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Students Evaluation and Examination Methods

Assessment of student learning must be directly connected to the learning objectives of your course. You should make these connections clear to students in your syllabus.

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Students Evaluation and Examination Methods

  1. 2. Basic Terms & Concepts <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examination </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Mission>>Vision>> </li></ul><ul><li>Goal>>Objectives ….. S.M.A.R.T </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>K.A.P </li></ul>
  2. 3. Definitions of Teaching <ul><li>To present information, insights. </li></ul><ul><li>To reveal knowledge or skill. </li></ul><ul><li>To help students learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: All of the above can be accomplished either deliberately or incidentally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is, you can teach by means of explicit instruction, ongoing guidance, deliberate modeling, or accidental example. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. First Principle for Assessing Student Learning <ul><li>Assessment of student learning must be directly connected to the learning objectives of your course. You should make these connections clear to students in your syllabus. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Measures of Learning <ul><li>Any measurement of learning can be used either for assessment or for evaluation purposes. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Employ an assessment-informed model of teaching <ul><ul><li>Define learning outcomes (desired by teachers and/or learners) well in advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess progress toward outcomes, by and for both teacher and learner, continually during learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate attainment of outcomes rigorously as each learning opportunity concludes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moment-by-moment, meeting-by-meeting, course-by-course, semester-by-semester. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. ILO <ul><li>Indented Learning Outcomes- Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Vision, </li></ul><ul><li>Mission, </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul>
  7. 8. Mission, <ul><li>A mission clarifies an organization’s purpose, or why it should be doing what it does. </li></ul><ul><li>The program’s mission statement should provide an overview of the program’s philosophy, goals and objectives . Basically, it should embody the program’s purpose and faculty priorities for the program. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Vision statement <ul><li>A vision clarifies what the organization should look like and how it should behave as it fulfills its mission </li></ul>
  9. 10. Goal <ul><li>A goal is an end result written in broad terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals state what you, your colleagues, or you institution aim to achieve.” </li></ul><ul><li>Program learning goals describe broad learning outcomes and concepts that you, as faculty, want students to achieve. These learning goals are expressed in general terms </li></ul>
  10. 11. Objectives <ul><li>An objective is the intended effect of a service or intervention, but is much more specific than goals. </li></ul><ul><li>It is facilitator centered. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Outcome <ul><li>An outcome is the desired effect of a service or intervention, but is much more specific than goals. </li></ul><ul><li>what students should be able to demonstrate after their participation. </li></ul><ul><li>also defined as learning or outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is participant focused </li></ul>
  12. 13. Strategy <ul><li>A strategy is means to achieving outcomes or goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a strategy will define “who is going to do what, when they will do it, and how they will use the information that is generated.” </li></ul>
  13. 14. The word ‘assess’ <ul><li>Comes from the Latin verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘ to sit with’ . In assessment one is supposed to sit with the learner. This implies it is something we do with and for students and not to students </li></ul>
  14. 15. Assessment <ul><li>Assessment is “the gathering of information concerning the functioning of students, staff, and institutions of higher education” </li></ul>
  15. 16. Assessment <ul><li>“ Assessment refers to gathering evidence: gathering data, transforming data so that they can be interpreted, applying analytical techniques, and analyzing data in terms of alternative hypotheses and explanations </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Assessment is “collecting evidence of </li></ul><ul><li>(1) student performance on specified measures of development, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) program strengths and weaknesses , and </li></ul><ul><li>(3) institutional effectiveness ” </li></ul>Assessment
  17. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>defined as a continuous process used by the University (a) for evaluating the degree to which all University programs and services contribute to the fulfillment of the University’s primary mission ; and (b) for documenting and improving the University’s effectiveness .” </li></ul></ul></ul>Assessment
  18. 19. <ul><ul><ul><li>“… the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development.” </li></ul></ul></ul>Assessment
  19. 20. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT: <ul><li>Primary Purpose: To </li></ul><ul><li>improve the quality of student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Program Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to Institutional Mission </li></ul>
  20. 21. Definitions of Teaching <ul><li>To present information , insights. </li></ul><ul><li>To reveal knowledge or skill . </li></ul><ul><li>To help students learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That is, you can teach by means of explicit instruction, ongoing guidance, deliberate modeling, or accidental example. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Learning <ul><ul><ul><li>LEARNING IS DESCRIBED AS : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning not only involves the acquisition of basic academic skills and the broad-based knowledge of a liberal education but goes beyond these to include inspiring and enabling students to become autonomous learners, critical thinkers , creative problem - solvers , and thoughtful , reflective citizens with a passion for life-long learning. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Evaluation <ul><li>“ Evaluation is any effort to use assessment evidence to improve institutional, departmental, divisional, or agency effectiveness” </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is the utilization of information for institutional and individual improvement. Evaluation…has to do with motivation and the rendering of value judgments </li></ul>
  23. 24. Frames of Reference for Interpreting Test Scores <ul><li>There are four frames of references for interpreting test scores are explained: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability, </li></ul><ul><li>Growth, </li></ul><ul><li>norm, </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion Referenced interpretations. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Norm-Referenced Assessment <ul><li>An assessment where student performances are compared to a larger group . Usually the larger group or &quot;norm group&quot; is a national sample representing a wide and diverse cross-section of students. Students, schools, districts, are compared or rank-ordered in relation to the norm group. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of a norm-referenced assessment is usually to sort students and not to measure achievement towards some criterion of performance </li></ul>
  25. 28. Criterion Referenced Tests <ul><li>A test in which the results can be used to determine a student's progress toward mastery of a content area. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is compared to an expected level of mastery in a content area rather than to other students' scores. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Criterion Referenced Tests <ul><li>The &quot; criterion &quot; is the standard of performance established as the passing score for the test. Scores have meaning in terms of what the student knows or can do, rather than how the test-taker compares to a reference or norm group. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Formative Assessment <ul><li>The gathering of information about student learning-during the progression of a course or program and usually repeatedly- to improve the learning of those students . </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Often referred to as assessment for learning , </li></ul>Formative Assessment
  29. 32. <ul><li>...refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers , and by the students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. Such assessments become formative when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet the needs . </li></ul>Formative Assessment
  30. 33. Summative Assessment <ul><li>The gathering of information at the conclusion of a course, program, or undergraduate career to improve learning or to meet accountability demands. When used for improvement, impacts the next cohort of students taking the course or program. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Frame of assessment
  32. 35. Screening Assessment <ul><li>Screening assessment helps classify students as at risk or not at risk for failure and is used to identify students who may need extra or alternative forms of instruction. Used as predictive of future growth and development. The assessment is conducted at the beginning of the school year. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Diagnostic Assessment <ul><li>Diagnostic assessment helps teachers plan instruction and determine possible intervention strategies related to the special needs of the student. These assessments are conducted at any time during the school year when more in-depth analysis of a student’s strengths and weaknesses are needed to guide instruction. In other words, diagnostic assessments are administered only to students who are struggling. Teachers can use the information derived from these assessments to improve planning and achievement. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Progress Monitoring <ul><li>Progress monitoring ensures that students are making adequate progress throughout the year. It is also referred to as “formative evaluation &quot;. Progress monitoring is conducted three times a year, at minimum, or on a routine basis (i.e., weekly, monthly, or quarterly), using comparable and multiple test forms </li></ul>
  35. 38. Outcome Assessment <ul><li>Outcome assessment helps formulate judgments about the quality of the program. It helps classify students in terms of whether they improved or achieved grade-level performance. Outcome assessment also provides a bottom-line evaluation of the effectiveness of a program/instruction. </li></ul>
  36. 39. Teaching-Improvement Loop <ul><li>: Teaching, learning, outcomes assessment, and improvement may be defined as elements of a feedback loop in which teaching influences learning , and the assessment of learning outcomes is used to improve teaching and learning . </li></ul>
  37. 40. Process of Faculty Driven Assessment <ul><li>Process of Goal Selection : Faculty members lead the assessment process by meeting on a regular basis to set goals and criteria. All of our goals flow from the mission statement of the university. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Faculty members from each program specify objectives that apply the mission statement to their area. </li></ul>Process of Faculty Driven Assessment
  39. 42. <ul><li>Selection of Assessment Measures : Faculty members from each program </li></ul><ul><li>develop measures to directly and indirectly assess how well the objectives were achieved. </li></ul>Process of Faculty Driven Assessment
  40. 43. <ul><li>Performance Criteria: Faculty members from each program set standards which students are expected to achieve in order to demonstrate that the objectives are being fulfilled. </li></ul>Process of Faculty Driven Assessment
  41. 44. Collect data <ul><li>Collection and Analysis of Data: Assessment measures are applied and the results are compared to the performance criteria. </li></ul>
  42. 45. compare <ul><li>Comparison Study: Assessment results are compared with other colleges and other programs within U. Longitudinal studies assess progress within the division. </li></ul>
  43. 46. Change <ul><li>Changes : Based on assessment data, program improvements are made. These changes are then assessed using the same process. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Principles of Assessment of Student Learning <ul><li>The primary purpose of assessment is improving student learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of student learning is based on goals reflected in the University’s mission . </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of student learning must have course and program significance . </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Assessment of student learning depends on clear and explicit learning goals . </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment involves a multi-method approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment results will be used for decision making in planning and improvement processes. </li></ul>Principles of Assessment of Student Learning
  46. 49. <ul><li>The results of assessment activities will not be used for the evaluation of individual faculty . </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment data will not be used to make comparison across programs , departments, or colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful assessment requires University support . </li></ul>Principles of Assessment of Student Learning
  48. 52. DIRECT ASSESSMENT <ul><li>– “ Directly evaluates student work. Examples of direct measures include exams, papers, projects, computer programs, interactions with a client.” </li></ul>
  49. 53. INDIRECT ASSESSMENT <ul><li>– “ Student (or others) perceptions of how well students have achieved an objective.” </li></ul>
  50. 54. <ul><ul><ul><li>Some Examples Include : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Graduating Senior Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Employer Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Exit Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Student Course Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Graduation Retention Rate </li></ul>INDIRECT ASSESSMENT
  51. 55. QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE MEASURES <ul><li>QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT – “Assessment findings that are verbal descriptions of what was discovered, rather than numerical findings.” </li></ul>
  52. 56. Some Examples Include <ul><li>: • Exit Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>• Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>• Writing Samples </li></ul><ul><li>• Open-ended questions on surveys and interviews </li></ul><ul><li>• Employer interviews </li></ul>
  53. 57. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT <ul><li>– “ Assessment findings are summarized with a number that indicates the extent of learning.” </li></ul>
  54. 58. Some Examples Include <ul><li>: • Written and Oral Exams </li></ul><ul><li>• Research Papers </li></ul><ul><li>• Senior Projects </li></ul><ul><li>• Exam Scores </li></ul><ul><li>• Course Grades </li></ul>
  55. 59. USE THE ASSESSMENT RESULTS To evaluate <ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate learning goals : Are there too many, do they need clarification, are they appropriate? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate curriculum : Does it address all of the learning goals? How can courses be modified to do so? </li></ul>
  56. 60. <ul><li>Evaluate teaching methods : Can any improvement be made in this area toward empowering students to achieve learning goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the assessment methods used: Were they appropriate? </li></ul>USE THE ASSESSMENT RESULTS To evaluate
  57. 61. Learning <ul><li>Learning is the desired outcome of instruction and is indicated by a change in performance. </li></ul>
  58. 62. ILO <ul><ul><ul><li>Learning objectives , also called student learning goals or student learning outcomes (SLOS), basically flesh out the program learning goals by outlining observable behaviors that can be measured by the faculty to gauge whether students are mastering goals. These objectives include the specific and measurable skills, aptitudes and values that students should exhibit and will allow faculty to evaluate student achievement of the broader program goals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 63. <ul><ul><ul><li>“ The student learning goals are specific statements derived from your program learning goals. These student learning goals should focus on what the student will learn and master rather than what will be taught ; they should explain how students will demonstrate this mastery and should identify the depth of processing that faculty expect.” </li></ul></ul></ul>ILO
  60. 64. <ul><li>A student learning outcome is “A statement of what students will be able to do outside the classroom (in context) with what they have learned . The statement should be clear enough to be understood by the stakeholders and significant enough to drive the curriculum.” </li></ul>ILO
  61. 65. <ul><li>Learning outcomes have three distinguishing characteristics: the specified action by the learner must be observable , measurable , and done by the learner. </li></ul>ILO
  62. 67. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>Any ? </li></ul>