Handling translator’s falseHandling translator’s false
friendsfriends
 International words are words in the sourceInterna...
Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends
 Give your examples of international wordsGive you...
Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends
 Words that are similar in form butWords that are ...
Pseudointernational wordsPseudointernational words
 Are classified into 2 main groups:Are classified into 2 main groups:
...
Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends
 2) There are many2) There are many
pseudointernat...
Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends
 The translator should bear in mind that aThe tran...
1) Semantic factor1) Semantic factor
 The semantic factor resulting from theThe semantic factor resulting from the
differ...
 South Vietnam was a vastSouth Vietnam was a vast laboratorylaboratory for thefor the
testing of weapons fortesting of we...
 2) The stylistic factor resulting from the2) The stylistic factor resulting from the
difference in the emotive or stylis...
 3) The co-occurrence factor reflecting the3) The co-occurrence factor reflecting the
difference in the lexical combinabi...
 So, a “defect” has a formal counterpartSo, a “defect” has a formal counterpart
counterpart ascounterpart as «дефект»«деф...
 4)4) The pragmatic factor reflecting theThe pragmatic factor reflecting the
difference in the background knowledge of th...
 TheThe AmericanAmerican RevolutionRevolution was a closewas a close
parallel to the wars of national liberation in thepa...
 The senator knew Lincoln’sThe senator knew Lincoln’s EmancipationEmancipation
ProclamationProclamation by heart.by heart.
COLLOCATIONAL ASPECTS OFCOLLOCATIONAL ASPECTS OF
TRANSLATIONTRANSLATION
ATTRIBUTIVE GROUPSATTRIBUTIVE GROUPS
 there is a ...
 The first group of problems stems from theThe first group of problems stems from the
broader semantic relationships betw...
 As a result, the translator has to make a thoroughAs a result, the translator has to make a thorough
analysis of the con...
 Thus a resolution submitted by anThus a resolution submitted by an
executive body of an organization may beexecutive bod...
 If a word-for-word translation of the nameIf a word-for-word translation of the name
of the executive body (e.g. theof t...
 ««резолюциярезолюция,, предложеннаяпредложенная
исполкомомисполкомом» and» and
 ««большинствобольшинство голосовголосов...
 The second group of problems results fromThe second group of problems results from
the difficulties in handling multi-me...
 The tax paid for the right to take part in theThe tax paid for the right to take part in the
election is described as "t...
 The semantic relationships within a multi-The semantic relationships within a multi-
member group need not be linear. Co...
 Это был период широкой предвоеннойЭто был период широкой предвоенной
борьбы против фашизма за единыйборьбы против фашизм...
 The same goes for attributive groups withThe same goes for attributive groups with
latent predication where alatent pred...
 Here correspondences can also beHere correspondences can also be
described in an indirect way only by statingdescribed i...
 The Judge's face wore his own I-knew-The Judge's face wore his own I-knew-
they-were-guilty-all-along expression.they-we...
 На лице судьи появилось обычноеНа лице судьи появилось обычное
выражение, говорившее: «Я все времявыражение, говорившее:...
 There was a man with a don't-say-anything-There was a man with a don't-say-anything-
to-me-or-I'll-contradict-you face.t...
 Там был человек, на лице которого былоТам был человек, на лице которого было
написано: что бы вы мне ни говорили, янапис...
 3) An attributive group may be transformed3) An attributive group may be transformed
into a similar group with the help ...
 As a rule, in the Russian translation theAs a rule, in the Russian translation the
meanings of the original group and of...
4) As often as not, translating the meaning of an4) As often as not, translating the meaning of an
English attributive gro...
Translate the following attributive groupsTranslate the following attributive groups
 1. hearty eater;1. hearty eater;
 ...
Translate the following attributive groupsTranslate the following attributive groups
HANDLING PHRASEOLOGICALHANDLING PHRASEOLOGICAL
UNITSUNITS
 Phraseological units are figurative setPhraseological units ar...
 FFive aspects ofive aspects of idioms’idioms’ meaning that willmeaning that will
influence the translator's choice of an...
 The figurative meaning is the basic elementThe figurative meaning is the basic element
of the idiom's semanticsof the id...
 The figurative meaning is inferred from theThe figurative meaning is inferred from the
literal sense.literal sense.
 "R...
idiomsidioms
Positive
"to kill two birds with
one stone"
Neutral
"Rome was not built
in a day"
Negative
“to find a mare's ...
Phraseological unitsPhraseological units
Bookish
(to show one's
true colours)
Colloquial
(to be a pain in
the neck)
 Besides, an idiom can beBesides, an idiom can be nationallynationally
colouredcoloured, that is include some words which...
Ïàêåò Ïàêåò Ïàêåò
FFactors which complicate the task ofactors which complicate the task of
adequate identification, understanding andadequat...
 Second, a SL idiom may be identical inSecond, a SL idiom may be identical in
form to a TL idiom but have a differentform...
 Third, a SL idiom can be wronglyThird, a SL idiom can be wrongly
interpreted due to its association with ainterpreted du...
 Fourth, a wrong interpretation of a SLFourth, a wrong interpretation of a SL
idiom may be caused by another SL idiomidio...
 Fifth, a SL idiom may have a broader rangeFifth, a SL idiom may have a broader range
of application than its TL counterp...
 The children got out of hand while their parentsThe children got out of hand while their parents
were away. В отсутствии...
 There are four typical methods to handle aThere are four typical methods to handle a
SL idiom in the translating:SL idio...
 Second, the SL idiom can be translated by aSecond, the SL idiom can be translated by a
TL idiom which has the same figur...
 Third, the SL idiom can be translated byThird, the SL idiom can be translated by
reproducing its form word-for-word in T...
 Fourth, instead of translating the SL idiom,Fourth, instead of translating the SL idiom,
the translator may try to expli...
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTSGRAMMATICAL ASPECTS OFOF
TRANSLATIONTRANSLATION
 HANDLING EQUIVALENT FORMS ANDHANDLING EQUIVALENT FORM...
 They reveal the semantic relationshipsThey reveal the semantic relationships
between the words, clauses and sentencesbet...
 The syntactic structuring of the text is anThe syntactic structuring of the text is an
important characteristics identif...
 In many cases, however, equivalence inIn many cases, however, equivalence in
translation can be best achieved if thetran...
 For instance, both English and Russian verbsFor instance, both English and Russian verbs
have their infinitive forms. Th...
 We may recall that the English infinitive hasWe may recall that the English infinitive has
perfect forms, both active an...
 The idea of priority or non-performed actionThe idea of priority or non-performed action
expressed by the Perfect Infini...
 Cf. 'The train seems to arrive at 5." - Поезд,Cf. 'The train seems to arrive at 5." - Поезд,
видимо, приходит в 5. and '...
 A dissimilarity of the English and RussianA dissimilarity of the English and Russian
Infinitives can be also found in th...
 Parliament was dissolved, not to meet againParliament was dissolved, not to meet again
for eleven years.for eleven years.
 Не came home to find his wife gone.Не came home to find his wife gone.
 Парламент был распущен и не созывался вПарламент был распущен и не созывался в
течение 11 лет.течение 11 лет.
 Он верну...
 A similar difference can be observed if oneA similar difference can be observed if one
compares the finite forms of the ...
 This port can be entered by big ships onlyThis port can be entered by big ships only
during the tide.during the tide.
 A most common example of dissimilarityA most common example of dissimilarity
between the parallel syntactic devices in t...
 This order of words is often changed inThis order of words is often changed in
the Russian translation since in Russiant...
 Thus if the English sentence "My son enteredThus if the English sentence "My son entered
the room" is intended to inform...
 The predominantly fixed word order in the EnglishThe predominantly fixed word order in the English
sentence means that e...
 I. Translate the following sentences with the specialI. Translate the following sentences with the special
attention to ...
 П. Note the way the meaning of the English passiveП. Note the way the meaning of the English passive
forms is rendered i...
HANDLING EQUIVALENT-HANDLING EQUIVALENT-
LACKING FORMS ANDLACKING FORMS AND
STRUCTURESSTRUCTURES
 A lack of equivalence i...
 As a rule, English articles are not translatedAs a rule, English articles are not translated
into Russian for their mean...
 Consider the following linguistic statement:Consider the following linguistic statement:
'To put it in terms of linguist...
 It is obvious that an entity cannot be both aIt is obvious that an entity cannot be both a
concrete fact and an abstract...
 Even if some grammatical category is presentEven if some grammatical category is present
both in SL and in TL, its subca...
 However, there are many dissimilarities. MuchHowever, there are many dissimilarities. Much
depends on the verb semantics...
 I have lived in Moscow since 1940. 102I have lived in Moscow since 1940. 102
 Я живу в Москве с 1940 г.Я живу в Москве ...
 The Past Indefinite forms may correspondThe Past Indefinite forms may correspond
either to the perfective or to the impe...
 After supper he usually smoked in the garden.After supper he usually smoked in the garden.
После ужина он обычно курил в...
 After supper he smoked a cigarette in theAfter supper he smoked a cigarette in the
garden and went to bed.garden and wen...
 The Past Pefect forms may also be indifferentThe Past Pefect forms may also be indifferent
to these aspective nuances, r...
 I hoped he had read that book.I hoped he had read that book.
(а) Я надеялся, что он читал эту книгу,(а) Я надеялся, что ...
 A special study should be made of theA special study should be made of the
translation problems involved in handling the...
 The phrase "How can you play with yourThe phrase "How can you play with your
brother lying sick in bed" can be understoo...
 Specific translation problems emerge when theSpecific translation problems emerge when the
translator has to handle a sy...
 Depending on the respective status of theDepending on the respective status of the
persons involved, the phrase "I shall...
 Second, the translator must be aware that suchSecond, the translator must be aware that such
complexes are polysemantic ...
 Either the horse was killed by the general'sEither the horse was killed by the general's
order (Генерал приказал убить с...
 Many equivalent-lacking structures result from a non-Many equivalent-lacking structures result from a non-
causative ver...
 In such cases the translator has to chooseIn such cases the translator has to choose
among different ways of expressing ...
 Администрация США стремилась запугатьАдминистрация США стремилась запугать
народ, чтобы заставить его согласиться нанаро...
HANDLING MODAL FORMSHANDLING MODAL FORMS
Bilingual theory of_translation
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Bilingual theory of_translation

  1. 1. Handling translator’s falseHandling translator’s false friendsfriends  International words are words in the sourceInternational words are words in the source and target languages which are more or lessand target languages which are more or less similar in form.similar in form.  The formal similarity is usually the result ofThe formal similarity is usually the result of the two words having the common origin,the two words having the common origin, mainly derived from either Greek or Latin eg.mainly derived from either Greek or Latin eg. Parliament, theorem, diameter, etc.Parliament, theorem, diameter, etc.
  2. 2. Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends  Give your examples of international wordsGive your examples of international words
  3. 3. Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends  Words that are similar in form butWords that are similar in form but different in meaning are calleddifferent in meaning are called pseudointernationalpseudointernational or translator’s false friendsor translator’s false friends
  4. 4. Pseudointernational wordsPseudointernational words  Are classified into 2 main groups:Are classified into 2 main groups: 1)1) Words which are similar in form butWords which are similar in form but completely different in meaning, eg.completely different in meaning, eg. - It lasted the whole decade.It lasted the whole decade. - She has a very fine complexion.She has a very fine complexion. - Well, he must be a lunatic.Well, he must be a lunatic.
  5. 5. Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends  2) There are many2) There are many pseudointernational words which arepseudointernational words which are not fully interchangeable thoughnot fully interchangeable though there are some common elements inthere are some common elements in their semanticstheir semantics..
  6. 6. Handling translator’s false friendsHandling translator’s false friends  The translator should bear in mind that aThe translator should bear in mind that a number of factors can preclude the possibilitynumber of factors can preclude the possibility of using the formally similar word as anof using the formally similar word as an equivalent:equivalent:
  7. 7. 1) Semantic factor1) Semantic factor  The semantic factor resulting from theThe semantic factor resulting from the different subsequent development of the wordsdifferent subsequent development of the words borrowed by the two languages from the sameborrowed by the two languages from the same source, eg.source, eg.  Idiom –Idiom – 1. идиом,1. идиом, 2. диалект (наречие),2. диалект (наречие), 3. стиль.3. стиль.
  8. 8.  South Vietnam was a vastSouth Vietnam was a vast laboratorylaboratory for thefor the testing of weapons fortesting of weapons for counter-guerrillacounter-guerrilla warfare.warfare.
  9. 9.  2) The stylistic factor resulting from the2) The stylistic factor resulting from the difference in the emotive or stylisticdifference in the emotive or stylistic connotation of the correlated words, eg.connotation of the correlated words, eg.  ““career”career”  Davy took on Faraday as his assistant andDavy took on Faraday as his assistant and thereby opened a scientific career for him.thereby opened a scientific career for him.
  10. 10.  3) The co-occurrence factor reflecting the3) The co-occurrence factor reflecting the difference in the lexical combinability rules indifference in the lexical combinability rules in the two languages. The choice of an equivalentthe two languages. The choice of an equivalent is often influenced by the usage preferring ais often influenced by the usage preferring a standard combination of words to the formallystandard combination of words to the formally similar substitute.similar substitute.
  11. 11.  So, a “defect” has a formal counterpartSo, a “defect” has a formal counterpart counterpart ascounterpart as «дефект»«дефект» but “theoretical andbut “theoretical and organizational defects” will be ratherorganizational defects” will be rather ““подсчеты/есептеулерподсчеты/есептеулер“.“.  A “gesture” may be rendered in another way:A “gesture” may be rendered in another way: The reason for including only minor gesturesThe reason for including only minor gestures of reforms in the program…of reforms in the program…  ((жалкое подобие реформжалкое подобие реформ))
  12. 12.  4)4) The pragmatic factor reflecting theThe pragmatic factor reflecting the difference in the background knowledge of thedifference in the background knowledge of the members of the two language communitiesmembers of the two language communities which makes the translator reject the formalwhich makes the translator reject the formal equivalent in favor of the more explicit orequivalent in favor of the more explicit or familiar variant.familiar variant.
  13. 13.  TheThe AmericanAmerican RevolutionRevolution was a closewas a close parallel to the wars of national liberation in theparallel to the wars of national liberation in the colonial and semi-colonial countries.colonial and semi-colonial countries.  The counter-revolutionary organization wasThe counter-revolutionary organization was set up to suppress the Negro-poor whiteset up to suppress the Negro-poor white alliance that sought to bring democracy in thealliance that sought to bring democracy in the South in theSouth in the ReconstructionReconstruction period.period.
  14. 14.  The senator knew Lincoln’sThe senator knew Lincoln’s EmancipationEmancipation ProclamationProclamation by heart.by heart.
  15. 15. COLLOCATIONAL ASPECTS OFCOLLOCATIONAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATIONTRANSLATION ATTRIBUTIVE GROUPSATTRIBUTIVE GROUPS  there is a considerable dissimilarity in thethere is a considerable dissimilarity in the semantic structure of attributive groups insemantic structure of attributive groups in English and in Russian. This dissimilarityEnglish and in Russian. This dissimilarity gives rise to a number of translation problems.gives rise to a number of translation problems.
  16. 16.  The first group of problems stems from theThe first group of problems stems from the broader semantic relationships between thebroader semantic relationships between the attribute and the noun.attribute and the noun.  the attribute may refer not only to somethe attribute may refer not only to some property of the object but also to itsproperty of the object but also to its location, purpose, cause, etc.location, purpose, cause, etc.
  17. 17.  As a result, the translator has to make a thoroughAs a result, the translator has to make a thorough analysis of the context to find out what theanalysis of the context to find out what the meaning of the group is in each particular case.meaning of the group is in each particular case.  He must be also aware of the relative freedom ofHe must be also aware of the relative freedom of bringing together such semantic elements withinbringing together such semantic elements within the attributive group in English that are distancedthe attributive group in English that are distanced from each other by a number of intermediatefrom each other by a number of intermediate ideas.ideas.
  18. 18.  Thus a resolution submitted by anThus a resolution submitted by an executive body of an organization may beexecutive body of an organization may be described asdescribed as "the Executive resolution""the Executive resolution" and the majority of votes received by suchand the majority of votes received by such a resolution will bea resolution will be ««the Executivethe Executive majoritymajority»»..
  19. 19.  If a word-for-word translation of the nameIf a word-for-word translation of the name of the executive body (e.g. theof the executive body (e.g. the ««ExecutiveExecutive CommitteeCommittee»» —— исполнительныйисполнительный комитеткомитет) may satisfy the translator, the) may satisfy the translator, the other two attributive groups will have to beother two attributive groups will have to be explicated in the Russian translation asexplicated in the Russian translation as ((trytry to guessto guess))
  20. 20.  ««резолюциярезолюция,, предложеннаяпредложенная исполкомомисполкомом» and» and  ««большинствобольшинство голосовголосов,, поданныхподанных заза резолюциюрезолюцию,, котораякоторая былабыла предложенапредложена исполкомомисполкомом»»
  21. 21.  The second group of problems results fromThe second group of problems results from the difficulties in handling multi-memberthe difficulties in handling multi-member attributive structures. The English-speakingattributive structures. The English-speaking people make wide use of "multi-storied"people make wide use of "multi-storied" structures with complicated internalstructures with complicated internal semantic relationships.semantic relationships.
  22. 22.  The tax paid for the right to take part in theThe tax paid for the right to take part in the election is described as "the poll tax".election is described as "the poll tax".  The states where this tax is collected areThe states where this tax is collected are "the poll tax states""the poll tax states"  and the governors of these states are "theand the governors of these states are "the poll tax states governors".poll tax states governors".  Now these governors may hold aNow these governors may hold a conference which will be referred to as 'theconference which will be referred to as 'the poll tax states governors conference" andpoll tax states governors conference" and so on.so on.
  23. 23.  The semantic relationships within a multi-The semantic relationships within a multi- member group need not be linear. Considermember group need not be linear. Consider the following sentence:the following sentence: ““It was the period of the broad westernIt was the period of the broad western hemisphere and world pre-war unitedhemisphere and world pre-war united people's front struggle against fascism”people's front struggle against fascism” ((analyze the structure of the attr groupanalyze the structure of the attr group))
  24. 24.  Это был период широкой предвоеннойЭто был период широкой предвоенной борьбы против фашизма за единыйборьбы против фашизма за единый народный фронт в Западном полушариинародный фронт в Западном полушарии и во всем мире.и во всем мире.
  25. 25.  The same goes for attributive groups withThe same goes for attributive groups with latent predication where alatent predication where a  whole sentence is used to qualify a noun aswhole sentence is used to qualify a noun as its attribute "He was being the boss again,its attribute "He was being the boss again, using the its-my-money-now-do-as-you're-using the its-my-money-now-do-as-you're- told voice".told voice".
  26. 26.  Here correspondences can also beHere correspondences can also be described in an indirect way only by statingdescribed in an indirect way only by stating that the attribute is usually translated intothat the attribute is usually translated into Russian|Kazakh as a separate sentence andRussian|Kazakh as a separate sentence and that this sentence should be joined to thethat this sentence should be joined to the noun by a short introductory element. Cf.:noun by a short introductory element. Cf.:
  27. 27.  The Judge's face wore his own I-knew-The Judge's face wore his own I-knew- they-were-guilty-all-along expression.they-were-guilty-all-along expression.
  28. 28.  На лице судьи появилось обычноеНа лице судьи появилось обычное выражение, говорившее: «Я все времявыражение, говорившее: «Я все время знал, что они виновны».знал, что они виновны».
  29. 29.  There was a man with a don't-say-anything-There was a man with a don't-say-anything- to-me-or-I'll-contradict-you face.to-me-or-I'll-contradict-you face. (Ch.(Ch. Dickens)Dickens)
  30. 30.  Там был человек, на лице которого былоТам был человек, на лице которого было написано: что бы вы мне ни говорили, янаписано: что бы вы мне ни говорили, я все равно буду вам противоречить.все равно буду вам противоречить.
  31. 31.  3) An attributive group may be transformed3) An attributive group may be transformed into a similar group with the help of ainto a similar group with the help of a suffix which is formally attached to thesuffix which is formally attached to the noun but is semantically related to thenoun but is semantically related to the whole group. Thus "a sound sleeper" maywhole group. Thus "a sound sleeper" may be derived from "sound sleep" or the manbe derived from "sound sleep" or the man belonging to the "Fifth column" may bebelonging to the "Fifth column" may be described as "the Fifth columnist".described as "the Fifth columnist".
  32. 32.  As a rule, in the Russian translation theAs a rule, in the Russian translation the meanings of the original group and of themeanings of the original group and of the suffix would be rendered separately, e.g.:suffix would be rendered separately, e.g.: человекчеловек,, обладающийобладающий здоровымздоровым ((крепкимкрепким)) сномсном ((крепкокрепко спящийспящий человекчеловек), and), and человекчеловек,, принадлежащийпринадлежащий кк пятойпятой колоннеколонне ((членчлен пятойпятой колонныколонны).).
  33. 33. 4) As often as not, translating the meaning of an4) As often as not, translating the meaning of an English attributive group into Russian mayEnglish attributive group into Russian may involve a complete restructuring of the sentence,involve a complete restructuring of the sentence, e.g.:e.g.:  To watch it happen, all within two and a halfTo watch it happen, all within two and a half hours, was a thrilling sight.hours, was a thrilling sight.  Нельзя было не восхищаться, наблюдая, какНельзя было не восхищаться, наблюдая, как все это происходило на протяжении каких-все это происходило на протяжении каких- нибудь двух с половиной часов.нибудь двух с половиной часов.
  34. 34. Translate the following attributive groupsTranslate the following attributive groups  1. hearty eater;1. hearty eater;  2. practical joker;2. practical joker;  3. conscientious objector;3. conscientious objector;  4. sleeping partner;4. sleeping partner;  5. stumbling block;5. stumbling block;  6. smoking concert;6. smoking concert;
  35. 35. Translate the following attributive groupsTranslate the following attributive groups
  36. 36. HANDLING PHRASEOLOGICALHANDLING PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITSUNITS  Phraseological units are figurative setPhraseological units are figurative set expressions often described as "expressions often described as "idiomsidioms".".
  37. 37.  FFive aspects ofive aspects of idioms’idioms’ meaning that willmeaning that will influence the translator's choice of aninfluence the translator's choice of an equivalent in the target languageequivalent in the target language 1.1. the idiom's figurative meaning,the idiom's figurative meaning, 2.2. its literal sense,its literal sense, 3.3. its emotive character,its emotive character, 4.4. stylistic registerstylistic register,, 5.5. national colouring.national colouring.
  38. 38.  The figurative meaning is the basic elementThe figurative meaning is the basic element of the idiom's semanticsof the idiom's semantics::  "red tape" means bureaucracy,"red tape" means bureaucracy,  "to kick the bucket""to kick the bucket" -- to die,to die,  "to wash dirty linen in public""to wash dirty linen in public" -- to discloseto disclose one's family troubles to outsiders.one's family troubles to outsiders.
  39. 39.  The figurative meaning is inferred from theThe figurative meaning is inferred from the literal sense.literal sense.  "Red tape", "to kick the bucket", and "to"Red tape", "to kick the bucket", and "to wash dirty linen in public" also refer,wash dirty linen in public" also refer, respectively, to a coloured tape, an upsetrespectively, to a coloured tape, an upset pail and a kind ofpail and a kind of laundering, though in most cases this aspectlaundering, though in most cases this aspect is subordinate and serves as a basis for theis subordinate and serves as a basis for the metaphorical use.metaphorical use.
  40. 40. idiomsidioms Positive "to kill two birds with one stone" Neutral "Rome was not built in a day" Negative “to find a mare's nest"
  41. 41. Phraseological unitsPhraseological units Bookish (to show one's true colours) Colloquial (to be a pain in the neck)
  42. 42.  Besides, an idiom can beBesides, an idiom can be nationallynationally colouredcoloured, that is include some words which, that is include some words which mark it as the product of a certain nation.mark it as the product of a certain nation.  For instance,For instance, "to "to set the Thames on fire"set the Thames on fire" andand  "to carry coals to Newcastle""to carry coals to Newcastle" are unmistakably British.are unmistakably British.
  43. 43. Ïàêåò Ïàêåò Ïàêåò
  44. 44. FFactors which complicate the task ofactors which complicate the task of adequate identification, understanding andadequate identification, understanding and translation of idiomstranslation of idioms:: -- First, an idiom can be mistaken for a freeFirst, an idiom can be mistaken for a free word combination, especially if its literalword combination, especially if its literal sense is not "exotic" (to have butterflies insense is not "exotic" (to have butterflies in one's stomach) but rather trivial (toone's stomach) but rather trivial (to measure one's length, to let one's hairmeasure one's length, to let one's hair down)down)
  45. 45.  Second, a SL idiom may be identical inSecond, a SL idiom may be identical in form to a TL idiom but have a differentform to a TL idiom but have a different figurative meaning. Thus, the English "tofigurative meaning. Thus, the English "to lead smb. by the nose" implies a totallead smb. by the nose" implies a total domination of one person by the other (cf.domination of one person by the other (cf. the Russian «водить за нос»)the Russian «водить за нос») andand"to "to stretch one's legs" means to take astretch one's legs" means to take a stroll (cf. the Russian «протянуть ноги»)stroll (cf. the Russian «протянуть ноги»)
  46. 46.  Third, a SL idiom can be wronglyThird, a SL idiom can be wrongly interpreted due to its association with ainterpreted due to its association with a similar, if not identical TL unit. Forsimilar, if not identical TL unit. For instance,instance, "to "to pull the devil by the tail", thatpull the devil by the tail", that is to be in trouble, may be misunderstoodis to be in trouble, may be misunderstood by the translator under the influence of theby the translator under the influence of the Russian idioms «держать бога за бороду»Russian idioms «держать бога за бороду» or «поймать за хвост жар-птицу»or «поймать за хвост жар-птицу»
  47. 47.  Fourth, a wrong interpretation of a SLFourth, a wrong interpretation of a SL idiom may be caused by another SL idiomidiom may be caused by another SL idiom similar in form and different in meaning.similar in form and different in meaning. Cf. "to make good time" and "to have aCf. "to make good time" and "to have a good time"good time"
  48. 48.  Fifth, a SL idiom may have a broader rangeFifth, a SL idiom may have a broader range of application than its TL counterpartof application than its TL counterpart apparently identical in form and meaning.apparently identical in form and meaning.  For instance, the English "to get out ofFor instance, the English "to get out of hand" is equivalent to thehand" is equivalent to the Russian«Oтбиться от рук» and the latter isRussian«Oтбиться от рук» and the latter is often used to translate it:often used to translate it:
  49. 49.  The children got out of hand while their parentsThe children got out of hand while their parents were away. В отсутствии родителей детиwere away. В отсутствии родителей дети совсем отбились от рук.совсем отбились от рук.  But the English idiom can be used wheneverBut the English idiom can be used whenever somebody or something gets out of control whilesomebody or something gets out of control while the Russian idiom has a more restricted usage:the Russian idiom has a more restricted usage:  What caused the meeting to get out of hand?What caused the meeting to get out of hand? Почему собрание прошло такПочему собрание прошло так неорганизованно?неорганизованно?
  50. 50.  There are four typical methods to handle aThere are four typical methods to handle a SL idiom in the translating:SL idiom in the translating:  First, the translator can make use of a TLFirst, the translator can make use of a TL idiom which is identical to the SL idiom inidiom which is identical to the SL idiom in all five aspects of its semantics, e.g. "to pullall five aspects of its semantics, e.g. "to pull chestnuts out of the fire for smb." —chestnuts out of the fire for smb." — таскать каштаны из огня для кого-либо.таскать каштаны из огня для кого-либо.
  51. 51.  Second, the SL idiom can be translated by aSecond, the SL idiom can be translated by a TL idiom which has the same figurativeTL idiom which has the same figurative meaning, preserves the same emotive andmeaning, preserves the same emotive and stylistic characteristics but is based on astylistic characteristics but is based on a different image, that is, has a differentdifferent image, that is, has a different literal meaning, e.g. "make hay while theliteral meaning, e.g. "make hay while the sun shines"sun shines"
  52. 52.  Third, the SL idiom can be translated byThird, the SL idiom can be translated by reproducing its form word-for-word in TL,reproducing its form word-for-word in TL, e.g.e.g.  "People who live in glass houses should not"People who live in glass houses should not throw stones." - Люди, живущие вthrow stones." - Люди, живущие в стеклянных домах, не должны бросатьстеклянных домах, не должны бросать камни.камни.
  53. 53.  Fourth, instead of translating the SL idiom,Fourth, instead of translating the SL idiom, the translator may try to explicate itsthe translator may try to explicate its figurative meaning, so as to preserve atfigurative meaning, so as to preserve at least the main element of its semanticsleast the main element of its semantics
  54. 54. GRAMMATICAL ASPECTSGRAMMATICAL ASPECTS OFOF TRANSLATIONTRANSLATION  HANDLING EQUIVALENT FORMS ANDHANDLING EQUIVALENT FORMS AND STRUCTURESSTRUCTURES  Grammaticality is an important feature ofGrammaticality is an important feature of speech units. Grammatical forms andspeech units. Grammatical forms and structures, however, do not only provide forstructures, however, do not only provide for the correct arrangement of words in the text,the correct arrangement of words in the text, they also convey some information which isthey also convey some information which is part of its total contents.part of its total contents.
  55. 55.  They reveal the semantic relationshipsThey reveal the semantic relationships between the words, clauses and sentencesbetween the words, clauses and sentences in the text,in the text,  they can make prominent some .part ofthey can make prominent some .part of the contents that is of particularthe contents that is of particular significance for the communicants.significance for the communicants.
  56. 56.  The syntactic structuring of the text is anThe syntactic structuring of the text is an important characteristics identifyingimportant characteristics identifying either the genre of the text or its author'seither the genre of the text or its author's style.style.
  57. 57.  In many cases, however, equivalence inIn many cases, however, equivalence in translation can be best achieved if thetranslation can be best achieved if the translator does not try to mirror thetranslator does not try to mirror the grammatical forms in the source text.grammatical forms in the source text.  There are no permanent grammaticalThere are no permanent grammatical equivalents and the translator can chooseequivalents and the translator can choose between the parallel forms and variousbetween the parallel forms and various grammatical transformations. He may opt forgrammatical transformations. He may opt for the latter for there is never an absolute identitythe latter for there is never an absolute identity between the meaning and usage of the parallelbetween the meaning and usage of the parallel forms in SL and TL.forms in SL and TL.
  58. 58.  For instance, both English and Russian verbsFor instance, both English and Russian verbs have their infinitive forms. The analogy,have their infinitive forms. The analogy, however, does not preclude a number ofhowever, does not preclude a number of formal and functional differences.formal and functional differences.
  59. 59.  We may recall that the English infinitive hasWe may recall that the English infinitive has perfect forms, both active and passive,perfect forms, both active and passive, indefinite and continuous, which are absent inindefinite and continuous, which are absent in the respective grammatical category inthe respective grammatical category in Russian.Russian.
  60. 60.  The idea of priority or non-performed actionThe idea of priority or non-performed action expressed by the Perfect Infinitive is notexpressed by the Perfect Infinitive is not present in the meaning of the Russianpresent in the meaning of the Russian Infinitive and has to be rendered in translationInfinitive and has to be rendered in translation by some other means.by some other means.
  61. 61.  Cf. 'The train seems to arrive at 5." - Поезд,Cf. 'The train seems to arrive at 5." - Поезд, видимо, приходит в 5. and 'The train seemsвидимо, приходит в 5. and 'The train seems to have arrived at 5." - Поезд, видимо,to have arrived at 5." - Поезд, видимо, пришел в 5.пришел в 5.
  62. 62.  A dissimilarity of the English and RussianA dissimilarity of the English and Russian Infinitives can be also found in the functionsInfinitives can be also found in the functions they perform in the sentence. Note should bethey perform in the sentence. Note should be taken, for example, of the Continuativetaken, for example, of the Continuative Infinitive which in English denotes an actionInfinitive which in English denotes an action following that indicated by the Predicate:following that indicated by the Predicate:
  63. 63.  Parliament was dissolved, not to meet againParliament was dissolved, not to meet again for eleven years.for eleven years.
  64. 64.  Не came home to find his wife gone.Не came home to find his wife gone.
  65. 65.  Парламент был распущен и не созывался вПарламент был распущен и не созывался в течение 11 лет.течение 11 лет.  Он вернулся домой и обнаружил, что женаОн вернулся домой и обнаружил, что жена ушла.ушла.
  66. 66.  A similar difference can be observed if oneA similar difference can be observed if one compares the finite forms of the verb incompares the finite forms of the verb in English and in Russian. The English and theEnglish and in Russian. The English and the Russian verbs both have active and passiveRussian verbs both have active and passive forms, but in English the passive forms areforms, but in English the passive forms are more numerous and are more often used. As amore numerous and are more often used. As a result, the meaning of the passive verb in theresult, the meaning of the passive verb in the source text is often rendered by an active verbsource text is often rendered by an active verb in the translation:in the translation:
  67. 67.  This port can be entered by big ships onlyThis port can be entered by big ships only during the tide.during the tide.
  68. 68.  A most common example of dissimilarityA most common example of dissimilarity between the parallel syntactic devices in thebetween the parallel syntactic devices in the two languages is the role of the word order intwo languages is the role of the word order in English and in Russian. Both languages use aEnglish and in Russian. Both languages use a "direct" and an "inverted" word order. But the"direct" and an "inverted" word order. But the English word order obeys, in most cases, theEnglish word order obeys, in most cases, the established rule of sequence: the predicate isestablished rule of sequence: the predicate is preceded by the subject and followed by thepreceded by the subject and followed by the object.object.
  69. 69.  This order of words is often changed inThis order of words is often changed in the Russian translation since in Russianthe Russian translation since in Russian the word order is used to show thethe word order is used to show the communicative load of different parts ofcommunicative load of different parts of the sentence, the elements conveying newthe sentence, the elements conveying new information (the rheme) leaning towardsinformation (the rheme) leaning towards the end of non-emphatic sentencesthe end of non-emphatic sentences..
  70. 70.  Thus if the English sentence "My son enteredThus if the English sentence "My son entered the room" is intended to inform us who enteredthe room" is intended to inform us who entered the room, its Russian equivalent will be «Вthe room, its Russian equivalent will be «В комнату вошел мой сын» but in case itsкомнату вошел мой сын» but in case its purpose is to tell us what my son did, the wordpurpose is to tell us what my son did, the word order will be preserved: «Мой сын вошел вorder will be preserved: «Мой сын вошел в комнату».комнату».
  71. 71.  The predominantly fixed word order in the EnglishThe predominantly fixed word order in the English sentence means that each case of its inversionsentence means that each case of its inversion (placing the object before the subject-predicate(placing the object before the subject-predicate sequence) makes the object carry a greatsequence) makes the object carry a great communicative load. This emphasis cannot becommunicative load. This emphasis cannot be reproduced in translation by such a common devicereproduced in translation by such a common device as the inverted word order in the Russian sentenceas the inverted word order in the Russian sentence and the translator has to use some additional words toand the translator has to use some additional words to express the same idea:express the same idea:  Money he had none.Money he had none.  Денег у него не было ни гроша.Денег у него не было ни гроша.
  72. 72.  I. Translate the following sentences with the specialI. Translate the following sentences with the special attention to the choice of Russian equivalents toattention to the choice of Russian equivalents to render the meaning of the English infinitives.render the meaning of the English infinitives.  1. The people of Roumania lived in a poverty difficult1. The people of Roumania lived in a poverty difficult to imagine. 2. The Security Council is given theto imagine. 2. The Security Council is given the power to decide when a threat to peace exists withoutpower to decide when a threat to peace exists without waiting for the war to break out. 3. The general was awaiting for the war to break out. 3. The general was a good man to keep away from. 4. This is a nice placegood man to keep away from. 4. This is a nice place to live in. 5. He stopped the car for me to buy someto live in. 5. He stopped the car for me to buy some cigarettes. 6. Jack London was the best short-storycigarettes. 6. Jack London was the best short-story writer in his country to arise after Edgar Рое.writer in his country to arise after Edgar Рое.
  73. 73.  П. Note the way the meaning of the English passiveП. Note the way the meaning of the English passive forms is rendered in your translation of the followingforms is rendered in your translation of the following sentences.sentences.  1. The Prime-Minister was forced to admit in the1. The Prime-Minister was forced to admit in the House of Commons that Britain had rejected theHouse of Commons that Britain had rejected the Argentine offer to negotiate the Folklands' crisis. 2.Argentine offer to negotiate the Folklands' crisis. 2. The amendment was rejected by the majority of theThe amendment was rejected by the majority of the Security Council. 3. He rose to speak and was warmlySecurity Council. 3. He rose to speak and was warmly greeted by the audience. 4. The treaty is reported togreeted by the audience. 4. The treaty is reported to have been ratified by all participants.have been ratified by all participants.
  74. 74. HANDLING EQUIVALENT-HANDLING EQUIVALENT- LACKING FORMS ANDLACKING FORMS AND STRUCTURESSTRUCTURES  A lack of equivalence in the English andA lack of equivalence in the English and Russian systems of parts of speech can beRussian systems of parts of speech can be exemplified by the article which is part of theexemplified by the article which is part of the English grammar and is absent in RussianEnglish grammar and is absent in Russian|||| KazakhKazakh..
  75. 75.  As a rule, English articles are not translatedAs a rule, English articles are not translated into Russian for their meaning is expressed byinto Russian for their meaning is expressed by various contextual elements and needn't bevarious contextual elements and needn't be reproduced separately.reproduced separately.  But in some cases there is a need to translateBut in some cases there is a need to translate the meaning of the English article.the meaning of the English article.
  76. 76.  Consider the following linguistic statement:Consider the following linguistic statement: 'To put it in terms of linguistics: a sentence is a'To put it in terms of linguistics: a sentence is a concrete fact, the result of an actual act ofconcrete fact, the result of an actual act of speech. The sentence is an abstraction. So aspeech. The sentence is an abstraction. So a sentence is always a unit of speech; thesentence is always a unit of speech; the sentence of a definite language is an elementsentence of a definite language is an element of that language."of that language."
  77. 77.  It is obvious that an entity cannot be both aIt is obvious that an entity cannot be both a concrete fact and an abstraction. Theconcrete fact and an abstraction. The difference between "a sentence" (любоеdifference between "a sentence" (любое отдельное предложение) and 'the sentence"отдельное предложение) and 'the sentence" (предложение как понятие, тип(предложение как понятие, тип предложения) should be definitely revealed inпредложения) should be definitely revealed in the Russian translation as well.the Russian translation as well.
  78. 78.  Even if some grammatical category is presentEven if some grammatical category is present both in SL and in TL, its subcategories mayboth in SL and in TL, its subcategories may not be the same and, hence, equivalent-not be the same and, hence, equivalent- lacking.lacking.  Both the English and the Russian verb haveBoth the English and the Russian verb have their aspect forms but there are no equivalenttheir aspect forms but there are no equivalent relationships between them. Generallyrelationships between them. Generally speaking, the Continuous forms correspond tospeaking, the Continuous forms correspond to the Russian imperfective aspect, while thethe Russian imperfective aspect, while the Perfect forms are often equivalent to thePerfect forms are often equivalent to the perfective aspect.perfective aspect.
  79. 79.  However, there are many dissimilarities. MuchHowever, there are many dissimilarities. Much depends on the verb semantics. The Presentdepends on the verb semantics. The Present Perfect forms of non-terminative verbs, forPerfect forms of non-terminative verbs, for instance, usually correspond to the Russianinstance, usually correspond to the Russian imperfeclive verbs in the present tense:imperfeclive verbs in the present tense:
  80. 80.  I have lived in Moscow since 1940. 102I have lived in Moscow since 1940. 102  Я живу в Москве с 1940 г.Я живу в Москве с 1940 г.
  81. 81.  The Past Indefinite forms may correspondThe Past Indefinite forms may correspond either to the perfective or to the imperfectiveeither to the perfective or to the imperfective Russian forms and the choice is largelyRussian forms and the choice is largely prompted by the context. Cf.:prompted by the context. Cf.:
  82. 82.  After supper he usually smoked in the garden.After supper he usually smoked in the garden. После ужина он обычно курил в саду.После ужина он обычно курил в саду.
  83. 83.  After supper he smoked a cigarette in theAfter supper he smoked a cigarette in the garden and went to bed.garden and went to bed. После ужина он выкурил в саду сигарету иПосле ужина он выкурил в саду сигарету и пошел спать.пошел спать.
  84. 84.  The Past Pefect forms may also be indifferentThe Past Pefect forms may also be indifferent to these aspective nuances, referring to anto these aspective nuances, referring to an action prior to some other action or a pastaction prior to some other action or a past moment. Cf.:moment. Cf.:
  85. 85.  I hoped he had read that book.I hoped he had read that book. (а) Я надеялся, что он читал эту книгу,(а) Я надеялся, что он читал эту книгу,  (б) Я надеялся, что он (уже) прочитал эту(б) Я надеялся, что он (уже) прочитал эту книгу.книгу.
  86. 86.  A special study should be made of theA special study should be made of the translation problems involved in handling thetranslation problems involved in handling the Absolute Participle constructions. To beginAbsolute Participle constructions. To begin with, an Absolute construction must bewith, an Absolute construction must be correctly identified by the translator.correctly identified by the translator.  The identification problem is particularlyThe identification problem is particularly complicated in the case of the "with"-complicated in the case of the "with"- structures which may coincide in form with thestructures which may coincide in form with the simple prepositional groups.simple prepositional groups.
  87. 87.  The phrase "How can you play with yourThe phrase "How can you play with your brother lying sick in bed" can be understood inbrother lying sick in bed" can be understood in two different ways: as an Absolutetwo different ways: as an Absolute construction and then its Russian equivalentconstruction and then its Russian equivalent will be «Как тебе не стыдно играть, когдаwill be «Как тебе не стыдно играть, когда твой брат лежит больной (в постели)» or asтвой брат лежит больной (в постели)» or as a prepositional group which should bea prepositional group which should be translated as «Как тебе не стыдно играть сtranslated as «Как тебе не стыдно играть с твоим больным братом».твоим больным братом».
  88. 88.  Specific translation problems emerge when theSpecific translation problems emerge when the translator has to handle a syntactical complextranslator has to handle a syntactical complex with a causative meaning introduced by thewith a causative meaning introduced by the verb 'to have" or "to get", such as: "I shall haveverb 'to have" or "to get", such as: "I shall have him do it" or "I shall have him punished".him do it" or "I shall have him punished". First, the translator has to decide what RussianFirst, the translator has to decide what Russian causative verb should be used as a substitutecausative verb should be used as a substitute for the English "have" or "get".for the English "have" or "get".
  89. 89.  Depending on the respective status of theDepending on the respective status of the persons involved, the phrase "I shall have himpersons involved, the phrase "I shall have him do it" may be rendered into Russian as «Яdo it" may be rendered into Russian as «Я заставлю его (прикажу ему, велю ему,заставлю его (прикажу ему, велю ему, попрошу его и т.п.) сделать это» or even «Япопрошу его и т.п.) сделать это» or even «Я добьюсь (позабочусь о том, устрою так идобьюсь (позабочусь о том, устрою так и т.п.), чтобы он это сделал».т.п.), чтобы он это сделал».
  90. 90.  Second, the translator must be aware that suchSecond, the translator must be aware that such complexes are polysemantic and may be eithercomplexes are polysemantic and may be either causative or non-causative. The phrase 'Thecausative or non-causative. The phrase 'The general had his horse killed" may refer to twogeneral had his horse killed" may refer to two different situations.different situations.
  91. 91.  Either the horse was killed by the general'sEither the horse was killed by the general's order (Генерал приказал убить своюorder (Генерал приказал убить свою лошадь) or he was killed in combat and theлошадь) or he was killed in combat and the general was not the initiator of the act but thegeneral was not the initiator of the act but the sufferer (Под ним убили лошадь). An error insufferer (Под ним убили лошадь). An error in the translator's judgement will result in athe translator's judgement will result in a distorted translation variant.distorted translation variant.
  92. 92.  Many equivalent-lacking structures result from a non-Many equivalent-lacking structures result from a non- causative verb used in the typical causative complex.causative verb used in the typical causative complex. Preserving its basic meaning the verb acquires anPreserving its basic meaning the verb acquires an additional causative sense. Cf.:additional causative sense. Cf.:  They laughed merrily.They laughed merrily.  Они весело смеялись.Они весело смеялись.  They laughed him out of the room.They laughed him out of the room.  Они так смеялись над ним, что он убежал изОни так смеялись над ним, что он убежал из комнаты.комнаты.
  93. 93.  In such cases the translator has to chooseIn such cases the translator has to choose among different ways of expressing causativeamong different ways of expressing causative relationships in TL. Cf.:relationships in TL. Cf.:  The US Administration wanted to frighten theThe US Administration wanted to frighten the people into accepting the militarization of thepeople into accepting the militarization of the country.country.  ..
  94. 94.  Администрация США стремилась запугатьАдминистрация США стремилась запугать народ, чтобы заставить его согласиться нанарод, чтобы заставить его согласиться на милитаризацию страны. Не talked me intoмилитаризацию страны. Не talked me into joining him. Он уговорил меняjoining him. Он уговорил меня присоединиться к нему.присоединиться к нему.  It should be noted that such English structuresIt should be noted that such English structures are usually formed with the prepositions "into"are usually formed with the prepositions "into" and "out of as in the above examplesand "out of as in the above examples
  95. 95. HANDLING MODAL FORMSHANDLING MODAL FORMS

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