Problem solving techniques

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Operational Management Problem Solving Techniques which must be practiced in Industry for any problem solving.

Ahsan Saleem
Assistant Manager
Honda Atlas Cars Pakistan Ltd.
+92-301-4872771

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  • Consensus: Change Variability Reduction to Variation Reduction ( do this throughout the materials) Change the ‘lock graphic’, it is not obvious what it is and what it represents. Funnel Graphic: Use all small x’s.
  • Tools are available to support the problem solving process. These tools, which are analytical as well as graphical, help to increase the quality and productivity of the problem solving activities. Is/Is Not analysis - To stratify the problem description Flow Diagrams - To Clarify the process sequence. To facilitate identification of deviations between the actual and the intended paths. To identity measurement stations. Pareto Diagrams - To prioritise, or to choose the starting point for an investigation. Histograms - To support the determination of the need for more detailed capability studies. To display the frequency distribution of data in easily understood, graphic form. To obtain information about variability as data are collected. Control Charts - To assess process stability. To assess change. Check Sheets - To order data. To collect variable and attribute data. To rapidly gain management support by presenting categorised data. Capability Studies - To assess the ability of the process to meet requirements. To assess the ability of the process to meet customers' needs.
  • Problem solving techniques

    1. 7. Welcome to this overview session on Global 8D….. The session will provide you, <ul><li>Necessary analytical and procedural description about G8D </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary inputs to participate in the concern resolution process using G8D </li></ul>BACK
    2. 8. <ul><li>A primary responsibility of every level of an Organisation is to solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely easy, this has been recognised as essential but challenging work. </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined and rigorous use of the G8D process within a robust Quality Operating System manages the overall problem solving efforts of an Organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>- QP&L, FAO </li></ul>BACK
    3. 9. <ul><li>Problems in Problem Solving : </li></ul><ul><li>Management Impatient leading to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick fixes are appreciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect description of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illogical prioritisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor team participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible causes become root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective actions are not permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No / incomplete documentation and storage, hence Corporate Memory starves </li></ul></ul>BACK
    4. 10. BACK Global 8D is a Standardised Problem Solving Technique used by FAO that provides an effective framework through step-by-step disciplines and integration of different skills, to resolve concerns and prevent their recurrence.
    5. 11. G8D Overview : Prepare for G8D Establish Team Describe Problem Choose & Verify PCA Root Cause & Escape Point Develop ICA Implement & Validate PCA Prevent Recurrence Recognise Contributions BACK D0 D1 D2 D5 D4 D3 D6 D7 D8
    6. 12. G8D has been proven over time and supports the Ford 2000 Seven Strategies <ul><li>Empowered People to implement corrective actions, prevent recurrence through right people with right skills at the right time </li></ul><ul><li>Nimble through Process Leadership : A standard process, hence, global communication is faster, Corporate Memory avoids duplication, helps with replication & assistance facilities for faster and effective problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Lead in Customer Satisfaction : Customer protected throughout the problem solving process - ERA / ICA, Concern Definition, Verification & Validation </li></ul>BACK
    7. 13. G8D addresses 3 types of problem solving approaches <ul><li>Rational Approach : Fact & Data based </li></ul><ul><li>People Approach : Team Work, Employee Involvement, Participative Management and Experience Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Approach : Brain Storming, SIT, etc. </li></ul>BACK
    8. 14. <ul><li>G8D tasks to be carried out throughout the resolution process </li></ul><ul><li>Common Tasks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Measurables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if any additional action / service is required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address & review the Assessing Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update G8D format(s) </li></ul></ul>BACK
    9. 15. <ul><li>Assessing Questions - Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the team and the champion linked, on task and in agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Quality Assurance Check for each discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as an advance organiser for planning activities and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger actions that need to be taking place in the organisation outside the G8D process </li></ul>BACK
    10. 16. BACK D1 Establish Team D2 Describe Problem D5 Choose & Verify PCA D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D3 Develop ICA D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions
    11. 17. BACK
    12. 18. D0 : PURPOSE : Prepare for G8D <ul><li>In response to a Symptom, evaluate the need for the G8D process </li></ul><ul><li>If necessary, provide Emergency Response Action to protect the Customer and initiate the G8D process </li></ul>BACK
    13. 19. <ul><li>D0 : G8D Application Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Symptom has been identified and quantified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers / Affected Parties who experienced the symptom(s) have been identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance gaps exist between the symptoms and the desired and / or the priority of the symptom warrants initiation of G8D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Root Cause of the Concern is not known </li></ul></ul>BACK
    14. 20. <ul><li>D0 : G8D Application Criteria contd…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptom complexity exceeds the ability of one person to resolve the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Concern (same or similar in nature) was not resolved in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Management is committed to dedicate the necessary resources to fix the problem at the root-cause level and prevent its recurrence </li></ul></ul>BACK
    15. 21. <ul><li>D0 : G8D Application Criteria contd…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G8D can be applied to ‘Change Induced Situation’ as well as to ‘Never Been There Situation’ </li></ul></ul>BACK
    16. 22. Transactional DMAIC Improvement Process Define Improve Measure Control Analyse <ul><li>Develop y’s </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Validate data </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Process Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Set targets for improvement </li></ul>Phase Review Phase Review Phase Review Phase Review <ul><li>Brainstorm Potential Improvement Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Select Imp’t Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and Implement Pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Countermeasures </li></ul>Criteria A B C D Time + s - + Cost + - + s Service - + - + Etc s s - + 15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL 15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL <ul><li>Develop Detailed Process Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Ideal Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Critical Process Steps (X’s) by looking for: </li></ul><ul><li>Process Bottlenecks </li></ul><ul><li>Rework / Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Non-value Added Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Error / Mistake </li></ul>START PROCESS STEPS DECISION STOP <ul><li>Develop and Implement Control Mechanisms for Critical x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Process Performance (y’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Validate Control Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Further Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Document </li></ul>1 5 10 15 20 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit y <ul><li>Select Project </li></ul><ul><li>Define Project Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Form the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Update Project File </li></ul>Phase Review
    17. 23. Team Problem Solving Process 1. Define the Problem 2. Interim Actions 3. Acquire and Analyse Data 4. Determine Root Cause 5. Evaluate Possible Solutions 6. Action Plan and Implement 7. Verify the Results 8. Standardise and Future Actions
    18. 24. Useful Tools for Defining the Problem Pareto Chart Capability Study Check Sheet • • • • • A B C D E Other 20 40 60 80 100% 50% 75% 25% Histogram Control Chart Flow Chart START PROCESS STEPS DECISION STOP IS IS NOT WHAT? WHO? WHERE? WHEN? HOW MUCH? Is/Is Not Analysis
    19. 25. BACK D1 Establish Team D2 Describe Problem D5 Choose & Verify PCA D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D3 Develop ICA D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    20. 26. BACK
    21. 27. <ul><li>D1 : Purpose : Form TEAM </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a small group of people with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>required product / process knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allocated time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requisite technical skills in respective discipline(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to solve the problem(s) and implement corrective action(s) </li></ul></ul>BACK
    22. 28. <ul><li>D1 : The ‘TEAM’ Process </li></ul><ul><li>Composition / Membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a good mix of members with technical skills required for concern resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>size should be limited between four & ten members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>membership need not be constant throughout and should change according to the stage within the concern resolution process </li></ul></ul>BACK
    23. 29. <ul><li>D1 : The ‘TEAM’ Process contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Champion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorder </li></ul></ul>BACK
    24. 30. <ul><li>D1 : The ‘TEAM’ Process contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM Meetings : The 3 phases through </li></ul><ul><li>which any TEAM meeting should go through are, </li></ul>TASKS OBSERVATIONS MAINTENANCE BACK
    25. 31. <ul><li>D1 : The ‘TEAM’ Process contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM Meetings (contd…) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task is the Business Plan. Any agenda item that addresses business occurs in the Task phase. e.g. information, decision, solution, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance involves recognition of feelings that affect TEAM process and addressing them. e.g. attention, respect, sense of belonging, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation relates to dynamics of the meeting & guiding back into the Meeting Process Phase. e.g. cautioning about ‘time’, ‘one at a time’, 'your attention please’, etc. </li></ul></ul>BACK
    26. 32. <ul><li>D1 : The ‘TEAM’ Process contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM Operating Procedures : </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting roles assists the TEAM making guidelines for any TEAM meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>follow meeting time disciplines, meet agenda requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perform roles - share process oriented roles (Facilitator, Time Manager) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complete homework - come prepared and do tasks between meetings </li></ul></ul>BACK
    27. 33. <ul><li>D1 : The ‘TEAM’ Process contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM Operating Procedures (contd…) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not offer opinions, trace them to observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restate and build on proposals </li></ul></ul>BACK
    28. 34. BACK D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D5 Choose & Verify PCA D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D3 Develop ICA D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    29. 35. BACK
    30. 36. <ul><li>D2 : Purpose : Describe Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Describe internal / external problem by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying ‘what is wrong with what’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detailing the problem in quantifiable terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“The Goal is to translate Customer’s Symptoms into a Problem Statement and Problem Description” </li></ul>BACK
    31. 37. <ul><li>D2 : Function </li></ul><ul><li>The function of D2 is to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the Object and the Defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describe the problem based on data and observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define the problem as accurately as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drive the rest of the G8D process based on this problem definition </li></ul></ul>BACK
    32. 38. <ul><li>D2 </li></ul><ul><li>Why Define the Problem ??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any vagueness or inaccuracy at D2 will lead the team to wrong cause followed by a wrong corrective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reexamination of facts is extremely difficult, once conclusion(s) is/are drawn </li></ul></ul>BACK
    33. 39. <ul><li>D2 : Problem Statement to Problem Description </li></ul>Problem Statement Problem Description BACK
    34. 40. <ul><li>D2 : Problem Statement contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the ‘object’ and the ‘defect’ by asking “WHAT IS WRONG WITH WHAT” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ what is wrong….’ is the defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘… .with what’ is the object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after establishing the object and the defect, ask “WHY IS THAT HAPPENING” </li></ul></ul>BACK
    35. 41. <ul><li>D2 : Problem Statement contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Development (contd…) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue asking WHY until there is no certain answer. WHY excludes illogical possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refine the statement to get as near as possible to the root cause using the existing data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devise the problem statement following the above steps based on ‘object - defect - certain reason’ </li></ul>BACK
    36. 42. <ul><li>D2 : Problem Statement contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Development (contd…) </li></ul><ul><li>In case of complex problems (with multiple defect / multiple root causes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate : Symptoms are broken down and subdivided according to complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritise : Pareto Charts are used to identify problems that create difficulties with highest frequency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certain other criteria also can be used such as severity, urgency based on Customer Inputs </li></ul>BACK
    37. 43. <ul><li>D2 : Problem Description </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Description narrows down </li></ul><ul><li>the search for concern resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Provide information on </li></ul><ul><li>What the problem is and what it is not, but could be </li></ul><ul><li>Where the problem is and where it is not, but could be </li></ul><ul><li>When the problem occurs and when it does not, but could </li></ul><ul><li>How big the problem is and how big it is not, but could be </li></ul>BACK
    38. 44. BACK D3 Develop ICA D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D5 Choose & Verify PCA D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    39. 45. BACK
    40. 46. Gemba Kaizen
    41. 47. <ul><li>Kaizen means continuous improvement. The word implies improvement that involves everyone—both managers and workers—and entails relatively little expense. </li></ul><ul><li>Gemba is a Japanese word meaning 'real place,' where the real action takes place. In business, Gemba is the ‘shopfloor’ or ‘production place’ where the value-adding activities to satisfy the customer are carried out. </li></ul>Gemba Kaizen
    42. 49. 5- gemba principles
    43. 50. 5-gemba principles <ul><li>1. When a trouble (abnormality) happens, go to gemba first. </li></ul>
    44. 51. 2. Check with gembutsu : Machine, tools, rejects <ul><li>Gembutsu¸another Japanese, means some tangible things on which you can put your hands. If a machine is down, the machine itself is gembuts u. If a customer is complaining, the customer is gembuts u. </li></ul>
    45. 52. 3. Take countermeasures on the spot. <ul><li>For instance, if the machine is down, you have to get it started because the show must go on. Sometimes you kick the machine to get it started. </li></ul><ul><li>If a customer is angry, you will need to apologize, or even give some gift to appease. But these are only temporary measures and do not address the real issue, which leads to the next point. </li></ul>
    46. 53. 4. Find out the root cause. <ul><li>By repeating the question “why” several times, you can find out the root cause of the problem. </li></ul>
    47. 54. 5. Standardize for prevention of recurrence. <ul><li>Once you identify the root cause, and come up with a countermeasure, you should standardize such a countermeasure so that the same problem will not recur. </li></ul>
    48. 55. Gemba KAIZEN - Low cost approach <ul><li>In order to solve problems found in gemb a, today’s managers often try to apply sophisticated tools and technologies to deal with problems that can be solved with a commonsense, low-cost approach. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to unlearn the habit of trying ever-more sophisticated technologies to solve everyday problems. </li></ul>
    49. 56. Gemba KAIZEN - Low cost approach <ul><li>Gemba KAIZEN </li></ul><ul><li>There are two approaches to problems solving. The first involves innovation – applying the latest high-cost technology, such as state-of-the art computers and other tools, and investing a great deal of money. The second uses commonsense tools, checklists, and techniques that do not cost much money. This approach is called kaize n. This article will show how kaizen can achieve significant improvement as an essential building block that prepares the company for truly rewarding accomplishments. </li></ul>
    50. 57. Three ground rules for practicing Kaizen in gemba: <ul><li>3 ground rules for practicing Kaizen in Gemba are: - </li></ul><ul><li>1. Housekeeping, </li></ul><ul><li>2. Muda elimination. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Standardization. </li></ul>
    51. 58. 1. Housekeeping <ul><li>Housekeeping is an indispensable ingredient of good management. Through good housekeeping, employees acquire and practice self-discipline. Employees without self-disciplines make it difficult to provide products or services of good quality to the customer. </li></ul>
    52. 59. 2. Muda elimination <ul><li>In Japanese, the word muda means waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Any activity that does not add value is mud a. </li></ul><ul><li>People in gemba either add value or do not add value. This is also true for other resources, such as machines and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Muda elimination can be the most cost-effective way of improving productivity and reducing operating costs. </li></ul>
    53. 60. Types of waste <ul><li>Waste of over production – This is regarded as the worst type of waste. If you produce more than your customer needs, you have extra pieces that need to be taken care of, such as handling and keeping in stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of inventory – This is the result of over production. If you process only Produces what the next process needs, you can eliminate muda of inventory altogether. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of waiting – How often do you see operators just waiting for the material to arrive or the machine to start? No value is added when operators are waiting and looking. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of motion – When the operator is moving around, looking for tools or going to get the work pieces, no value is added. </li></ul>
    54. 61. Types of Waste <ul><li>Waste of transportation – When materials are moving on the trucks, forklifts, or on the conveyer, no value is added. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of producing rejects – Producing rejects leads to rework, or else rejects must be thrown away, a big mud a. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of processing – By rearranging the working sequence, often you can eliminate a particular process. </li></ul>
    55. 62. 3. Standardization <ul><li>The third ground rule of kaizen practices in gemba is standardization. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards may be defined as the best way to do the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Products of services are created as a result of a series of processes. Certain standard must be maintained at each process in order to assure quality. Standards also can prevent recurrence of the same problem. </li></ul>
    56. 63. <ul><li>D3 : Purpose : Develop ICA </li></ul><ul><li>Define, Verify, Validate and Implement Interim Containment Action (ICA) to isolate the effects of the problem from any internal / external customer & affected party until a Permanent Corrective Action (PCA) is implemented </li></ul>BACK
    57. 64. <ul><li>D3 : </li></ul><ul><li>D3 is the only optional Step in G8D </li></ul><ul><li>The rationale is to, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘buy time’ to identify the root cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>further protect the Customer from the effects of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contain the problem from cost, performance & time perspective </li></ul></ul>BACK
    58. 65. <ul><li>D3 : What is an ICA ??? </li></ul><ul><li>Improved derivation of an ERA but must not create other problem downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike ERA, an ICA is chosen after preliminary investigation and data collection in D2 (effective ICA makes ‘Is’ from ‘Is / Is Not’ Analysis go away) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires continuous monitoring for effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Adds costs </li></ul>BACK
    59. 66. <ul><li>D3 : Activities involved </li></ul><ul><li>Verify and Validate ICA </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an Action Plan for implementation & follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What - describe the action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who - responsibility of the action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When - action completion time </li></ul></ul>BACK
    60. 67. BACK D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D3 Develop ICA D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D5 Choose & Verify PCA D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    61. 68. BACK
    62. 69. <ul><li>D4 : Purpose : Root Cause and </li></ul><ul><li>Escape Point </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate and verify the root cause by testing each Root Cause Theory against the Problem Description and Test Data </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate and Verify the place in the process where the effects of the Root Cause could have been detected and contained, but was not (Escape Point) </li></ul>BACK
    63. 70. <ul><li>D4 : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Most Likely Cause of the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Escape Point of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Root Cause and Escape Point of the Problem </li></ul>BACK
    64. 71. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>In cases ‘change induced’ systems (when the desired and the actual were same but are now different), the Root Cause will be a CHANGE of some type. </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor the search based on the thorough defect profile built around the Problem Statement & Problem Description </li></ul>BACK
    65. 72. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Arriving at a Root Cause will be based on deductive logics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of questions that yield answers, to which another question is applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result is a steady reduction of the number of possible causes to be investigated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Methods can be applied </li></ul>BACK
    66. 73. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Method ‘A Method ‘B’ </li></ul><ul><li>1. Problem Statement 1. Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>2. Problem Description 2. Problem Description </li></ul><ul><li>3. List changes over time 3a. List differences </li></ul><ul><li> 3b. List changes in differences </li></ul><ul><li>4. Develop theories based 4. Develop theories based </li></ul><ul><li>on changes on changes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Trial run Theories 5. Trial run Theories </li></ul><ul><li>6. Verify most likely cause 6. Verify most BAC likely cause </li></ul>
    67. 74. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem solver can use a series of questions to gather information, as this information, though useful, is not considered significant by the one who have it. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 1 : Develop Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is wrong with what </li></ul></ul>BACK
    68. 75. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 2 : Develop Problem Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What ……. Is / Is Not the defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where ……. Is / Is Not the defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When ……. Is / Is Not the defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How big ……. Is / Is Not the defect </li></ul></ul>BACK
    69. 76. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 3 (Method ‘A’) : List all changes on a time line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is unique, peculiar, different, distinctive and unusual about ‘Is’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consider features such as people, methods, material, machines and environment </li></ul></ul>BACK
    70. 77. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 3a (Method ‘B’) : List Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same as Step 3 of Method ‘A’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STEP 3b (Method ‘B’) : List Changes in Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What has changed ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘around’ or ‘about’ this difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consider features such as people, methods, material, machines and environment </li></ul></ul>BACK
    71. 78. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 4 : Develop Root Cause Theories based on Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways might this change create the defect on the object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How could this change create the defect on the object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During this step be specific and avoid using terms like ‘out of specs’, ‘poor quality’, etc. </li></ul>BACK
    72. 79. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 5 : Trial Run the theories using Test Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this ‘change how’ theory completely explain ‘Is’ as well as ‘Is Not’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explains Fully : If the data explains fully why the effect manifests itself in the ‘Is’ dimension but never manifests itself in the ‘Is Not’ dimension, then a plus (+) symbol should be entered in the Test Matrix for that element. THIS THEORY FULLY EXPLAINS THE ELEMENT </li></ul>BACK
    73. 80. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot Explain : If the data cannot explain why the effect manifests itself in the ‘Is’ dimension and / or never manifests itself in the ‘Is Not’ dimension, then a minus (-) symbol should be entered in the Test Matrix for that element. THIS THEORY DEFINITELY DOES NOT EXPLAIN THIS ELEMENT AND THEREFORE CANNOT BE THE CAUSE </li></ul>BACK
    74. 81. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Data : If the theory could explain the effect but there are insufficient data to explain fully why the effect manifests itself in the ‘Is’ dimension and / or never manifests itself in the ‘Is Not’ dimension, then a question mark (?) symbol should be entered in the Test Matrix for that element and a comment added at that point to indicate the further data collection / analysis required. THIS THEORY COULD EXPLAIN THIS ELEMENT ELEMENT BUT MORE DATA / ANALYSIS ARE REQUIRED </li></ul>BACK
    75. 82. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Data (contd…) : In practice, particularly when multiple root causes are considered, more than one theory may pass the trial run with a combination of pluses and question marks. In such cases, and where it is feasible and practical, collect and analyse the missing data and reexamine the theory to resolve the question marks to either pluses or minuses. Else, proceed to Step 6, starting with the theory with most pluses. </li></ul>BACK
    76. 83. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 6 : Verify Most Likely Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification has to be done in the real world and not on a problem solving form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification is either Passive (done by observation) or Active (make the defect come & go) </li></ul></ul>BACK
    77. 84. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 7 : Acknowledge the Root Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed root cause is then acknowledged as the as the Root Cause </li></ul></ul>BACK
    78. 85. <ul><li>D4 : Determining Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>For ‘never been there’ situation, there is a need for process or design change as the product / service is functioning normal but the customers or management seeks a higher performance. </li></ul><ul><li>As there is no root cause that created the effect, uncovering differences unique to the ‘Is’ when compared to the corresponding ‘Is Not’ may help in developing a theory to create desired improvement </li></ul>BACK
    79. 86. <ul><li>D4 : Escape Point Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Determine where in the process the root cause could have been detected, but was not. Review the Control System and the Control Point </li></ul>BACK
    80. 87. BACK D5 Choose & Verify PCA D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D3 Develop ICA D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    81. 88. BACK
    82. 89. <ul><li>D5 : Purpose : Choose Verify PCA </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best Permanent Corrective Action (PCA) to eliminate Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best Permanent Corrective Action (PCA) to address the Escape Point </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that both the decisions will demonstrate success when implemented and not cause any other undesirable effect </li></ul>BACK
    83. 90. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making can be done by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unilateral : Autocratic approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polling : Democratic way, where every one is involved, however, can result in a wrong decision based on majority psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise : Compromise can reduce conflict and allow everyone to be heard. Necessary when results are not achieved </li></ul></ul>BACK
    84. 91. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritisation : Rational process that weighs the pros & cons. Though time consuming, it allows for several courses of alternatives. Criteria can be based on nature of situation which can influence decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus : 70% approval and 100% support Most powerful method for the TEAM process (agreement, force, support, etc.) </li></ul></ul>BACK
    85. 92. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decisions reached analytically through assigning weightages to various alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgement : Alternatives offered for reviews to the subject matter experts </li></ul></ul>BACK
    86. 93. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK
    87. 94. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the End Result : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT : End result is brief statement that describes the desired outcome of the decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY : End result is identified in order to define the scope of the decision and provide a focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Describe the end result by identifying an action and an object </li></ul></ul>BACK
    88. 95. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    89. 96. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria : </li></ul><ul><li>GIVENS : These are objectively measurable, non-negotiable, realistic features of the decision. Givens are the constraints (minimum criteria) and are used as filters. Givens often concern money, deadlines, company procedures, legislations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>WANTS : These are desirable (as opposed to essentials) features of the decision and enable to determine which remaining choices are preferable </li></ul>BACK
    90. 97. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    91. 98. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide the Relative Importance of Wants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT : Wants have an importance relative to each other when considered against the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY : The relative importance enables the performance of each available option to be evaluated that reflects its relative merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Rate on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 points to the most important </li></ul></ul>BACK
    92. 99. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    93. 100. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT : Generate a list of alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY : Generate choices to ensure a Quality Decision by having a range from which to choose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Devised based on Team Experience, External Information, Subject Matter Experts, Educational Institutes, Literature, etc. </li></ul></ul>BACK
    94. 101. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    95. 102. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare choices against Decision Criteria : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT : Comparison allows evaluation of how well each choice meets the decision criteria in relative terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY : Make comparisons arrive at the most desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Compare the choices against the GIVENs, using a go / no-go process </li></ul></ul>BACK
    96. 103. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare choices against Decision Criteria : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Evaluate choices against WANTs. Rate each want on a 0 to 10 scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiply the ‘how good’ value of choice by the importance value of each want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total the scores for each choice </li></ul></ul>BACK
    97. 104. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    98. 105. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse Risk : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT : Look at what can go wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY : Examine if choices with big benefits have big risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Make a Risk Statement - ‘If (an event) happens then ….. will be the consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider probability and seriousness, and ask ‘does the choice - just meets GIVENs ….. performs poorly against an important want </li></ul></ul>BACK
    99. 106. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting : Decision Making Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the Decision Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the relative importance of the wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare choices against decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a full balanced choice </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    100. 107. <ul><li>D5 : Decision Making contd….. </li></ul><ul><li>Make Best Balanced Choice : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT : A balanced choice must be based on information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY : Confident that the balanced choice is the best choice possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW : Balance the Risks & Benefits </li></ul></ul>BACK
    101. 108. <ul><li>D5 : Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Once the decision is made </li></ul><ul><ul><li>test it practically for feasibility in order to avoid an expensive failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include real world usage conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples of verification methods are test bed runs, road tests, production run, etc. </li></ul></ul>BACK
    102. 109. BACK D6 Implement & Validate PCA D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D3 Develop ICA D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D5 Choose & Verify PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    103. 110. BACK
    104. 111. <ul><li>D6 : Purpose : Implement and </li></ul><ul><li>Validate PCA </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and execute Implementation of the selected PCA </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and execute Validation of the selected PCA </li></ul><ul><li>Remove ICA </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Long Term Results </li></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    105. 112. <ul><li>D6 : </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Steps ….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What could make anything go wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What could be done to prevent it from creating trouble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be done if it happens anyway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who needs to initiate Contingent Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Information should tell him to proceed with contingency Actions </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    106. 113. <ul><li>D6 : </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Steps ….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Standards & Conditions to be met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the Action Plan Steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Key Steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Prevention Actions </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    107. 114. <ul><li>D6 : </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Steps ( contd…..) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Protection Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop cues (date / event) for Protection Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define who is responsible for initiating the Protection Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review, Revise and Communicate the Final Plan </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    108. 115. <ul><li>D6 : </li></ul><ul><li>Key Points : For Planning Implementation, and Validation of PCA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the need of support required from other concerned departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include representatives from the other concerned departments in the team </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    109. 116. <ul><li>D6 : Validation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect evidence that implemented action is doing what was intended, without introducing a new problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation may include tests, inspections, observations and on-going Customer input data </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    110. 117. BACK D7 Prevent Recurrence D5 Choose & Verify PCA D3 Develop ICA D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D6 Implement & Validate PCA D8 Recognise Contributions D0 Prepare for G8D
    111. 118. BACK
    112. 119. <ul><li>D7 : Purpose : Prevent Recurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the Systems, Practices and Procedures to prevent recurrence of the problem and similar ones </li></ul><ul><li>Make recommendations for systemic improvements, if necessary </li></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    113. 120. <ul><li>D7 : Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Fix the Root Cause of the Root Cause of the Problem - ASK REPEATED WHYs </li></ul><ul><li>Address issues that allowed the problem to occur and escape </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen Corporate memory to provide database </li></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    114. 121. <ul><li>D7 : Possible Responses to the </li></ul><ul><li>Team Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>D7 output within the scope of the team </li></ul><ul><li>Champion desires the same team to implement D7 actions </li></ul><ul><li>Champion desires to use other resources to implement D7 actions </li></ul><ul><li>Champion carries team recommendations up the chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>Champion rejects team recommendations </li></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    115. 122. BACK D8 Recognise Contributions D5 Choose & Verify PCA D3 Develop ICA D2 Describe Problem D1 Establish Team D4 Root Cause & Escape Point D6 Implement & Validate PCA D7 Prevent Recurrence D0 Prepare for G8D
    116. 123. BACK
    117. 124. <ul><li>D8 : Purpose : Recognise </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Finish unfinished Business Activities before disbanding the team </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise Contributions of the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others outside the team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Celebrate </li></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    118. 125. <ul><li>D8 : </li></ul><ul><li>Finish Team Business Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finalising & archiving documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of Lessons Learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making Presentation to the Champion & the Top Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing gripes & regrets within the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing appreciation within the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing the team exercise (call also those who are not in the team now) </li></ul></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    119. 126. <ul><li>D8 : </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise Contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit, Focussed and Timely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible (Award, Plaque) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognition encourages Team Members and Motivates others </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition shows that the Organisation is result oriented </li></ul>BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology
    120. 127. G8D RECAP : Prepare for G8D Establish Team Describe Problem Choose & Verify PCA Root Cause & Escape Point Develop ICA Implement & Validate PCA Prevent Recurrence Recognise Contributions BACK D0 D1 D2 D5 D4 D3 D6 D7 D8
    121. 128. ANY QUESTIONS BACK G8D Problem Solving Methodology

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