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Intravenous Access,
and Intraosseous
Infusion
Ahmad Thanin
Topics
 Types of Intravenous Access
 Equipment for Intravenous
Access
 IV Drug Administration
 Intraosseous Infusion
Intravenous (IV) Access
Indications
 Fluid and blood replacement
 Drug administration
 Obtaining venous blood
specimens for lab analysis
Types of IV Access
 Peripheral venous access
 Central venous access
Peripheral IV Access Sites
Central Venous Access
 Veins located deep in the body
 Internal jugular, subclavian,
femoral
 Peripherally inserted central
catheter (PICC lines)
 Larger veins that will not
collapse in shock
IV Solution
Containers
Do not use any IV fluids after
their expiration date; any fluids
that appear cloudy, discolored, or
laced with particulate; or any fluid
whose sealed packaging has been
opened or tampered with.
IV Administration Sets
 Macrodrip—10 gtts = 1 ml, for
giving large amounts of fluid.
 Microdrip—60 gtts = 1 ml, for
restricting amounts of fluid.
 Blood tubing—has a filter to
prevent clots from blood products
from entering the body.
 Measured volume—delivers
specific volumes of fluids.
 IV extension tubing—extends
original tubing.
 Electromechanical pump
tubing—specific for each pump.
 Miscellaneous—some sets have
a dial that can set the flow rates.
IV Administration Sets (continued)
Macrodrip and Microdrip
Administration Sets
Measured Volume Administration
Set
Intravenous Cannulas
 Over-the-needle catheter
 Hollow-needle catheter
 Plastic catheter inserted
through a hollow needle
Over-the-Needle Catheter
Hollow-Needle Catheter
Catheter Inserted Through the
Needle
Peripheral IV Access
Place the constricting band.
Cleanse the venipuncture site.
Insert the intravenous cannula
into the vein.
Withdraw any blood samples needed.
Connect the IV tubing.
Secure the site.
Label the IV solution bag.
Peripheral Intravenous
Access in an External
Jugular Vein
Place the patient in a supine or
Trendelenburg position.
Turn the patient’s head to the side
opposite of access and cleanse the site.
Occlude venous return by placing a finger on
the external jugular just above the clavicle.
Point the catheter at the medial third of the
clavicle and insert it, bevel up, at a 10°–30° angle.
Enter the jugular while withdrawing on
the plunger of the attached syringe.
Intravenous Access
With a Measured Volume
Administration Set
Prepare
the tubing.
Open the
uppermost clamp
and fill the burette
chamber with
approximately
20 ml of fluid.
Close the
uppermost clamp
and open the flow
regulator.
Intravenous Access
with Blood Tubing
Insert the flanged spike into the spike port
of the blood and/or normal saline solution.
Squeeze the drip chamber until it is one
third full and blood covers the filter.
Attach blood tubing to the intravenous cannula
or into a previously established IV line.
Open the clamp(s) and/or flow
regulator(s) and adjust the flow rate.
Factors Affecting IV Flow Rates
 Constricting band
 Edema at puncture site
 Cannula abutting the vein wall or
valve
 Administration set control valves
 IV bag height
 Completely filled drip chamber
 Catheter patency
IV Access Complications
 Pain
 Local infection
 Pyrogenic
reaction
 Allergic reaction
 Catheter shear
 Inadvertent
arterial puncture
 Circulatory
overload
 Thrombophlebitis
 Thrombus
formation
 Air embolism
 Necrosis
 Anticoagulants
Changing an IV Bag or Bottle
 Prepare the new bag or bottle.
 Occlude the flow from depleted bag
or bottle.
 Remove spike from depleted bag or
bottle.
 Insert spike into the new IV bag or
bottle.
 Open the clamp to appropriate flow
rate.
Intravenous Bolus
Administration
Prepare the equipment.
Prepare the medication.
Check the label.
Select and clean an administration port.
Pinch the line.
Administer the medication.
Adjust the IV
flow rate.
Monitor the patient.
Intravenous Infusion
Administration
Select the drug.
Draw up the drug.
Select IV fluid for dilution.
Clean the medication addition port.
Inject the drug into the fluid.
Mix the solution.
Insert an administration set and connect to the main
IV line with needle.
 A rigid needle is inserted into
the cavity of a long bone.
 Used for critical situations when
a peripheral IV is unable to be
obtained.
 Initiate after 90 seconds or three
unsuccessful IV attempts.
Intraosseous Infusion
Tibia
Pediatric
and adult
intraosseous
needle
placement
sites.
Intraosseous Needle
Intraosseous Medication
Administration
Select the medication and prepare
equipment.
Palpate the puncture site and prep
with an antiseptic solution.
Make the puncture.
Aspirate to confirm proper placement.
Connect the IV fluid tubing.
Secure the needle appropriately.
Administer the medication. Monitor
the patient for effects.
Intraosseous Access Complications
 Fracture
 Infiltration
 Growth plate
damage
 Complete
insertion
 Pulmonary
embolism
 Infection
 Thrombophlebitis
 Air embolism
 Circulatory
overload
 Allergic reaction
Contraindications to Intraosseous Placement
 Fracture to tibia or femur on side of
access
 Osteogenesis imperfecta—
congenital bone disease resulting in
fragile bones
 Osteoporosis
 Establishment of a peripheral IV line
Summary
 Types of intravenous access
 Equipment for intravenous
access
 IV drug administration
 Intraosseous infusion
Thank you

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Iv cannulation