etc.)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)• ZPD is the pupils’ performance under the guidance of adult @ co-operation from their peers.• Objective: –To achieve a higher level of potential development.
Pupil’s Actual Zone of Proximal PotentialDevelopment Development Development Limit • Able to learn and • Able to learn perform task and perform • Children with individually. various tasks small area of • Most difficult task with guidance ZPD: Unable to that can be from others. learn @ learned @ • Most difficult perform any performed task that can be task even with individually. learned @ guidance. performed with • Children with guidance from large area of others. ZPD: Can perform well after guidance.
• Each individual has his own ZPD.• Those who posses large area in the ZPD have greater potential development than others who have only small area in ZPD.• Learning process happen when pupils able to create knowledge by actively involving themselves in using the existing experience to solve problems.
Scaffolding• A structure built alongside a building (adults/parents) when a brand new building is being built @ when a building is being repaired (knowledge/children). After completion, scaffolding is removed. (Children applied new knowledge & be independent).• When a pupil learns a new task @ a difficult skill, the skilled person may use direct instruction.• When they begin to understand, less guidance is given.• Agents of Scaffolding: – Adults – Children’s peers/people/society around
• Objective: –To let children to learn new information & develop more complex thinking abilities.• Tools: –Dialogue –Interaction –Private speech (for language skill: Children who speak to themselves while playing with dolls, toys and etc. have a greater possibilities to learn language faster than those who are not.)
Scaffolding Example• Left to his own devices, could this boy make his sister a birthday cake?• His mother uses scaffolding to create a situation in which he can begin to move into a zone of proximal development.
• Picture 1: The boy finds and collects ingredients to make cake but does not know the process.• Picture 2: Mom helps the boy by demonstrating first and the boy observes.• Picture 3: The boy does the process by himself while mom gives less guidance.• Picture 4: The boy has learnt how to bake cake and may apply it in the future if he wants to bake cake more.
Importance of Vygotsky’s Theory• ZPD as the key process of construction of higher level & more complex knowledge through assistance of a qualified instructor @ peers.• Education plays a central role, assisting pupils to learn the tools of the culture.• Children construct knowledge and acquire skills through social interaction & sociodramatic activities.• Strong emphasis on the sociodramatic contexts on learning.
Implications of Vygotsky’s Theory• Assessment focuses on the ZPD of the child. Teacher should give exercises @ tasks of varying difficulties to determine the level of which to begin instruction.• Teacher offers help only when needed. Give support and motivation for the children to try & apply the skills to achieve the goal.• Monitor & encourage children to use private speech (to enhance language skills & acquisition).
• Encourage collaborative learning in the classroom & also organise learning that involves a community of learners outside the school.• Encourage help from skilled peers.• Give meaningful instructions. Relate the lessons with daily experiences. Reduce memorizing. Apply @ practice the knowledge in real situation.
Implications of Constructivism• In teaching-learning activities: – Teacher only plays the role as: • Adviser • Facilitator • Planner – Pupils play the main role.• Methods use: – Cooperative model. – Collaborative model.
• Factors that influence process of cognitive development: – Pupil’s knowledge – Awareness• Assist pupils to use their acquired knowledge to relate & apply to learning of new knowledge.• Foster intrinsic motivation for pupils to learn on their own initiative.• Pupils encourage to use: – Critical & Creative Thinking Skills
Importance Keywords• Social Learning (Big Umbrella)• ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development• MKO: More Knowledgeable Others• Scaffolding (Process)• Guidance• Collaborative• Cooperate• Practical