Strategic planning التخطيط الاستراتيجي

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Strategic planning
A process where an organization envisions its future and develops strategies to achieve that vision.

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Strategic planning التخطيط الاستراتيجي

  1. 1. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Strategic Planning Basic Concepts Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat *********************** 1
  2. 2. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Strategic Planning “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.” 2
  3. 3. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Strategic planningA process where an organization envisions its future and develops strategies to achieve that vision. Strategies Broad, directional statements describing how an organization will respond to its challenges andopportunities in order to achieve its vision of the future. 3
  4. 4. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Levels of Planning Top-level managers: Strategic planning Middle-level managers: Tactical planning Lower-level managers: Operational planning 4
  5. 5. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 5
  6. 6. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Hierarchy of Goals and Plans 6
  7. 7. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 ž Strategic Planning: ž A set of procedures for making decisions about the organization’s long-term goals and strategies. ž Strategic goal:ž major targets or end results relating to the organization’s long-term survival, value and growth. ž Strategy:ž A pattern of actions and resource allocations designed to achieve the organization’s goals. 7
  8. 8. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 ž The benefits of strategic planning. ž❑ Motivating staff and volunteers.❑ Building a planning team with a common vision.❑ Confronting key issues and solving problems.❑ Defining roles and responsibilities.❑ Challenging the status quo. ž 8
  9. 9. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 ž ž limitations of strategic planning❑ Strategic planning can be costly❑ Not every organization is ready for strategic planning.❑ The language, terminology, and conceptual requirements associated with strategic planning are sometimes made too complex or difficult to be useful to staff or the organization as a whole. 9
  10. 10. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Steps in the strategic planning process. 11
  11. 11. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Steps in the strategic planning process.STEP A: Analyze the shared values and experiences of staffand board. Plan a meeting or workshop to facilitate strategicplanning.STEP B: Review and update or prepare a Mission Statement forthe organization.STEP C: Analyze the organization’s external environment(“PEST” – political, economic, social, and technological factors)and internal environment (resources or inputs, processes, andperformance or outputs). 11
  12. 12. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Steps in the strategic planning process.STEP D: Conduct a SWOT analysis (assessing theorganization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, and its externalopportunities and threats).STEP E: Create smaller groups for more in-depth planning activities inkey areas.STEP F: Review the organization’s existing strategic plan (if there is one)to identify aspects of the plan that are still strategic, those that are nolonger strategic due to changing environments, and gaps or newissues that should be addressed in a revised plan.STEP G: Outline a vision of where the organization should bethree to five years from today (the “vision of success”).STEP H: Identify the strategic issues facing the organization. 12
  13. 13. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Steps in the strategic planning process.STEP I: Formulate goals and strategic objectives to addressmajor issues facing the organization and ensure its longer termgrowth and sustainability.STEP J: Develop work plans showing specific activities, personsresponsible, resources needed, and indicators by whichperformance will be measured.STEP K: Identify next steps for resource mobilization and create asustainability and financial plan that costs activities and outlinesapproaches for generating sufficient revenue or funding. 13
  14. 14. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Steps in the strategic planning process.STEP L: Prepare the written detailed five-year strategic plan (missionstatement, environmental or situational analyses, strategic issues,goals and strategic objectives, activities plans, sustainability andfinancial plans, monitoring and evaluation procedures or cycles)STEP M: Seek ratification and disseminate the plan to staff,stakeholders, and potential donors, using this as an opportunity tomarket the organization or to build useful working relationships andcoalitions.STEP N: Implement and institutionalize the plan as a basis forsetting performance standards, decision making, planning,monitoring, and resource mobilization and allocation. Use andreview the plan systematically, updating or revising it after two orthree years, if needed. 14
  15. 15. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 15
  16. 16. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Establisha mission, vision, and goals 16
  17. 17. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 1- Mission Clear and concise expression of the organization’s basic purpose Mission Statement A written declaration of an organizations core purpose andfocus that normally remains unchanged over time. A mission statement defines what an organization is - its reason for being. It answers the question, "Why do we exist?" 17
  18. 18. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Microsoft’s Mission Statement“We work to help people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential.” ValuesValues define the organization’s character. 18
  19. 19. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 2- VISIONIf you can’t see it,you won’t reach it. 19
  20. 20. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Vision Vision Statement An aspirational description of what an organization would like to achieve or accomplish in the mid-term or long-term future; intended to serve as a clear guide for choosing current and future courses of action.A vision statement answers the question, “Where do we want to go?” 21
  21. 21. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Vision means future – think in terms of 3 to 5 years. What does the organization look like – 5 years from now? Write it down using the present tense Our Vision What are we working towards? 21
  22. 22. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 3- Strategic goals ž žEvolve from the organization’s ž mission and vision. 22
  23. 23. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012ž Situational Analysis ž &ž S.W.O.T Analysis ž 23
  24. 24. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 ž Situational Analysis ž žSituational analysis: a process planners use, within time ž and resources constraints, to gather, interpret, andsummarize all information relevant to the planning issue under consideration. 24
  25. 25. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 ž S.W.O.T AnalysisSWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, ž and threats.By definition, Strengths (S) and Weaknesses (W) are ž considered to be internal factors over which the organization has some measure of control, while Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) are considered to beexternal factors over which it essentially has no control.ž 25
  26. 26. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Analyze Eternal opportunities ž and threats žConduct environmental “scans”... ž Analyze the organization’s external environment (“PEST” – political,ž economic, social, and technological factors) and internal environment (resources or inputs, processes, and ž performance or outputs) 26
  27. 27. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Conducting a SWOT analysis... Assessing the organization’s internal strengthsand weaknesses, and its external opportunities ž and threats)..Strengths and weaknesses refer to the internalorganizational environment.Opportunities and threats are external to theorganization. 27
  28. 28. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Strategic ObjectivesStrategic Objectives describe the tactics you will use and the workyou will do to achieve the desired results.This often involves selecting the alternatives that is the most costeffective and feasible given the organization’s SWOT analysis, andthat is likely to advance the goals of the organization. 28
  29. 29. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Operational or strategic plan objectives should be SMART :  Specific – to avoid differing interpretations  Measurable – to allow monitoring and evaluation  Appropriate – to the problems, goals, and strategic objectives  and intended results  Realistic – achievable, challenging, and meaningful  Time bound – with specific time frames for completion 29
  30. 30. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 The Remaining Steps…Implementing,Disseminating,Revising,and Evaluating the Plan 31
  31. 31. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 "V-MOSA" 31
  32. 32. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 "VMOSA"(Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategies, and Action Plans) By Community Tool Box We encourage reproduction of this material, but ask that you credit the Community Tool Box: http://ctb.ku.edu 32
  33. 33. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 1. Vision (the dream)Your vision communicates what your organizationbelieves are the ideal conditions for yourcommunity –This dream is generally described by one or morephrases or vision statements, which convey thecommunitys dreams for the future. 33
  34. 34. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012By developing a vision statement, your organizationmakes the beliefs and governing principles of yourorganization clear to the greater community (as wellas to your own staff, participants, and volunteers).There are certain characteristics that most visionstatements have in common. 34
  35. 35. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012In general, vision statements should be: Understood and shared by members of the community Broad enough to encompass a variety of local perspectives Inspiring and uplifting to everyone involved in your effort Easy to communicate - for example, they should be short enough to fit on a T-shirt 35
  36. 36. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Here are a few vision statements which meet theabove criteria:  Healthy children  Safe streets, safe neighborhoods  Every house a home  Education for all  Peace on earth 36
  37. 37. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 2. Mission (the what and why)Developing mission statements are the next step inthe action planning process. An organizationsmission statement describes what the group isgoing to do, and why its going to do that. Missionstatements are similar to vision statements, buttheyre more concrete, and they are definitely more"action-oriented" than vision statements. 37
  38. 38. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012The mission might refer to a problem, such as aninadequate housing, or a goal, such as providingaccess to health care for everyone. And, while theydont go into a lot of detail, they start to hint - verybroadly - at how your organization might go aboutfixing the problems it has noted. 38
  39. 39. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 Some general guiding principles about mission statements are that they are: Concise. Although not as short a phrase as a vision statement, a mission statement should still get its point across in one sentence. Outcome-oriented. Mission statements explain the overarching outcomes your organization is working to achieve. Inclusive. While mission statements do make statements about your groups overarching 39
  40. 40. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 The following mission statements are examples that meet the above criteria. "To promote child health and development through a comprehensive family and community initiative." "To develop a safe and healthy neighborhood through collaborative planning, community action, and policy advocacy." 41
  41. 41. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-20123. Objectives (how much of what will be accomplished by when)Once an organization has developed its missionstatement, its next step is to develop the specificobjectives that are focused on achieving thatmission.Objectives refer to specific measurable results forthe initiatives broad goals. 41
  42. 42. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012An organizations objectives generally lay out howmuch of what will be accomplished by when.For example, one of several objectives for acommunity initiative to promote care and caring forolder adults might be:"By 2015 (by when), to increase by 20% (how much)those elders reporting that they are in daily contactwith someone who cares about them (of what)." 42
  43. 43. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Examples of objectives include: By December 2010, to increase by 30% parent engagement (i.e., talking, playing, reading) with children under 2 years of age. (Behavioral objective) By 2012, to have made a 40% increase in youth graduating from high school. (Community -level outcome objective) By December of this year, implement the volunteer training program for all volunteers. (Process objective) 43
  44. 44. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012 4. Strategies (the how)Strategies explain how the initiative will reach itsobjectives. Generally, organizations will have a widevariety of strategies that include people from all ofthe different parts, or sectors, of the community.These strategies range from the very broad, whichencompass people and resources from many 44
  45. 45. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012different parts of the community, to the veryspecific, which aim at carefully defined areas.Five types of specific strategies can help guidemost interventions. They are:  Providing information and enhancing skills .  Enhancing services and support  Modify access, barriers, and opportunities  Change the consequences of efforts  Modify policies . 45
  46. 46. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-20125. Action plan (what change will happen; who will do what by when to make it happen )Finally, an organizations action plan describes ingreat detail exactly how strategies will beimplemented to accomplish the objectivesdeveloped earlier in this process. 46
  47. 47. Strategic Planning: Basic Concepts & examples Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.Net/AhmedRefat 18-12-2012Action steps are developed for each component ofthe intervention or (community and systems)changes to be sought. These include:  Action step(s): What will happen  Person(s) responsible: Who will do what  Date to be completed: Timing of each action step  Resources required: Resources and support (both what is needed and whats available )  Barriers or resistance, and a plan to overcome them!  Collaborators: Who else should know about this action . 47

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