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IPM of Forest Insect Pests

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IPM of Forest Insect Pests

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IPM of Forest Insect Pests

  1. 1. Dr. S.I. Ahmed INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) Definition; Logic and Necessity of IPM; IPM components. Basic principles and evolutionary trends of IPM. Ecological basis of IPM. Legislative Methods. IPM for important agricultural crops (Rice, Sugarcane, Cotton).
  2. 2. WHAT DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN ? MANAGEMENT Skilled handling INTEGRATED Composed of separate parts united together to form a more complete & compatible unit PEST An organism that reduces the availability, quality, or value of some natural resource INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IPM
  3. 3. IPM can also be defined as: Utilization of a chain of pest control tactics simultaneously in a well organized and harmonious way in order to achieve long-term pest control over injurious insect pests Regulatory/ Legislative Methods Host Plant Resistance
  4. 4. Logic and Necessity of IPM?
  5. 5. Logic and necessity of IPM include the Strategies + Tactics A phenomenon by which pest population could be regularised under tolerance Strategy OVERALL PLAN TO REDUCE A PEST PROBLEM BY USING DIFFERENT PEST CONTROL APPROACHES (Prophylactic and Remedial, Physical Restrictions, Implementation of Policy Approaches). Tactic ACTUAL METHODS USED TO IMPLEMENT THE STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE PEST CONTROL. (Cultural, biological, physical, genetic, chemical, and regulatory procedures) Logic and Necessity of IPM?
  6. 6. ? Chemical Cultural Biological Microbial Light trap Resistant tree Phytochemical Pheromone trap Mechanical trap IPM Different IPM tactics
  7. 7. “Utilization of all suitable pest management tactics………….. IPM” • Pesticides • Cultural • Mechanical • Sanitary or hygienic • Natural • Biological • Host Plant Resistance • Legislative NOTE: Some of these tactics fall Into several categories.
  8. 8. Necessity and Benefits of IPM ? Economic, Environmental & Knowledge benefits
  9. 9. Economic Benefits and Necessity IPM exhibits • Potential for savings pesticide costs: 1. Applying only when it is necessary 2. Lower application rates • Potential for increased marketability due to labeling as “IPM” • • 1. Consumers are more willing to buy IPM produce 2. Consumers may be willing to pay more for IPM branded products Branded products
  10. 10. IPM may reduce or cut the rate of pesticide application by: • Controlling pest only when necessary • Using the lowest effective dose • Allowing for control by natural enemies of insect pests • Reducing the chances of developing resistance in injurious insect pests (-)
  11. 11. Environmental Necessity and Benefits IPM Reduces chances of environmental contamination by: Potentially reducing the use of pesticides Making full use of Environmentally acceptable and sound control measures
  12. 12. Knowledge Benefits and Necessity IPM • Allows the plant growers to determine the seriousness of the problem and take action when it deems necessary • Allows the growers to modify their pest management programmes to meet their specific needs • Development of a greater understanding of insect pests and their control Necessity and Benefits
  13. 13. Components of IPM
  14. 14. Components of IPM 1. Initial Information Gathering 2. Identification 3. Monitoring 4. Establishing Injury Levels 5. Record-keeping 6. Selection of least-toxic treatment strategies Least-disruptive of natural controls Least-hazardous to human health Least-toxic to non-target organisms Least-damaging to the general environment Most likely to produce a permanent reduction in the environment’s ability to support that pest Most cost-effective in the short and long term 7. Pest Management tactics Cultural practices Mechanical practices Genetic Practices Regulatory practices Biological practices Chemical practices 8. Evaluation Economic injury level Economic threshold
  15. 15. 1.Gathering initial records & 2. Correct Pest Identification – Why is it necessary ? • To know actual menace • Scientific name of an organism, literature on the biology of the pest, Interview concerned farmers on the history of pest , background of the problem, • • To determine if the pest is a key pest A key pest can be an insect, mite, disease, nematode or weed that frequently results in unacceptable / intolerable damage • To determine what pest control tactic should be utilized Actual methods used to implement the strategies to achieve pest control • Because incorrect identification can result in ineffective pest control measures Time and dose,
  16. 16. KEY PEST Not always all the Insects are pests, but the one which can cause the most significant damage An insect, mite, disease, nematode, or weed that frequently results in unacceptable or intolerable damage and thus typically requires a control action. a ECONOMIC INJURY LEVEL ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
  17. 17. Why it is important to know the life cycle of the pest ? • To determine when the pest is most vulnerable to apply control strategies • To determine if a pest is approaching at a stage to pose a potential damage to a plant species
  18. 18. 3. Monitoring & its Importance / necessity in IPM? • To assess the pest situation and determine what sort of pest activity is occurring • For decision making • To predict pest problems before they occur
  19. 19. The decision to use a pesticide should be based on: • Information obtained from monitoring • Knowledge of thresholds • An awareness of potential benefits and risks associated with a treatment
  20. 20. Monitoring methods VisualCounts Pheromonetraps SweepNets FieldHistroy Typesofmonitoringmethods
  21. 21. Equilibrium Position (EP) The average population level of an insect species Economic Threshold (ET) The population level at which management action should be taken to prevent the pest from reaching the economic injury level Economic Injury Level (EIL) The lowest number of insects that will cause economic damage Economic Damage (ED) The amount of pest-caused damage that justifies the cost of applying pest control measures 4. Establishing Injury Levels are based on Damage levels
  22. 22. The average population level of an insect species (EP).
  23. 23. Some Insects are never economic pests - the Equilibrium position (EP) is below the economic threshold (ET) or Economic Injury level (EIL) Example: Neem weevil, Myllocerus tenuicornis EP
  24. 24. Economic threshold (Action threshold) The pest density or level of damage at which a control measure is needed to prevent economic loss. Economic loss Occurs when the cost of insect damage in terms of yield or quality exceeds the cost of control.
  25. 25. Some insects are occasional pests and must be controlled at ET or they will reach EIL. Example: Achaea janata, Polyphagous defoliator
  26. 26. Some insects are regular and serious pests – the Equilibrium position (EP) is above EIL all the time unless steps are taken to keep them low. Example: Sal heartwood borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis
  27. 27. Aesthetic thresholds The level at which a pest causes an undesirable change in the appearance of plant parts
  28. 28. 5.Record keeping Accurate records related to the insect pest species and nature of damage are amongst the important informations for making a decision for IPM
  29. 29. 6. Criteria for selecting a suitable treatment strategy Least-toxic treatment approaches • most likely to exhibit a economic reduction of the pest population. • least disruptive of natural controls. • least hazardous to human health. • least toxic to non-target organisms • least damaging to the general environment. • easiest to carry out effectively. • most cost effective over both the short and long terms. An appropriate IPM Tactic should be:
  30. 30. 7. Pest Management tactics Cultural practices Mechanical practices Genetic Practices Biological practices Regulatory practices Competitors & Natural products Chemical practices
  31. 31. Cultural Controls practices
  32. 32. 1. Preparation of nurseries or main fields free from pest infestation 2. Testing of soil for nutrients deficiencies 3. Selection of clean and certified seeds 4. Selection of seeds of relatively pest resistant/tolerant varieties 5. Adjustment of time of sowing and harvesting 6. Rotation of crops with non-host crops 7. Proper plant spacing 8. Optimum use of fertilizer 9. Proper water management 10. Proper weed management 11. Setting up of sticky traps 12. Synchronization of sowing 13. Growing trap crops on the borders or peripheries of fields 14. Root dip or seedling treatment 15. Harvesting as close as to ground level 16. Large pruning wounds should be treated 17. For excellent fruit set, pollinizer cultivars should be planted in required proportion Important Cultural Controls practices
  33. 33. Cultural Controls Soil working and Nutrition • Plants with adequate nutrition can grow more vigorously, allowing them to better tolerate pest damage or to compete better with weeds • Soil cultivation can kill insect pests by exposing them to sunlight, predators and injuring them
  34. 34. Cultural Controls Sanitation • Removal of rubbish, infested or decaying matter as well as crop residues from around and in fields can often eliminate breeding sites for insect pests • Using seeds and planting materials which are free of weed seeds and diseases
  35. 35. Cultural Control Multiple Cropping / Mixed Cropping  Growing a variety of crops together in the same location:  Increases the habitat for pest predators  Limits the number of food plants for specific insect pests  Discouraging monocultures
  36. 36. Mechanical Control Practices
  37. 37. Important Mechanical Control Practices 1. Use of various types of mulches (bark chips, geotextiles, etc.) can suppress weeds and also protect of plants from frost. 2. Pinching off diseased parts can suppress certain plant diseases 3. Hand destruction or removal of insects and egg masses ensures quick and positive control. 4. Mechanical traps and attractants can be used to trap injurious insects to lower crop damage 5. A forceful stream of water may dislodge insects such as aphids and spider mites from foliage and plant stems. 6. Several insecticidal soaps can regularise certain pest populations 7. Installation of bamboo cage cum bird perches in the field and
  38. 38. Mechanical weed control Pheromone insect monitoring trap in an orchard Weed Management Yellow sticky traps in greenhouse Light Trap A forceful water spray Important Mechanical Control Practices
  39. 39. Genetic control practices
  40. 40. Plant Resistance control practices The use of species or varieties of plants that can grow and produce despite the presence of its key insect pests
  41. 41. Regulatory Control Practices
  42. 42. Regulatory Control Practices “The prevention & Eradication or suppression of the pests establishment in a limited area by application of compulsory enactment”.
  43. 43. Regulatory Tactics • Quarantine: limits movement of a pest • Eradication: must be applied to relatively small geographic areas • Suppression: limits pest levels over large geographic areas
  44. 44. Successful plant pest control depends on the successful blending of many skills, legislative pest control and other management strategies which may include: Identification of risk Prevention of entry Survey and detection Eradication Retardation of spread Mitigation of losses Regulatory Control Practices
  45. 45. Biological control Practices
  46. 46. Biological control Predators Parasites Parasitoids Pathogens The use predators, parasites, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors to control pests. Natural enemies of pests cause mortality; Can maintain pest population at below-threshold levels
  47. 47. • Pathogens Bacillus thuringiensis Paenibacillus popilliae Beauveria Entomopathogenic Nematodes • Predators • Parasites/Parasitoids Wasps Flies Examples of some Important BC Agents Spiders Predatory Mites Lady Beetles Predatory Bugs Lacewings Syrphids & Other Flies Entomophaga Nuclearpolyhedrosis virus
  48. 48. (After Van der Bosch et al. 1982) Biological control • Scientific basis – Each pest has natural predators, parasites and competitors – Bring equilibrium predator-prey below the economic threshold of pest by applying IPM Long-term solutions Sustainable Increase of predatory populations
  49. 49. Types of BC: • Classical BC : Import natural enemies & establish in field • Augmentative releases: Inundative (begin with of a large number of natural enemies) or Inoculative (begins with a small number of natural enemies) releases each season • Conservation BC: depend upon local natural enemies. • All these approaches require conservation of natural enemies to be effective.
  50. 50. Conserving natural enemies Reduce insecticide use; Use softer chemicals; Manipulate habitats, e.g. intercropping.
  51. 51. Parasite: An organism which lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense. A parasite that lives inside of the host body is called an endoparasite. Endoparasites include organism such as tapworms, hookworms and trypanosomes etc.
  52. 52. Parasitoids: An organism that, during its development, lives in or on the body of a single host individual, eventually killing that individual. Major characteristics: They are specialized in their choice of host , smaller than host, Only the female searches for host. Immatures remain on or in host; adults are free-living, mobile, and may be predaceous. Immatures almost always kill host. Four of the most important groups are: Ichneumonid wasps Braconid wasps Chalcid wasps: Tachenid flies: Ichneumonid wasps Braconid wasps Chalcid wasps: Tachenid fiY
  53. 53. Predators Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime. Examples: beetles, true bugs, lacewings, flies, midges, spiders, wasps, and predatory mites. Major characteristics of arthropod predators: Adults and immatures are often generalists rather than specialists. they generally are larger than their prey. They kill or consume many prey.. They may attack immature as well as adult prey.
  54. 54. Birds play an important role in controlling white grub, cut worm, mole cricket and field cricket Common insectivorous birds are black drongo, house sparrow, cattle egrets, House crow, jungle crow, common myna, bank myna , Indian robin and parrot Bird perches may play an important role to facilitate predation on harmful insects
  55. 55. Entomopathogens Entomopathogenic viruses Bacterial pathogens Fungal pathogens Microsporidia Nematodes Protozoa
  56. 56. Types of Entomopathogens Entomopathogenic viruses: Viral diseases have been found in 13 insect orders and most likely occur in all orders.  DNA Viruses: Baculoviruses (Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses- NPV and Granuloviruses-GV), Asco-viruses, Irido- viruses, Parvo-viruses and Pox-viruses.  RNA Viruses: Reo-viruses (Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses), Nodaviruses and Tetra-viruses.
  57. 57. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: They can be divided into two broad categories, non-spore-forming bacteria and spore-forming bacteria. Although, most of the species isolated from diseased insects are spore-forming bacteria in the genus Bacillus. They are the most important biological control tool Types of Entomopathogens
  58. 58. Entomopathogenic Fungi:  Entomopathogenic fungi are able to invade their insect hosts by penetrating directly through the cuticle. The fungal spore first adheres to the cuticle.  After the body of the dead insect is filled with mycelia, fruiting structures emerge from the cadaver and produce infectious spores. Types of Entomopathogens
  59. 59. Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisoplae. Beauveria spp., Lecanicillium spp., Metarhizium spp., Paecilomyces spetc., are some of the entomopathogenic fungi spp. and are used as biological insecticides Entomopathogenic Fungi:
  60. 60. Microsporidia:  The only microsporidian ever registered as a microbial pesticide is Nosema locustae, a pathogen of grasshoppers.  Two other microsporidian species that are known to control populations of pest insects: Nosema fumiferanae and Nosema pyrausta. Types of Entomopathogens
  61. 61. Protozoa:  Protozoa are the most taxonomically diverse group of insect pathogens.  Entry into the host is typically by ingestion, but some can invade through the cuticle.  Some species may be trans-ovarially transmitted from infected females to their offspring. Types of Entomopathogens
  62. 62. Nematodes: Entomopathogenic nematodes enter the host via natural body openings or through the cuticle. Effects of nematode parasitism on the hosts can reduce fecundity, mobility and life span, behaviour and morphological changes, and ultimately death of pest. Types of Entomopathogens
  63. 63. Entomopathogens use in biocontrol Bacteria, 36% Baculo- viruses, 16% Fungi, 37% Micro- sporidia, 2% Nematodes, 9% Source: Copping, (2004), The Manual of Biocontrol Agents
  64. 64. Natural Products Specially Microorganisms & Plant Derived Compounds
  65. 65. Natural Products In Bio-control “The Manual of Biocontrol Agents” (Copping, 2004)
  66. 66. Entomopathogens in biocontrol Bacteria, 36% Baculo- viruses, 16% Fungi, 37% Micro- sporidia, 2% Nematodes, 9% Source: Copping, (2004), The Manual of Biocontrol Agents
  67. 67. Types of bio-pesticides Naturally occurring substances Sulphur , Lime sulphur, Calcium, Copper Botanicals (Plant Derived Compounds) 1. Azadirachtin (Azadirachta indica), 2. Rotenone (Tephrosia spp. and Lonchocarpus spp. ), 3. Pyrethrins (Chrysanthemum), Nicotiana tabacum extract, 4. Croton (Croton tiglium), 5. Tropane alkaloids (Datura metel) , 6. Saponins, tannins (Balanites aegyptiaca), 7. Diterpene ester (Euphorbia peplus).
  68. 68. Azadirachtin  Source: Neem tree, Azadirachta indica ;  Family: Meliacae; Natural Habitat : South Asia, in particular India ;  Extracted from neem seeds Kernels
  69. 69. Azadirachtin: Active Ingredients Principal active ingredients: Azadirachtin (C35H44O16) with its 7 isomers Mechanism of action: Repellent, growth regulator, anti-oviposition, reduces adults fecundity and eggs vitality (state of being active) Mode of action: Contact, ingestion with a systemic activity Azadirachtin
  70. 70. Rotenone Derris elliptica Root of Derris sp Tephrosia purpureaSeed/pod of Tephrosia purpurea Plants : Derris elliptica and Tephrosia purpurea, etc Family: Leguminosae. Extracted from : roots
  71. 71. Rotenone Principal active ingredients: Rotenone or Nicouline (Isoflavonoid, Alkaloid) ; Mechanism of action: Interference with respiration and with perpherical nervous system; Mode of action: Mainly by contact and sometimes via ingestion; Rotenone
  72. 72. Pyrethrins Plant: Tanacetum (Chrysanthemum) Extracted from flowers; Main active ingredient: Pyrethrin ; Mode of action: Contact and ingestion. Mechanism of action: Acts on peripherical and central nervous System, causing an immediate insects paralysis.
  73. 73. Semiochemicals Semiochemicals are small organic compounds that transmit chemical messages. They are used by insects for intra- and interspecies communication
  74. 74. Use of semiochemicals in biocontrol “The Manual of Biocontrol Agents” (Copping, 2004) Aggregation pheromone, 1/ 25% Sex pheromone, 39/ 69% Alarm pheromone, 1/ 2% Reppelent, 1/ 2% Attractant,1/ 2%
  75. 75. Chemical Control Practices
  76. 76. Chemical Control Practices The use of toxic substances or pesticides to kill or reduce insect pest populations
  77. 77. Advantages of insecticides: • Can be effective if used correctly • Can provide an immediate solution • New formulations are safer • Target-specific modes of action are being developed • Effective chemicals should be conserved as a component of sustainable pest management programs.
  78. 78. Reasons for the End of the Chemical Pest Control Era Pest control failures due to pesticide resistance Pest outbreaks due to resurgence Pest outbreaks due to secondary pests Environmental contamination with residues
  79. 79. Basic Principles & Evolutionary trends of IPM
  80. 80. Basic Principles of IPM Principle-1: Prevention and Suppression Principle-2: Monitoring through Professionally qualified advisors Principle-3: Decision-Making Principle-4: Non-Toxic Chemical Methods Principle-5: Pesticide Selection & Reduced Pesticide Use Principle-6: Anti-Resistance Strategies Principle-7: Evaluation Monitoring of Harmful Organisms Principle-8: Intervention Principle-9: Consideration of Ecosystem Principle-10: Pest Surveillance
  81. 81. Basic Principles of IPM The main 10 important Principles of IPM are : Principle 1 Prevention and Suppression 1. Crop rotation and use of adequate cultivation techniques, 2. Use of resistant/tolerant cultivars, 3. Use of balanced fertilization and liming irrigation, preventing harmful organisms 4. Enhancement of important beneficial organisms, 5. Selection of appropriate for the location 6. Careful harvesting and 7. Good Hygiene
  82. 82. Principle 2 Monitoring through Professionally qualified advisors 1. Harmful organisms must be monitored periodically by observations in the field through scientifically sound warning and forecasting systems and 2. Seeking proper advice from professionally qualified advisors as and when required. Basic Principles of IPM
  83. 83. Principle 3 Decision-Making Based on the report of the monitoring team one has to decide whether and when to apply plant protection measures. Principle 4 Non-Toxic Chemical Methods Sustainable biological, and non-toxic chemical methods must be preferred, over chemical methods, if they provide satisfactory pest control. Basic Principles of IPM
  84. 84. Principle 5 Pesticide Selection & Reduced Pesticide Use 1. The pesticides applied shall be as specific as possible for the target pest species and 2. It should have the least side effects on human health, non-target organisms and the environment. Basic Principles of IPM
  85. 85. Principle 6 Anti-Resistance Strategies 1. Anti-resistance strategies should be applied to maintain the effectiveness of the pesticidal products. 2. Once the risk of resistance against a plant protection measure is known, an alternative chemical should be used 3. This may include the use of multiple pesticides with different modes of action. Basic Principles of IPM
  86. 86. Principle 7 Evaluation Monitoring of Harmful Organisms This involves determining when and what action is to be taken, based on all the available information. For example: •Periodical Crop monitoring for pest and damage thresholds •Sound record keeping and analysis of past information to help predict future outcomes; •Advice and support from experts. Basic Principles of IPM
  87. 87. Principle 8 Intervention This aims to reduce the effects of economically damaging pest populations, weeds and disease to acceptable levels. •This may be by making use of mechanical, biological and chemical measures. •It will increase crop profitability especially where presently pest control is poorly used or ineffective. •It will help in reducing the severity of pest infestations and ensure agricultural production is more sustainable Basic Principles of IPM
  88. 88. Principle 9 Consideration of Ecosystem Control of insect pest population is a function of the ecosystem itself by means of natural enemies and other factors. The study of individuals is of prime importance for their biology behaviour response to other members of the same species and other organisms in the environment. The study of individuals offers a potent method for this analysis of population change. Basic Principles of IPM
  89. 89. Principle 10 Pest Surveillance Pest Surveillance and forecasting is a vital part in the IPM. It means constant observation of an insect pest and its damage after application of control strategy and comprises of three basic components 1. Determination of the reduction in level of incidence of the pest species after application of control strategy. 2. Determination of reduction of loss the incidence after application of control strategy. 3. Determination of increase in economic benefits after application of control strategy. Basic Principles of IPM
  90. 90. Evolutionary trends of IPM
  91. 91. History of IPM- Summary 8000 BC - Beginning of agriculture 2500 BC - First records of insecticides (sulfur compounds) 300 AD - First use of biological controls (predatory ants) 1732 - Farmers grow crops in rows to facilitate weed removal 1890 - Introduction of lead arsenate for pest control 1896 - First selective herbicide (iron sulfate for broad-leaf weeds) 1901 - First biological control of a weed 1899 - Breeding program developed for cotton 1929 - First area-wide eradication of an insect pest 1942 - First successful plant breeding program for insect resistance 1950 - First application of systems analysis to control pests 1972- Quality (CEQ, 1972) gave the term “Integrated Pest Management” 1986 - IPM official policy through Plant Protection Act 1972 1990 to date: with increasing knowledge of pests, crops, and improving technologies, field-specific management is possible
  92. 92. History •2500 BC: Ancient Sumerians used sulfur compounds to kill insects - earliest record of insect pest control •300 B.C: Chinese use natural enemies to control pests- ants on citrus to reduce pest infestations •1101 A.D.: The Chinese discover soap as a pesticide •1500 AD: some plants found to generate insecticidal—and more recently—herbicidal compounds Pyrethrum (pyrethrin - insecticidal); The Neem tree (NEEM – insecticidal) •1600 A.D.: Tobacco infusions (nicotine), herbs and arsenic become the major materials used for insect pest control
  93. 93. History •1700 A.D.: plant resistance to insects discovered •1800 A.D.: imperial expansion --- introduced pests San Jose scale ;Colorado potato beetle •Late 1800 A.D.: inorganic compounds used for insect and fungal organism control, including: Paris green (copper acetoarsenate)  Bordeaux mix (copper sulfate and hydrated lime)  Lead arsenate  Creosote (coal tar derivative)  Sodium hypochlorite solutions (bleach)
  94. 94. Late 1800's - Early 1900's: Boom in development of insecticide application equipment 1920-30's 1930's: trend toward synthesizing new compounds; -moth- proofing agents 1939: (dawn of the modern insecticide era): DDT recognized as an effective insect control 1940s (post WW-II): the advent of “chemical” pesticides 1948: Warfarin registered as a rodenticide (and later -in the early 1950s- as an anticoagulant in human medicine) History
  95. 95. History •1950's early 60's: "The Green Revolution“; - synthetic pesticides and fertilizers the answer to world hunger • 1952: Michelbacher and Bacon (1952) coined the term “integrated control” for the first time. - Stern et al. (1959) defined integrated control •1962: Silent Spring: Rachel Carson publishes the book "Silent Spring“. Brings the issue of pesticide safety to the attention of the public: Adverse effects on wildlife, water quality, human health DDT found in milk and foods (bio-magnification) Resistance of pests to pesticides
  96. 96. Shifted to IPM In 1960s, pesticides dominated pest management IPM was invented as pest control system Critical paper: Stern, Smith, Hagen and Van den Bosch,1959 “The Integrated Control Concept” Critical Project: control of the spotted alfalfa aphid Van den Bosch,1959 History of Insect pest Control (Cont)
  97. 97. History •1970: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was founded •Quality (CEQ, 1972) coined the term IPM “Integrated Pest Management” 1972: Council on Environmental Quality : Increase in IPM research- Beginning of genetic engineering applications in agriculture 1990's: New genetically engineered Bt crops (corn, potatoes) come into use 2000 and beyond: Pest management is always changing and we cannot predict the future. In fact, even in the same time period, people have several different ideas about how pest management could be more advanced.
  98. 98. Ecological Basis of IPM
  99. 99. Ecological Basis of IPM The Ecological Basis of IPM (EB-IPM) is the Natural Methods of Controlling Insect Pests in an agro or forest ecosystem This is because increase diversity of natural enemies decrease the density of the pest population As diversity of natural enemy species decreases Pest population increases
  100. 100. Ecological Basis of Pest Management is an approach to increase and the strengths the natural systems to reinforce the natural processes of pest regulation and improve agricultural or forestry production EBPM in Forestry or Agriculture Crops can be achieved by applying some KEY COMPONENTS OF EBPM (ECOLOGICAL BASIS OF PEST MANAGEMENT)
  101. 101. Key components of an EBPM approach are 1. Selection of pest-resistant, local, native adapted varieties 2. Use of legume-based crop rotations to increase soil nitrate availability thereby improving soil fertility 3. Use of cover crops, such as green manure to reduce weed infestation, disease and pest attacks 4. Integration of intercropping and agro-forestry systems 5. Use of crop spacing, intercropping and pruning to create conditions unfavourable to the pests. 6. Maintaining of soil nutrition and pH levels 7. Applying organic manures to help maintain balanced pH and nutrient levels. 8. Adding earthworm castings, 9. Using beneficial organisms that behave as parasitoids , predators and entomo-pathogens
  102. 102. Legislative Methods of Pest Management Each of countries in the world and territories has their own legislation for managing injurious insect pests
  103. 103. Legislative Methods of Pest Management “The prevention of the entry and establishment of foreign plants and animal pests in a country or area & Eradication or suppression of the pests established in a limited area through compulsory legislation or enactment”.
  104. 104. Regulatory Tactics • Quarantine: limits movement of a pest • Eradication: must be applied to relatively small geographic areas • Suppression: limits pest levels over large geographic areas
  105. 105. Concerns about Legislative strategies Agronomic risks related to inappropriate use of pesticides Food safety and other public health risks (pesticide exposure; pesticide residues) Environmental risks (water contamination, biodiversity) Market access - Pesticide residue requirements are increasingly important in trade (Legal requirements and sub- standard qualities) Pesticide quality - Illegal trade in pesticides (fake products)
  106. 106. The goal of Legislative Method of Insect Pest Control to prevent the introduction, colonization, and establishment of any new pests that may cause significant agricultural, environmental and societal harm in a new area of entry 1. Identify pest harm. 2. Assess pest risk. 3. Manage pest risk.
  107. 107. Successful plant pest control depends on the successful blending of many skills, legislative pest control and other management strategies which may include: Identification of risk Prevention of entry Survey and detection Eradication Retardation of spread Mitigation of losses Legislative Tactics/Methods
  108. 108. IDENTIFICATION OF RISK Before prevention strategies are initiated, pest control agencies must deal it as per the legislative control tactics to see as to whether: Is it really a pest ? Would It be causing significant harm in future ? Is it likely to be moved artificially into a new area or already exists in the endangered area Would It be survived in a new and endangered area
  109. 109. PREVENTION OF ENTRY The primary strategy to exclude pest entry is through the use of quarantine procedures. Quarantine inspection programs at various ports of entry are designed to prevent the introduction and establishment of insect pests in India Certain agricultural products are restricted from entry unless accompanied by documentation to verification or enter without observing disinfestation techniques Quarantines are generally not 100% effective for exotic pests. However, it may reduce the chances of introduction
  110. 110. Is a process of isolation in order to prevent the spreading of infection, caused by any insect pest or disease. Insect and Plant Quarantine is a Legal restriction of movement of plant materials between countries and between states within the country Different classes of quarantine Foreign Quarantine Domestic quarantine Legislative quarantine Quarantine
  111. 111. Different classes of quarantine Foreign Quarantine is a concern with the legislation to prevent the introduction of new pests, diseases and weeds from foreign countries. Domestic quarantine is a concern with the legislation to prevent the movement of plant and animals from one state to an other in the country Examples: Banana from Palani hills to prevent Banana Bunchy top Virus (BBTV) spread Legislative quarantine is a concern with the legislation to prevent the adulteration and misbranding of insecticides and to determine the permissible residues in food stuff. & To regulate the activities of men engaged in pest control Examples: Integrated Pest Management, Locust Control and Research, Implementation of Insecticides Act
  112. 112. 1. IPM related activities are being implemented through 31 Central Integrated Pest Management Centres (CIPMCs) established in 28 States and one Union Territory 2. LWO has been implementing locust surveillance system for monitoring of population of locusts, since its inception in 1939 and controlling desert locust in Scheduled Desert Area (SDA) 3. Pesticides are regulated under comprehensive legislation, namely, Insecticides Act, 1968 (the Act) and Insecticides Rules, 1971 (the Rules). Examples of legislative quarantine
  113. 113. SURVEY AND DETECTION The local public may not express concern until the pest is widespread and is causing visible problems. Survey and detection is also important when the insect pests penetrate the pest exclusion barrier and get established in a new locality. Where previously unknown pests are found, the information must be reported to the appropriate regulatory agency. Once an exotic pest is found, additional visual surveys and/or trapping programs are performed to determine Several types of surveys and detection trapping programmes can be conducted to combat with this situation
  114. 114. ERADICATION If prevention is not successful and an re- introduction of the pest is noticed then the immediate steps are to be taken eradicate the pest. Eradication generally means using all available viable options, which includes: Application of pesticides. Elimination of the pest’s food source Changing the pest’s habitat Mass trapping Use of mating disruption techniques It is important to monitor for the presence of the pest after the goal of eradication is achieved to assure that the pest has actually been eliminated
  115. 115. RETARDATION OF SPREAD AND MITIGATION OF LOSSES If the pest becomes firmly established and eradication is not feasible, the next practice is to slow or prevent the spread and to mitigate losses. Quarantines can be effective at slowing the spread of pests. Inspections and pest control treatments may help to reduce the spread. Treatments to slow the spread of the pest spread and to mitigate losses in the infested area include: The use of pesticides The release of parasites or predators The release of sterile mates The removal of the host The use of varieties that are resistant to the pest
  116. 116. LEGAL SCENARIO (Regulatory requirements in india)  To safeguard health and safety, Government of India constituted regulatory requirements for manufacture and sale of goods and services, including those to be imported  Regulations are stipulated through Various Acts/ Rules & Regulations by different Ministries under Government of India  Enactment of Acts, Rules & Regulations is done taking cognizance of the relevant WTO Agreements
  117. 117. Following legislative acts have been implemented in India in different years: 1905 - Federal Insect Pest Act (FIPA) - First Quarantine act against Sanjose scale 1912 - US Plant Quarantine Act (USPQA) 1914 - Destructive Insects and Pests Act’ of India (DIPA) 1919 - Madras Agricultural Pests and Diseases Act (MAPDA) 1975 - Implementation of Insecticides Act , 1968 2003 - Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India) Pest Legislations Acts in India
  118. 118. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE INSECTICIDES ACT, 1968 An act to regulate the import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides with a view to prevent risk to Plants/Human beings and for matters connected therewith.
  119. 119. Salient features of the Insecticides Act-1968 1. Compulsory registration with CIB (“Central Insecticides Board”) 2. License for manufacture, formulation and sale at state level 3. Inter departmental/Ministerial/Organizational co-ordination achieved by high level Advisory Board “Central Insecticides Board”with 28 members form various fields 4. RC to look after registration aspects of insecticides 5. Enforcement by Insecticide inspectors at state/central level 6. Power to prohibit the import, manufacture and sale of insecticides and also confiscate stocks. Guilty are punishable
  120. 120. Advantages & Disadvantages Biological Control Advantages • Low cost • Has the potential to be permanent • Not harmful to non-target organisms • No toxicity or residue problems • The pest is unable (or very slow) to develop a resistance. • Selectivity, it does not intensify or create new pest problems. Disadvantages • Not always applicable • Level of control may not be sufficient • Research costs are high and sometime may not produce results • It requires expert supervision. • It is difficult and expensive to develop and supply
  121. 121. How to combat the large scale tree mortality caused by severe infestation of a root boring insect A Success Story of Management of Khejri root borer, Acanthophorus serraticornis in Rajasthan
  122. 122. Management of Khejri mortality in Rajasthan
  123. 123. Dr. N.S.K. Harsh opinon on a new species of root rot fungus Examining the infected tree discussion in farmer's field Study of root system of infected Khejri
  124. 124. Field surveys to record % mortality
  125. 125. Traditional lopping practices
  126. 126. Symptoms of Ailment
  127. 127. Scientific session at AFRI Discussion Plenary session at AFRI Dr. Satish lodha addressing the house WORKSHOP HELD AT AFRI, JODHPUR ON KEJRI MORTALITY & ITS MANAGEMENT
  128. 128. Process of khejri drying 3rd September 2009 20th November 2009
  129. 129. Eggs,larvae & adult root borer, Acanthophorous serraticornis Ganoderma lucidum BIOTIC FACTORS Depletion in water table Exploitation of waterTractorization Indiscriminate lopping ABIOTIC FACTORS PERCENTAGE KHEJRI MORTALITY IN RAJASTHAN (20.93 %) Survey of affected area: Jodhpur, Nagour, Sikar, Churu & Jhunjhunu The percentage khejri mortality recorded: 20.93 % Biotic Causal factors: Ganoderma lucidum (root rot fungus) & Acanthophorus serraticornis (root borer.) Bioecology of insect: Life-cycle : more than 2 years pathogenicity test: Koche’s-postulate confirmed , using Ganoderma lucidum Management trials: Conducted at six experimental sites in five districts viz; Surani (Jodhpur), Raghunathpura (Nagaur), Jhareli (Nagaur), Goshala (Sikar), Churu (Churu), Sultana (Jhunjhnu). Biotic & Abiotic factors , responsible for tree mortality
  130. 130. plant pathological problems Initially, a heavily lopped branch on the top of the tree starts drying and the disease rapidly progressed from tip to downward and provides a favorable medium to the boring larva of shoot borer. The affected portions clearly showed the discoloration and decaying of tissues. The disease infection gradually spread over to the main stem of the tree.
  131. 131. Remedial measures for preventing Khejri mortality Root treatment + Shoot Treatment + 2/3rd lopping is proved to be the best remedy for prevention of Khejri Mortality. Removal of infected trees from the vicinity immediately after their exploitation. A gap of one year in Khejri lopping Treated Khejri tree in Farmers field at Jhareli Shoot treatment of the tree Root treatment: Bavistine (0.1%)+ Chloropyriphos (0.1%)+ leader or Agromin ( 2ml/lit) @ 15 lt., aqueous suspension per tree Shoot treatment: Copper Carbonate + Red Lead + linseed 1:1:2 and add insecticide (Monocrotophos) ( @ 3 ml/Kg) just after lopping during November-December
  132. 132. Root treatment of a infected khejri tree of water suspension ( 20 lit /tree)
  133. 133. Methodology adopted for Management trials Marking of trees Preparation of “thawanla” Preparation of root suspension AFRI & ARS Root treatment CAZRI treatment
  134. 134. Progression after treatment
  135. 135. Other abiotic contributory factors of tree mortality Continuous depletion of water tables in western Rajasthan. Increasing number of tube wells or over exploitation of ground water. Effect of low rainfall. Change in soil properties and agricultural practices are some of the suspected causes that may play an important role in large- scale drying of Khejri in western zone of Rajasthan.
  136. 136. IPM WORK DONE ON GALL INDUCING PESTS IN KHEJRI (PROSOPIS CINERARIA)
  137. 137. Stem galls Eurytoma settitibia Stem galls are globose solid hard and rough swellings on twigs and branches. A mature gall contains an average 204-223 larval chambers. Size and wt. of mature gall varies from 20 to 78 mm. dia., and 28 to 150 mg in wt. respectively
  138. 138. Rachis galls Contarinia prosopidis Fusiform, solid and hard galls on the rachis. Measures as larger as three times (6.7mm) of the dia. of a normal rachis ( 2.3). On maturity a minute circular exit hole is formed on the upper surface to allow the escape of adult insect.
  139. 139. Leaf galls Eriophyes prosopidis These galls are hypophyllus,globo se, solitary, uniocular with greenish yellow colour bodies on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of leaves. Area of leaf galls varies from 0.038 to 0.064 cm2 . and wt. from 0.48 to 0.75 mg. They become hard on maturity.
  140. 140. Inflorescence galls Eriophyes prosopidis These galls are oval, pyriform, lobed and branched structures which represent with enormous masses of either single flower or on entire inflorescence. Size and wt., vary from 4 to 20 mm., and 43.1 to 56.7 mg., respectively. The gall bears irregular cavities.
  141. 141. Parasites of gall formers Eupelmus species and Tetrasticus spirabilis Waterest are the chief larval endoparasites of rachis and stem gall inducers of Khejri. Both of these parasites have marked characteristics of their potentiality as being successful natural enemies due to their : High fecundity Good synchronization with the host and A high degree of host specificity. Therefore, they are considered to be highly promising biological controlling agents. Biology of these parasites have been studied.
  142. 142. Parasite- predator- pathogen complex of insect pests of Khejri Nineteen species of parasites and thirteen species of predators were found associated with the potential insect pests of P. cineraria, and P. juliflora. Three species of entompathogenic fungi namely, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhyzium sp., Aspergillus parasiticus, and one species of insect pathogenic virus, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) were recorded to infect three species of insect pests of P. cineraria in arid and semi arid areas. NPV- Killed larva of babul defoliator. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
  143. 143. NPV DISPERSAL AGENT Adults of a dipterous larval endoparasite, Carcelia buitenzorgiensis was found to be the most effective dispersal agents of virus-disease in localized areas because they feed and developed on virus-diseased larvae and remain in the larval body from the time when larvae enter the third instar until the emergence of adult moth.
  144. 144. Silvicultural control of gall mite In lopped trees (once in three years ) of Khejri, the % of gall formation per inflorescence was observed minimum (5.6 %) and and pod production was recorded as high as 13.3%) whereas in unlopped trees, the % of gall formation was maximum (49.5%) and resultant pod production was as minimum as 3.37 %. The higher production of pods and lesser formation of galls in lopped trees was because of the minimum infestation of gall mite , E. prosopidis.
  145. 145. Summary • An IPM program must be well researched prior to implementation • The researcher must have extensive knowledge of the pest as well as the plants being protected • Successful IPM programs saves billions of rupees each year in forestry crops • Side effects such as environmental and health risks along with economic costs must be prime considerations when developing an IPM • In one way or another, IPM programme are always better than adopting a single way of insect pest population management.
  146. 146. Non-pesticides control Micro-organisms 30% Natural products 16% Macro-organisms 34% Genes 5%Semio-chemicals 15% (Copping, 2004) “The Manual of Biocontrol Agents”

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