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Study on the effect of pollution on some vegetable crops

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STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON SOME VEGETABLE CROPS

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Study on the effect of pollution on some vegetable crops

  1. 1. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/286624017 STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON SOME VEGETABLE CROPS ARTICLE · JANUARY 2005 4 AUTHORS, INCLUDING: Ahmed abd el-hady sayed Abd El-Wahab Agricultural Research Center, Egypt 10 PUBLICATIONS 0 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately. Available from: Ahmed abd el-hady sayed Abd El-Wahab Retrieved on: 14 December 2015
  2. 2. Bekhit, et. al., (2005) 474 STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON SOME VEGETABLE CROPS *Bekhit, R. S.; *Shahien, M. M.; **EL- Doweny, H. H. A. and **El- Eslamboly, A. A.S.A * Vegetable dept., Fac. of Agri., Cairo Univ. ** Hort. Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, ABSTRACT Two field experiments were carried out during winter seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 at a farm in El-Badrashean city, Giza governorate at a distance 20 kilo meter south Giza from Cairo Assuit road, to study the effect of distance from traffic road on growth and yield characters and lead and cadmium accumulations in spinach, squash and turnip plants. In addition to study the effect of washing the edible parts on reducing the above mentioned heavy metals content. Experiments included three different distances far from the driving road (0-10, 80-90 and 160-170 meters). Traffic density of the used road was 32458 vehicles/day. The fresh samples were collected after 40, 55 and 70 days from sowing. Representative samples from plant parts i.e. leaves, roots and fruits were taken for chemical analysis. Half of these samples were washed with deionized water while the other half was left without washing. The vegetative parameters of the three crops were increased with increasing the distances from the traffic road. The chemical constituents of pigments and vitamin C showed a similar trend as that recorded on the vegetative growth characters. Plants pollution with lead and cadmium were decreased with increasing distance from traffic road. Washing the edible parts from squash, spinach and turnip plant led to decreasing the concentration of lead by about 30.47%, 25.44% and 15.79% respectively. Also, washing in water reduced Cd content by 24.72 %, 22.75% and 10.11% respectively. Besides, washing was more effective in removing lead than cadmium in fruit crops than leafy ones. Spinach leaf blades contained high levels from lead and cadmium compared with turnip roots and squash fruits which contained a low level of lead and cadmium. The concentrations of heavy metals at the first distance were higher than the maximum codex committee level. Consequently, it could be recommended that vegetable have to be cultivated far from the traffic road (at least 80-90- meter) in addition early harvesting as well as washing the edible part before consuming especially, leafy and root vegetables. 2- INTRODUCTION Vegetables crops are an important for human diet since they contain carbohydrates, proteins, as well as vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Vegetables grown at environmentally contaminated sites in Egypt could take up and accumulate heavy metals at concentrations that are toxic to human health. There are many different forms of pollution, such as chemicals and wastes from factories, farms, motorcars and even houses. These kinds of pollution are very harmful as they affect land, water and air. Concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in roadside soil and vegetation decrease with distance far from traffic (Lagerwerff and Specht, 1970). In this regard, Davies and Holmes (1972) in England recommended that, it might be prudent not to grow vegetables within 50m of busy roads. Moreover, Ali (1974) indicated that, plants may absorb lead through both leaves and roots with translocation within the plant. EI-Mola (1980) indicated that, the dry matter decreased by increasing the addition of lead nitrate to both shoots and roots of spinach plants. Page, et.al. (1981) showed that, relative Cd uptake by range of different crop plants growing in contaminated soils were in, turnip, spinach > tomato, lettuce > swiss chard, radish, and carrot.
  3. 3. The 6th Arabian Conference For Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt 475 Ndiokwere (1984) reported that, concentrations of metals in vegetation could be reduced to 1/2-1/3 by washing the samples with deionised water. Mohamed (1985) indicated that washing plant samples grown on roadside soils by water could, loose about 43 to 62% of their total lead content, indicating the importance of washing for polluted plants before being used by man or animal. Ochaia (1987) divided the, mechanisms of metal toxicity into five groups: (1) the displacement of essential metal ions from biomolecules and other biologically functional units; (2) blocking essential functional groups of biomolecules, including enzymes and polynucleotides; (3) modifying the active conformation of biomolecules especially enzymes and polynucleotides; (4) disrupting the integrity of biomolecules; and (5) modifying other biologically active agents. Guttormsen (1990) studied the cadmium and lead levels in Norwegian vegetables and recorded that a reasonable consumption of the vegetables would not appear to present a health risk, on the basis of the FAO/WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake of 0.5 mg Cd and 3 mg Pb/60 kg of mean body weight. In Cairo Mahmoud (1992) reported that, lead is highly toxic to man, animals and plants, and it has become of a major chemical pollutant of the environment. Feng et.al. (1993) study the heavy metals pollution of vegetables in Boashen district, Shanghai. They mentioned that, the heavy metal content of different vegetable types was in the order of leafy vegetables > root tubers > fruit vegetables. Ali and Riad (1995) observed that, lead content of washed lettuce was low compared to unwashed ones. It is found that washing lettuce plant with tap water served in lowering lead content in the plant by about 30 % compared to the unwashed. Hassan and Gewifel (1998) in Egypt also recorded that, the traffic densities from roads are located in northern Egypt especially Cairo–Alexandria road, Alexandria–Matrouh Road and Abbis Road. They examined these roads during 24 hrs, and reported that traffic densities were 35200 (high density), 20700 (moderate density) and 1100 (low density) respectively. It was found also that concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd in radish and lettuce collected from each site in both plants, generally decreased with the increase of the distance from the road. Moreover, these concentrations were higher in material collected from sites along Cairo-Alexandria highway than those collected from Alexandria-Matrouh road or from Abbis road. CODEX (2000) recorded that, for vegetables, except brassica, leafy vegetables and mushrooms, the proposal is 0.1 mg/kg. A proposal of 0.3 mg/kg stands for brassica, except kale, and for leafy vegetables, except spinach. Thabet (2001) showed that, the highest contamination percentages were found in leafy vegetable samples collected from Benisuef, Qalubiya, Cairo, Minufiya governorates as 93.8%, 92%, 89.1%, and 86% respectively. However, the contamination percentages in the other Governorates were 81.3% and 78.6% in Giza and Ismailia, respectively. The objective of this study aimed to study the effect of cars pollution on the vegetative growth, fruit characters and yield of squash, spinach and turnip. Also to estimate the heavy metal concentrations i.e. lead and cadmium and the residues and effect of washing for the mentioned heavy metal with special emphasis on their toxicological implications and studied the effect of heavy metal on these vegetable crops growth and yield. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1 - Effect of exhaust car pollution:- The study was carried out at a farm in El-Badrashean city, Giza governorate at 20- kilometer south Giza; on the east of Cairo Assuit Agriculture road .Three different vegetable
  4. 4. Bekhit, et. al., (2005) 476 crops i.e. turnip, squash and spinach were used. The experiments were conducted during the two successive seasons of 2001 /2002 and 2002 / 2003. Planting dates were 6th and 1st of October for the first and second seasons, respectively. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was adopted. Three different distances far from the traffic road, were studied, 0-10, 80-90 and 160-170 meters. Traffic densities on the examined road were about 32458 vehicles/day. The fresh samples were collected after 40, 55 and 70 days from sowing. Half of these samples were washed with distilled water while the other half was left as control (unwashed). Representative samples were taken for chemical analysis. The conventional agricultural practices i.e., irrigation, fertilization and weeding were done as recommended by the Ministry of the Agriculture in Egypt, for turnip, squash and spinach production. No pesticides and herbicides were used. 1.1 Squash experiment:- This experiment aimed to study the effect of pollution by exhausts cars on the squash Cucurbita pepo, L. on vegetative growth characters, , flowering and fruit characters, yield, chlorophyll pigments a, b and carotenoids and the contents of Pb and Cd contamination in the different parts of the vegetable samples either washed or unwashed. Eskandarani variety, which is widely spread in Egypt, was used in this experiment. Each plot area was 10 m2 include 3 rows was 4 meter long and the number of plants in unit area was 25 plants. The plants were spaced at 40 cm a part in rows and 80 cm a parts. 1.2 Spinach experiment:- This experiment aimed to study the effect of pollution by exhausts cars on the spinach Spinacia oleracea, L. on yield, vegetative growth characteristics, total chlorophyll pigments and the contents of Pb and Cd contamination in the edible part of plant samples either washed or unwashed plant part of El-Dokki cultivars. Each plot area was 10 m2 and the number of plants in unit area was 200 plants. 1.3 Turnip experiment:- The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of pollution by exhausts cars on the turnip Brassica campestris, L. var. Iraqi on yield vegetative growth characters, total chlorophyll pigments and the contents of Pb and Cd contamination in the edible part of plant samples either washed or unwashed. Each plot area was 5 m2 and the number of plants in unit area was 125 plants. Recorded data A. Plant growth characteristics 1. Leaves area (cm2 ). 2. Plant fresh weight (g).3. Plant dry weight (g).4. Root size (cm3 ). 5. Root fresh weight (g). 6. Root dry weight (g). 7. Fruit fresh weight (g). 8. Fruit dry weight (g). 9. Number of fruits. 10. Total yield (ton/ feddan) B. Chemical analysis 1. Determination of leaf pigments: Chlorophyll pigments of total chlorophyll as mg/100 gm were determined in the leaves according to Wettestein (1957). 2. Heavy metal pollution. Lead and cadmium contents of Squash, Spanish and Turnip samples were determined in leaves, stems and petioles, roots and fruits (mg/kg fresh weight) for all intervals of plant ages either washed or unwashed by using Perian-Elemer Model 3300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer according to the method described by Rawe (1973). Statistical analysis:- Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis by the technique of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for randomized complete blocks design. The treatment means were
  5. 5. The 6th Arabian Conference For Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt 477 compared using least significant difference (LSD) method as mentioned by Gomez and Gomez (1984). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1 - Effect of distances from traffic road in plant characteristics. 1.1- Squash experiments: Results in Table (1) showed that sowing the plants far from the road gave the highest values from plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leave area and total chlorophyll, were detected at 160-170 meter distance compared with first distance (0-10m) in all plant ages. On the other hand there are no significant differences between the second and the third distance on the plant fresh and dry weight and leave area in all plant ages in the both seasons. These inhibition of all characteristics may be due to heavy metal contamination from air and soil resulted by motor cars emission. These results were similar may be due to as shown (Cottonie et.al., 1976) who indicated that reduction of biomass production and nutritional quality is observed on crops grown in soils contaminated with moderate levels of heavy metal. Similar, results were obtained by several investigators e.g., EI-Mola (1980), Ali (1982) and Moursi (1990). They reported that, vegetative area was increased by increasing distances from the main source of pollution. Also similar conclusions were reported by Ali ( 1991 and 1992 ), Abd El- Aziz (2001) and Ibrahium (2001). Table (1): Effect of different distances from traffic way plant fresh and dry weight (g), leaves area (cm2 ) and total chlorophyll (mg/g fresh weight) of squash plants at 40,55 and 70 days from planting in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. 2001/2002 Days Plant fresh weight (g) Plant dry weight (g) Leaves area (cm2 ) Total chlorophyll 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 Distances 0-10 740.3 1042.7 1422.7 66.3 88.6 107.8 5401.3 7327.8 7327.8 0.031 0.039 0.036 80-90 1464.2 1902.3 2254.4 128.8 157.8 181.1 9842.7 12411.8 14354.4 0.051 0.054 0.059 160-170 1422.7 1878.7 2129.8 118.7 158.7 185.9 10033.0 12764.8 14766.7 0.051 0.057 0.063 L.S.D at 0.05 101.26 197.1 96.87 8.95 19.55 13.47 1573.6 1486.6 1666.9 0.007 0.006 0.0064 2002/2003 Distances 0-10 671.8 951.3 1197.5 62.1 83.1 100.5 4888.2 6682.7 8032.0 0.031 0.035 0.033 80-90 1333.9 1735.6 2062.2 120.7 147.7 169.4 8937.6 11348.7 13091.3 0.047 0.055 0.06 160-170 1298.4 1712.6 1940.6 111.6 148.2 170.8 9126.8 10725.6 13192.7 0.051 0.057 0.064 L.S.D at 0.05 94.32 182.6 93.4 8.92 18.70 14.8 1416.6 1680.2 1117.5 0.0056 0.0058 0.0067 As for the results concerning the effect of driving way emission on number of fruits, fruits fresh weight and dry weight per plant of squash plants are shown in (Table2). Significant effect was observed by increasing the distance from traffic road. The highest values from these characters were detected at 160-170 meter distance in both seasons while the lowest values were obtained at 0-10 meter distance far from the traffic road. Similar conclusions were reported on strawberry by Abd El-Aziz (2001). Results in Table (3) show the effect of distances from driving way on squash yield (Ton/Fed). A significant differences between the first distance and both the second and the third distances were detected. The highest total yield was obtained from 160-170 and 80-90 meter distance. While, the lowest value was recorded at 0-10 meter distance from the road. These results may be caused by the effect on Photosynthesis, transpiration, carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic activities which were inhibited by cadmium and lead
  6. 6. Bekhit, et. al., (2005) 478 accumulation. These results were in agreement with Nasralla (1975) who reported that, the road dust as source of lead reduced photosynthesis leading to loss of plant yield. Also, agree with those of Bazzaz et.al. (1974 and 1975), Baszynski et.al. (1980). McCrea (1984) and Xian (1989) they found that lead pollution caused a severe loss in the yield of several crops. Table (2): Effect of different distances from traffic way on number of fruit per plant, fruit fresh weight and fruit dry weight (g) of squash plants at 40,55 and 70 days from planting in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. 2001/2002 Days Number of fruits per plant Fruits fresh Weight (g)/plant Fruits dry Weight (g)/plant 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 Distances 0-10 3.00 8.00 13.30 111.1 291.8 445.5 8.82 22.16 31.42 80-90 5.00 14.00 19.00 288.5 948.9 1366.1 22.89 66.21 136.42 160-170 4.33 13.67 20.00 294.9 987.7 1962.7 21.58 71.07 154.79 L.S.D at 0.05 1.51 0.76 2.39 88.72 100.2 216.8 6.96 13.94 19.20 2002/2003 Distances 0-10 2.67 7.00 8.33 95.1 251.8 386.2 7.61 19.27 27.44 80-90 3.33 12.67 18.30 247.8 821.6 1711.4 19.81 60.67 119.64 160-170 3.67 13.30 18.0 255.2 853.4 1690.3 18.81 61.88 134.06 L.S.D at 0.05 1.19 1.31 2.00 76.2 87.8 184.9 6.03 8.94 16.52 Table (3): Effect of different distances from traffic way on total yield (ton/feddan) of squash plants in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. Distances 2001/2002 2002/2003 Yield (Ton/feddan) Yield (Ton/feddan) 0-10 6.45 6.34 80-90 9.73 9.72 160-170 9.87 9.79 L.S.D at 0.05 0.39 0.13 1.2-Spinach experiment Data in Table (4) show that, there was a significant effect between the first distance and both the second and the third distance from traffic road on plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leave area and total chlorophyll. These morphological characters and total chlorophyll were significantly increased with distance far from driving way at different plant ages in both season, The highest values from plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leave area and total chlorophyll, were detected at 160-170 meter distance in all plant ages, while the lowest values were obtained at 0-10 meter from the traffic road. Mean while there is no significant difference between the second and the third distance on the plant fresh and dry weight and leave area in all plant ages in both seasons. It may be assumed that this is due to uptake of the metal into the inner chloroplast space and, hence, that Cd can easily penetrate the chloroplast envelope, which inhibits photosynthesis (Weigel 1985). Ali (1991) found that, chlorophyll concentration was significantly affected in leaves of orange trees grown around Cairo- Alexandria highway. The same author (1992) confirmed that, highly positive correlations (r>0.9) were found between chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of plants and the distance from traffic roads. Similar results were obtained by several investigators, e.g. Ali and Riad (1995), Abd El- Aziz (2001) and Ibrahium (2001).
  7. 7. The 6th Arabian Conference For Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt 479 Table (4): Effect of different distances from traffic way plant fresh and dry weight (g), leaves area (cm2 ) and total chlorophyll (mg/g fresh weight) of spinach plants at 40,55 and 70 days from planting in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. 2001/2002 Plant fresh weight (g) /plant Plant dry weight (g) /plant Leaves area (cm2 ) Total chlorophyll (mg/g F.W) Days 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 Distances 0-10 46.6 149.4 234.0 3.76 12.64 19.20 1157.3 1536.3 1689.8 0.033 0.035 0.032 80-90 104.5 277.4 331.5 7.69 25.91 32.87 1534.0 2056.0 2610.0 0.053 0.058 0.065 160-170 119.3 292.1 344.4 8.79 26.25 32.34 1631.3 2089.7 2571.0 0.062 0.068 0.073 L.S.D at 0.05 20.7 36.1 27.5 1.82 0.92 4.26 149.8 248 188.6 0.0055 0.0107 0.0071 2002/2003 Distances 0-10 61.9 129.0 230.0 4.78 11.75 17.10 1223.7 1551.7 1638.0 0.033 0.04 0.029 80-90 112.4 277.6 346.6 8.20 25.80 35.39 1651.7 2270.7 2641.7 0.054 0.058 0.067 160-170 126.6 345.5 354.2 9.24 27.41 34.40 1723.0 2076.0 2666.7 0.058 0.062 0.07 L.S.D at 0.05 23.4 89.1 31.9 0.92 1.82 3.54 217.2 288.0 247.4 0.0146 0.0127 0.0155 Data in Table (5) indicated that, there was a significant effect between the first distance and the second or the third distance from traffic road on total yield (ton/feddan). The highest values from total yield were detected at 160-170 meter distance, while the lowest values were obtained at 0-10 meter distance from the traffic road. While, there is no significant differences between the second and the third distance on the total yield in both seasons. These results may be due to the affected on photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration, and allow the penetration of phytotoxic gaseous pollutants. Productivity is generally decreased and visible injury symptoms may occur. Similar finding agreed with Ali (1982, 1991) and Farmer (1993). Table (5) Effect of different distances from traffic way on total yield (ton/feddan) of spinach plants in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. Distances 2001/2002 2002/2003 Yield (Ton/ feddan) Yield (Ton/ feddan) 0-10 4.790 4.738 80-90 11.160 11.548 160-170 11.58 11.392 L.S.D. at 0.05 1.18 0.512 1.3 - Turnip experiment The influence of the distances from the traffic way on root fresh and dry weight, root size, plant fresh and dry weight, leaves area and total chlorophyll were listed in Tables (6, 7). There was a significant effect between the first distance and both second and third distance far from driving way in both season, The highest values were detected at 160-170 meter distance, while the lowest values were obtained at 0-10 meter distance from the traffic road. There are no significant differences between the second and the third distance on these characters in both seasons. In this connection Bazzaz et.al. (1974) found that relatively low concentration of lead, cadmium and nickel inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration of detached sunflower leaves. Also, agree with Ali (1982), Nasralla and Ali (1985) and Moursi (1990) they mentioned that accumulation of a very fine air pollution particles including some heavy metals, led to decrease the dry matter. Vegetative area was increased by increasing
  8. 8. Bekhit, et. al., (2005) 480 distances from the main source of pollution. These results agreed with the finding of Abd El – Aziz (2001) and Ibrahium (2001). Data presented in Table (8) clarifies the effect of the distance from traffic road in turnip yield. There was a significant effect between the first distance and both the second and the third distance from traffic road on total yield (ton/feddan). Data indicate that there was significantly increase in yield with increasing distance from driving way in both seasons. The highest value from total yield was detected at 160-170 meter, while the lowest values were obtained at 0-10 meter from the traffic road. There were no significant differences between the second and the third distance on the total yield in both seasons. The results were agreed with finding of Ali (1982). Table (6)Effect of different distances from traffic way on root size (cm3 ( and root fresh and dry weight (g) of turnip plants at 40,55 and 70 days from planting in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. 2001/2002 Days Root size Root fresh weight Root dry weight (g) 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 Distances 0-10 102.0 159.7 205.2 65.4 109.0 145.0 5.91 7.71 10.11 80-90 161.9 294.4 360.7 116.1 215.4 241.5 10.48 17.28 22.39 160-170 190.5 283.6 350.7 127.2 211.9 279.3 10.87 17.27 22.80 L.S.D at 0.05 32.1 18.9 33.2 25.2 18.2 83.8 3.50 1.39 2.93 2002/2003 Distances 0-10 105.4 166.2 208.0 68.9 126.5 161.7 6.33 10.36 13.37 80-90 146.0 246.7 298.3 112.4 196.7 215.6 10.92 17.28 21.50 160-170 159.3 247.5 297.7 118.5 201.8 256.4 11.14 17.95 22.75 L.S.D at 0.05 26.4 20.3 18.2 16.6 15.8 76.5 1.34 1.30 2.51 Table (7): Effect of different distances from traffic way on plant fresh and dry weight (g), leaves area (cm2 ) and total chlorophyll (mg/g fresh weight) of turnip plants at 40,55 and 70 days from planting in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. 2001/2002 Plant fresh weight (g)/plant Plant dry weight (g)/plant Leaves area (cm2 ) Total chlorophyll Days 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 40 55 70 Distances 0-10 199.5 304.7 385.9 15.31 23.32 29.70 839.3 1153.4 1611.4 0.047 0.056 0.063 80-90 327.3 543.1 648.1 28.46 47.56 58.21 2011.8 2468.4 2905.9 0.073 0.088 0.112 160-170 365.4 534.1 680.0 32.1 46.25 58.74 2039.3 2440.7 2861.4 0.075 0.089 0.115 L.S.D at 0.05 30.2 42.4 89.7 2.13 3.74 4.49 250.3 256.1 298.7 0.0125 0.011 0.0162 2002/2003 Distances 0-10 202.4 326.4 335.5 15.76 25.73 33.93 805.6 1340.6 1745.7 0.046 0.055 0.051 80-90 301.0 468.1 547.9 26.64 41.34 50.74 1793.3 2083.4 2416.7 0.072 0.085 0.103 160-170 319.0 460.3 592.4 28.64 42.72 52.56 1753.2 2149.3 2442.3 0.077 0.096 0.111 L.S.D at 0.05 25.0 28.5 1623 1.32 3.53 3.54 50.1 96.6 260.8 0.013 0.0259 0.0165 2. Heavy metal content 2-1. Percentage of removable by washing: Concerning the effect of washing on lead and cadmium concentration from edible parts on crops under study, data in Table (9) showed that, the washing treatment led to
  9. 9. The 6th Arabian Conference For Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt 481 decreasing the concentration of lead in squash, spinach and turnip by about (30.47%, 25.44% and 15.79% respectively. Also, washing in distilled water reduced Cd content by (24.72%, 22.75% and 10.11%) in the edible parts from squash, spinach and turnip respectively. In the other hand the washing was more effective in removing lead than cadmium in fruit crops than leafy ones. These results are similar to those of Ndiokwere (1984), Mohamed (1985) and Basovic, et.al., (1986) they found that washing in cold running or distilled water reduced Pb content by 27.45-76.13% compared with unwashed lettuce. Ali and Riad (1995) recorded that, washing lettuce plants with tap water served in lowering lead content in the plant by about 30 % compared to the unwashed. Table (8) Effect of different distances from traffic way on total yield (ton/feddan) of turnip plants in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. Distances 2001/2002 2002/2003 Yield(Ton/ feddan) Yield(Ton/ feddan) 0-10 10.572 10.348 80-90 19.160 18.480 160-170 20.268 18.120 L.S.D. at 0.05 2.382 0.573 Table (9) Means of lead and cadmium concentration on edible parts of squash, spinach and turnip plants as affected by washed and percentage removable from them. Crops Pb Cd 2001/2002 Un W W Removable % Un W W Removable % Squash 0.448 0.309 31.03 0.089 0.067 24.72 Spinach 0.773 0.573 25.92 0.226 0.174 22.75 Turnip 0.477 0.401 16.06 0.185 0.166 10.11 2002/2003 Squash 0.454 0.316 30.47 0.097 0.067 31.27 Spinach 0.820 0.612 25.44 0.253 0.191 24.37 Turnip 0.549 0.462 15.79 0.205 0.183 10.42 2-2. Effect of distances The study includes the evaluation of lead and cadmium contaminations in different edible part of some vegetable crops namely, squash, turnip and spinach grown in the field at different distances from traffic roads. The influence of the distance from the road on Pb and Cd concentration in these vegetables are illustrated in Table (10). It is obvious that, there was decrease in lead and cadmium concentration in all vegetable under these studies by increasing the distance from traffic road. The highest value from Pb and Cd concentrations was detected at 0-10 meter distance, while the lowest value was noticed at 160- 170 in all plant ages from different vegetables in both seasons. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Nasralla (1975), EI-Mola (1980), Ali (1982), Mohamed (1985), Nasralla and Ali (1985), Ali and Nasralla (1986), Moursi (1990), Ali (1991, 1992), Ali and Riad (1995), Hassan and Gewifel (1998) and Abd El–Aziz (2001) they indicated that, motor cars exhaust is an important source for soil and plant contamination with lead. The highest concentrations of lead were greatly depending on traffic volumes. Furthermore, lead, concentrations in soils and grasses were found to decrease with distance far from the road. Generally unwashed plant parts of squash, spinach and turnip found to contain more amounts of heavy metals as compared with those of the washed ones with a significant effect.
  10. 10. Bekhit, et. al., (2005) 482 In the same table, washing showed significant decrease in lead and cadmium contamination. Nevertheless, in the first distance (0-10) washing treatment was not succeeded to reduce it under the maximum guidelines level recommended by CODEX alimentarius commission. Data in the same Table indicated that spinach leaves were content higher concentration of lead and cadmium than turnip root and squash fruit in all plant ages in both seasons. These results are harmony with Page, et.al. (1981) who showed that, relative Cd uptakebydifferent crop plants growing in contaminated soils were in the range: turnip, spinach > tomato, lettuce > swiss chard, radish, carrot. In the same trend Chumbley and Unwin (1982) and Kuboi et.al. (1986) have subsequently examined Cd uptake in 34 plants species of nine different families. They found that different plant families responded differently and classified them into three groups: 1. Low accumulation ( Leguminosae). 2. Moderate accumulation (Gramineae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Umbelliferae). 3. High accumulation (Chenopodiaceae, Cruciferae, Solonaceae and Compositae). Also, the obtained results agreed with Feng et.al. (1993) who study the heavy metals pollution of vegetables in Boashen district, Shanghai. They mentioned that, the heavy metal content of different vegetable types was in the order of leafy vegetables > root tubers > fruit vegetables. The highest concentration from lead and cadmium was detected in spinach leaves followed by turnip roots followed by squash fruit. Turnip roots were contain more amounts of heavy metal especially cadmium, where unexposed plant part to atmospheric Pb contributed due to it was account heavy metal hyperaccumulate as recorded by Ross (1994) the exposed plant parts (the leaves) accumulate larger quantities of air-derived metals than do unexposed plant part (e.g., roots and pea fruit). Although Pb is generally considered not to be easily translocated within plant tissues, Harrison and Chirgawi's (1989) indicate that atmospheric Pb contributed to the unexposed plant parts, especially the storage roots of radish, turnip and carrot. Squash fruits at the first distance (0-10 meter) contained high level of lead and exceed for the maximum level recommended by CODEX. Washing treatment wasn’t decreased the level under that recommended by CODEX in all plant age under study (40-55-70 days). At the second distance (80-90 meter) squash fruits at 55 and 70 days from planting contained high values from lead but washing reduced it under the safety level. At the third distance (160-170 meter) from the traffic road squash fruits were safety in all plant ages in both seasons. While the contaminations of cadmium in all squash fruit from all plant ages was not excess the guidelines level of CODEX. Data in the same Table showed that, spinach leaves at the first distance in all plant ages in both seasons were contained highly levels from lead and cadmium higher than the recommended maximum level. Washing treatment did not succeed to reduce this level of both elements except leaves at 40 days from planting for lead only. While, leaves from spinach plants grown at the second and third distances in all plant ages were lower in their content than the guideline level. Turnip roots from the plants grown at the first distance were contaminated by lead to the harmful level in all plant ages under study. Washing treatment did not reduce this level to the safety range. Plants at the second distance were not reaching to the maximum harmful level except after 55 days from sowing. Washing treatment was not succeeded to decrease it to the safety level. While at the third distance roots contents were under the safety level for lead. Cadmium content in turnip roots at the first distance were also higher than recommended and washing did not succeed to decrease it. Turnip roots obtained from the second and third distances contained safety level from cadmium in all plant ages.
  11. 11. The 6th Arabian Conference For Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt 483 Table (10): Effect of distances from traffic road and washed on Pb and Cd concentrations (mg/kg. fresh weight) on edible part from squash, turnip and spinach plants during seasons (2001/2002 and 2002/2003) compared with maximum level or guidelines for maximum limit (ML) of metals in vegetables were adopted from FAO/WHO. Pb 2001/2002 Recommended Max. L. for Vegetables (mg/kg. f. w.) 40 55 70 Un W Un W Un W Squash fruit D1 0.183* 0.130* 0.260* 0.194* 0.346* 0.295* 0.1a D2 0.086 0.050 0.118* 0.065 0.127* 0.086 D3 0.055 0.019 0.081 0.035 0.088 0.053 Spinach leaves D1 0.328* 0.251 0.425* 0.337* 0.634* 0.543* 0.3a D2 0.219 0.126 0.168 0.110 0.273 0.192 D3 0.076 0.041 0.092 0.047 0.104 0.071 Turnip root D1 0.243* 0.220* 0.310* 0.258* 0.335* 0.289* 0.1a D2 0.099 0.078 0.109* 0.088 0.122* 0.101* D3 0.066 0.049 0.068 0.056 0.080 0.063 2002/2003 Squash fruit D1 0.185* 0.131* 0.264* 0.197* 0.351* 0.300* 0.1a D2 0.087 0.052 0.118* 0.067 0.129* 0.091 D3 0.056 0.019 0.082 0.036 0.090 0.054 Spinach leaves D1 0.346* 0.265 0.450* 0.356* 0.675* 0.579* 0.3a D2 0.234 0.134 0.181 0.121 0.289 0.213 D3 0.080 0.043 0.097 0.049 0.109 0.075 Turnip root D1 0.280* 0.254* 0.356* 0.297* 0.386* 0.333* 0.1a D2 0.114* 0.090 0.125* 0.102* 0.140* 0.118* D3 0.076 0.056 0.078 0.065 0.092 0.072 Cd 2001/2002 Squash fruit D1 0.053 0.042 0.057 0.044 0.066 0.052 0.1b D2 0.016 0.012 0.019 0.014 0.021 0.016 D3 0.010 0.005 0.012 0.007 0.013 0.009 Spinach leaves D1 0.143* 0.110* 0.159* 0.133* 0.123* 0.106* 0.1b D2 0.044 0.032 0.062 0.044 0.067 0.048 D3 0.021 0.011 0.024 0.017 0.034 0.022 Turnip root D1 0.089 0.084 0.110* 0.103* 0.144* 0.131* 0.1b D2 0.046 0.037 0.050 0.044 0.049 0.044 D3 0.019 0.015 0.023 0.020 0.024 0.020 2002/2003 Squash fruit D1 0.053 0.043 0.059 0.046 0.068 0.053 0.1b D2 0.015 0.011 0.018 0.012 0.020 0.015 D3 0.033 0.004 0.012 0.007 0.013 0.009 Spinach leaves D1 0.151* 0.111* 0.164* 0.134* 0.181* 0.153* 0.1b D2 0.047 0.031 0.066 0.045 0.070 0.048 D3 0.020 0.012 0.025 0.018 0.035 0.022 Turnip root D1 0.093 0.085 0.117* 0.105* 0.157* 0.134* 0.1b D2 0.048 0.049 0.062 0.054 0.060 0.056 D3 0.022 0.019 0.026 0.024 0.029 0.024 D1 : 0- 10 D2 : 80- 90 D3 : 160 – 170 W : washed Un : unwashed a Source: FAO/WHO - Codex alimentarius commission, 1999. b Source: FAO/WHO - Codex alimentarius commission, 2001. * > Recommended Maximum Level for Vegetables. This may simply reflect relatively high air lead concentrations and the low efficiency of soil lead uptake compared to the other trace metals studied. There are rather few corroborative published data. Hovmand et.al., (1983) reported that anything from 20 to 60 % of Cd uptake by a range of different edible crops could be air-derived. The leaves of kale and the grain of barley showed highest Cd concentration derived from air pollution, at 50- 60 % and 40-60 % respectively. The studies of Harrison and Johnston (1987) and Harrison and Chirgawi (1989) indicate a relative ease of uptake of Zn and Cd from soil, but not for Pb. Their experiments also
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  15. 15. The 6th Arabian Conference For Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt 487 ‫الخضر‬ ‫محاصيل‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫على‬ ‫الثقيلة‬ ‫بالعناصر‬ ‫التلوث‬ ‫على‬ ‫دراسات‬ *‫بخيت‬ ‫صادق‬ ‫رأفت‬- * ‫شاهين‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫محمد‬-‫الضويني‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫**حمدي‬-**‫الهادي‬ ‫عبد‬ ‫احمد‬‫سيد‬‫عبدالوهاب‬‫االسالمبولي‬ * ‫الخضر‬ ‫قسم‬-‫الزراعة‬ ‫كلية‬-‫القاهرة‬ ‫جامعة‬ ** ‫البساتين‬ ‫بحوث‬ ‫معهد‬-‫الزراعية‬ ‫البحوث‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫أج‬‫لعامي‬ ‫الشتوي‬ ‫الموسم‬ ‫في‬ ‫حقليتان‬ ‫تجربتان‬ ‫ريت‬2001/2002‫و‬2002/2003‫مزارع‬ ‫في‬‫ة‬ ‫تبعد‬ ‫البدرشين‬ ‫بمنطقة‬ ‫الزراعي‬ ‫أسيوط‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫طريق‬ ‫على‬20‫البعد‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫لدراسة‬ ‫وذلك‬ ‫الجيزة‬ ‫جنوب‬ ‫متر‬ ‫كيلو‬ ‫النمو‬ ‫على‬ ‫الطريق‬ ‫عن‬‫والمحصول‬‫بالكادميوم‬ ‫والتلوث‬ ‫الجودة‬ ‫وصفات‬‫الغ‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫وأيضا‬ ‫والرصاص‬‫عل‬ ‫سيل‬‫ى‬ ‫هي‬ ‫محاصيل‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫في‬ ‫والرصاص‬ ‫الكادميوم‬ ‫محتوي‬ ‫خفض‬‫الكوسة‬‫و‬.‫واللفت‬ ‫السبانخ‬ ‫وهةي‬ ‫المةروري‬ ‫الطريةق‬ ‫مةن‬ ‫أبعةاد‬ ‫ثالثةة‬ ‫على‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫اشتملت‬0-10،80-90,160-170‫الكفافةة‬ ‫وكانةت‬ ‫متةر‬ ‫المرورية‬32458‫بعد‬ ‫النباتية‬ ‫العينات‬ ‫جمع‬ ‫وتم‬ ‫يوم‬ / ‫سيارة‬40,55,70‫وذ‬ ‫الزراعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫يوم‬‫تسجيل‬ ‫بغرض‬ ‫لك‬ ‫و‬ ‫الرضةري‬ ‫النمةو‬ ‫بيانةات‬‫المحصةول‬‫و‬‫ةر‬‫ة‬‫وت‬ ‫المقطةر‬ ‫بالمةا‬ ‫العينةات‬ ‫نصةن‬ ‫سةيل‬ ‫بعةد‬ ‫الكيمةاوي‬ ‫التحليةل‬ ‫اجةري‬ .)‫(كنترول‬ ‫سيل‬ ‫بدون‬ ‫الباقي‬ ‫النصن‬ :‫يلي‬ ‫كما‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫تلريص‬ ‫ويمكن‬ 1)‫الرضةر‬ ‫محاصةيل‬ ‫مةن‬ ‫لكةل‬ ‫وذلةك‬ ‫الطريةق‬ ‫عةن‬ ‫البعد‬ ‫بزيادة‬ ‫معنوية‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫الرضري‬ ‫النمو‬ ‫بيانات‬ ‫سجلت‬ .‫الدراسة‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫الفالث‬ 2)( ‫الطريق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الفالث‬ ‫البعد‬ ‫سجل‬ ً‫ا‬‫أيض‬160-170‫الصبغات‬ ‫من‬ ‫النباتات‬ ‫محتوى‬ ‫في‬ ‫واضحة‬ ‫زيادة‬ )‫متر‬ .‫جـ‬ ‫فيتامين‬ ‫من‬ ‫األوراق‬ ‫ومحتوى‬ ‫النباتية‬ 3)‫(الكةادميوم‬ ‫الفقيلةة‬ ‫بالعناصةر‬ ‫النباتات‬ ‫تلوث‬ ‫أن‬ ‫الكيماوي‬ ‫التحليل‬ ‫من‬ ‫تبين‬–‫بزيةادة‬ ‫انرفةض‬ )‫الرصةاص‬ .‫الطريق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫البعد‬ 4)‫(الكةادميوم‬ ‫الفقيلةة‬ ‫العناصةر‬ ‫مةن‬ ‫محتواهةا‬ ‫فةي‬ ‫معنةوي‬ ‫انرفةاض‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫المأكولة‬ ‫النباتية‬ ‫األجزا‬ ‫سيل‬ ‫أدى‬ .)‫والرصاص‬‫ا‬ ‫وأوراق‬ ‫الكوسةة‬ ‫ثمةار‬ ‫لمحتةوى‬ ‫انرفةاض‬ ‫أحةدث‬ ‫حيث‬‫عنصةر‬ ‫مةن‬ ‫اللفةت‬ ‫وجةرور‬ ‫لسةبانخ‬ ‫بمقةةدار‬ ‫ةاص‬‫ة‬‫الرص‬30.47، %22.44، %15.79‫عمليةةة‬ ‫أدت‬ ً‫ا‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫وأيض‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫الترتي‬ ‫ةى‬‫ة‬‫عل‬ ‫ةنلم‬‫ة‬‫م‬ ‫ةل‬‫ة‬‫لك‬ % ‫بنسةبة‬ ‫المأكولةة‬ ‫األجةزا‬ ‫فةي‬ ‫الكةادميوم‬ ‫محتةوى‬ ‫تقليةل‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الغسيل‬24.72، %22.75، %10.11% . ‫الترتي‬ ‫على‬ ‫واللفت‬ ‫والسبانخ‬ ‫الكوسة‬ ‫من‬ ‫لكل‬ 5)‫م‬ ‫أن‬ ‫الدراسةة‬ ‫من‬ ‫كرلك‬ ‫أتضح‬ً‫ا‬‫مرتفعة‬ ‫كةان‬ ‫والرصةاص‬ ‫الكةادميوم‬ ‫عنصةري‬ ‫مةن‬ ‫السةبانخ‬ ‫أنصةال‬ ‫حتةوى‬ ‫مةن‬ ً‫ا‬‫مرتفعة‬ ‫اللفت‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الجرور‬ ‫محتوى‬ ‫كان‬ ‫كرلك‬ .‫العناصر‬ ‫نفس‬ ‫من‬ ‫والجرور‬ ‫األعناق‬ ‫بمحتوى‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫ةادميوم‬‫ة‬‫الك‬ ‫ةري‬‫ة‬‫عنص‬ ‫ةن‬‫ة‬‫م‬ ‫ةا‬‫ة‬‫محتواه‬ ‫ةي‬‫ة‬‫ف‬ ً‫ا‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ملحو‬ ً‫ا‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫انرفاض‬ ‫ةة‬‫ة‬‫الكوس‬ ‫ةار‬‫ة‬‫ثم‬ ‫ةجلت‬‫ة‬‫س‬ ‫ةد‬‫ة‬‫وق‬ ‫ةابقة‬‫ة‬‫الس‬ ‫ةر‬‫ة‬‫العناص‬ .‫والرصاص‬ 6)‫ن‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ف‬ ‫ةة‬‫ة‬‫عام‬ ‫ةفة‬‫ة‬‫بص‬‫ةجل‬‫ة‬‫س‬ ‫ةي‬‫ة‬‫الزراع‬ ‫ةق‬‫ة‬‫الطري‬ ‫ةن‬‫ة‬‫م‬ ‫ةة‬‫ة‬‫القريب‬ ‫ةافات‬‫ة‬‫المس‬ ‫ةي‬‫ة‬‫ف‬ ‫ةة‬‫ة‬‫الفقيل‬ ‫ةر‬‫ة‬‫بالعناص‬ ‫ةات‬‫ة‬‫النبات‬ ‫ةوث‬‫ة‬‫تل‬ ‫العالمية‬ ‫بالحدود‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ً‫ا‬‫معنوي‬ ً‫ا‬‫ارتفاع‬‫لجنة‬ ‫بواسطة‬ ‫بلا‬ ‫المسموح‬.)‫(كودكس‬ ‫المروريةة‬ ‫الطةرق‬ ‫عةن‬ ً‫ا‬‫بعيةد‬ ‫الرضةر‬ ‫نباتات‬ ‫زراعة‬ ‫بضرورة‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫وتوصي‬‫عةن‬ ‫قتقةل‬ ‫مسةافة‬ ‫علةي‬80‫متةر‬ ‫األجز‬ ‫بغسيل‬ ‫وأيضا‬‫الورقية‬ ‫المحاصيل‬ ‫خاصة‬ ‫المأكولة‬ ‫ا‬‫والجررية‬. ‫اقستلال‬ ‫قبل‬

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