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The Function of Electric Power Systems

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Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra
Benha University
Research Article
in fulfillment of the requirements of
Department Survey...
Benha University
Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra
Academic year 2019-2020
1 | P a g e
Table of contents
1. ABSTRACT..........
Benha University
Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra
Academic year 2019-2020
2 | P a g e
List of Figures (If any)
Figure I.D ...
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The Function of Electric Power Systems

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circuit breaker, conductors, distribution, electric power system, electrical, electromechanical, engineering, feeders, generators, insulators, lightning arresters, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, substation, substations, transformers
1. ABSTRACT
This Research Article speaks about electrical power systems which consist of three main phases: generation, transmission, and distribution. generators produce electricity from power sources at power plants. then power is delivered to customers through transmissions which stepping power up or down According to the distance that the energy travels. then power moves through distribution lines that carry electricity to homes and businesses.
2. INTRODUCTION
Typically, electricity is provided to homes and industries as AC. The electrons do not travel overhead along the power lines but vibrate in these lines 60 times per second. The electricity outlet plugs in your home does not produce electrons, but energy. If an appliance is attached, the outlet plugs provide the power for electrons to be moved around a closed circuit which is already in the wire. The energy is supplied as voltage to your home via a large, very complex distribution network. The energy is generated in a power plant and transmitted to the consumer via a network of power lines. In several steps, this is done. With a power voltage of several thousand volts, electricity leaves the power station at very high levels. The voltage is increased to several hundreds of thousand volts due to the loss of energy on high voltages at the overhead power lines. The voltage is decreased again to several thousand volts before power is distributed to industrial users. The voltage is decreased to 110 volts for home use. A transformer is used every time the voltage is down. Transformers are devices that only work with alternating current flows to either increase or decrease voltages.
Electric power systems (Figure 1) are real-time energy supply systems. Real-time means that power is generated, transported, transmitted, and distributed now of consumption. Electric power systems do not store electricity for the time of need as water and gas systems. Instead, generators produce the energy needed by demand It transforms other sources of energy (Such as wind, mechanical, solar, chemical, hydraulic, heat, geothermal, nuclear …etc.) into electrical power. Six main components of the power system are the power stations, transformer, transmission line, substations, distribution lines, distribution transformers. Also, there are many other devices connected to the network such as circuit breakers, conductors, etc. The system starts with a power plant generator where electrical energy is produced. Then power station transformers transformed to high-voltage electrical energy that is more suitable for efficient far distances transportation. High-voltage power lines in the electric power transmission system efficiently transport electricity over long distances to the

circuit breaker, conductors, distribution, electric power system, electrical, electromechanical, engineering, feeders, generators, insulators, lightning arresters, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, substation, substations, transformers
1. ABSTRACT
This Research Article speaks about electrical power systems which consist of three main phases: generation, transmission, and distribution. generators produce electricity from power sources at power plants. then power is delivered to customers through transmissions which stepping power up or down According to the distance that the energy travels. then power moves through distribution lines that carry electricity to homes and businesses.
2. INTRODUCTION
Typically, electricity is provided to homes and industries as AC. The electrons do not travel overhead along the power lines but vibrate in these lines 60 times per second. The electricity outlet plugs in your home does not produce electrons, but energy. If an appliance is attached, the outlet plugs provide the power for electrons to be moved around a closed circuit which is already in the wire. The energy is supplied as voltage to your home via a large, very complex distribution network. The energy is generated in a power plant and transmitted to the consumer via a network of power lines. In several steps, this is done. With a power voltage of several thousand volts, electricity leaves the power station at very high levels. The voltage is increased to several hundreds of thousand volts due to the loss of energy on high voltages at the overhead power lines. The voltage is decreased again to several thousand volts before power is distributed to industrial users. The voltage is decreased to 110 volts for home use. A transformer is used every time the voltage is down. Transformers are devices that only work with alternating current flows to either increase or decrease voltages.
Electric power systems (Figure 1) are real-time energy supply systems. Real-time means that power is generated, transported, transmitted, and distributed now of consumption. Electric power systems do not store electricity for the time of need as water and gas systems. Instead, generators produce the energy needed by demand It transforms other sources of energy (Such as wind, mechanical, solar, chemical, hydraulic, heat, geothermal, nuclear …etc.) into electrical power. Six main components of the power system are the power stations, transformer, transmission line, substations, distribution lines, distribution transformers. Also, there are many other devices connected to the network such as circuit breakers, conductors, etc. The system starts with a power plant generator where electrical energy is produced. Then power station transformers transformed to high-voltage electrical energy that is more suitable for efficient far distances transportation. High-voltage power lines in the electric power transmission system efficiently transport electricity over long distances to the

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The Function of Electric Power Systems

  1. 1. Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Benha University Research Article in fulfillment of the requirements of Department Surveying Engineering Department Division Second Year Surveying Academic Year 2019/2020 Course name Electromechanical Engineering Course code EPE/260 Electrical Part “Topic (1): The Function of Electric Power System” By: Name Edu mail B. N Ahmed Yasser Ahmed Mohamed Nassar ahmed170165@feng.bu.edu.eg 210018 Approved By: Examiners committee Signature
  2. 2. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 1 | P a g e Table of contents 1. ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................3 2. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................3 3. GENERATORS.....................................................................................................5 3.1. NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATORS .........................................5 3.2. RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATORS....................................................5 4. TRANSFORMERS................................................................................................6 5. DISTRIBUTION ...................................................................................................7 5.1. DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION...................................................................7 5.2. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS ............................................................7 5.3. FEEDERS........................................................................................................7 5.4. DISTRIBUTOR CONDUCTORS ..................................................................7 5.5. SERVICE MAINS CONDUCTORS ..............................................................7 6. SUBSTATIONS ....................................................................................................8
  3. 3. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 2 | P a g e List of Figures (If any) Figure I.D Description Page 1 Electric Power System 4 2 Transformer Diagram 6 3 Transformer 6 4 Distribution Power System 7 5 Insulators 9 6 Circuit Breaker 9 7 Lightning Arresters 9 8 Substation 9
  4. 4. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 3 | P a g e 1. ABSTRACT This Research Article speaks about electrical power systems which consist of three main phases: generation, transmission, and distribution. generators produce electricity from power sources at power plants. then power is delivered to customers through transmissions which stepping power up or down According to the distance that the energy travels. then power moves through distribution lines that carry electricity to homes and businesses. 2. INTRODUCTION Typically, electricity is provided to homes and industries as AC. The electrons do not travel overhead along the power lines but vibrate in these lines 60 times per second. The electricity outlet plugs in your home does not produce electrons, but energy. If an appliance is attached, the outlet plugs provide the power for electrons to be moved around a closed circuit which is already in the wire. The energy is supplied as voltage to your home via a large, very complex distribution network. The energy is generated in a power plant and transmitted to the consumer via a network of power lines. In several steps, this is done. With a power voltage of several thousand volts, electricity leaves the power station at very high levels. The voltage is increased to several hundreds of thousand volts due to the loss of energy on high voltages at the overhead power lines. The voltage is decreased again to several thousand volts before power is distributed to industrial users. The voltage is decreased to 110 volts for home use. A transformer is used every time the voltage is down. Transformers are devices that only work with alternating current flows to either increase or decrease voltages. Electric power systems (Figure 1) are real-time energy supply systems. Real-time means that power is generated, transported, transmitted, and distributed now of consumption. Electric power systems do not store electricity for the time of need as water and gas systems. Instead, generators produce the energy needed by demand It
  5. 5. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 4 | P a g e transforms other sources of energy (Such as wind, mechanical, solar, chemical, hydraulic, heat, geothermal, nuclear …etc.) into electrical power. Six main components of the power system are the power stations, transformer, transmission line, substations, distribution lines, distribution transformers. Also, there are many other devices connected to the network such as circuit breakers, conductors, etc. The system starts with a power plant generator where electrical energy is produced. Then power station transformers transformed to high-voltage electrical energy that is more suitable for efficient far distances transportation. High-voltage power lines in the electric power transmission system efficiently transport electricity over long distances to the distribution locations. Then substations transform the High-voltage electricity into a lower-voltage, transmitted via distribution power lines to the destination of the electricity distribution, then is transformed once again for urban, industrial, and commercial uses. Failure to maintain the balance (lack of production, failures, bad management) leads to a system unstable or, worse, a blackout with very serious economic effects. Figure 1: Electric Power System
  6. 6. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 5 | P a g e 3. GENERATORS Generators are based on the 1831 discovery by Faraday, which showed that moving a magnet within a coil of wire can generate an electric current. Generators depend on the magnetism, motors, and electricity connection. Generators produce a large amount of current by an electromagnet which generated by electricity and a fast-spinning turbine. standard generator includes a group of insulated cylindrical wire coils. rotary electromagnet is inside the cylinder. As the magnet is rotating, it induces a slight current in each portion of the wire coil. Every part of the wire coil then transforms into a small, individual electrical conductor, and the tiny currents of each segment combine to produce a single large current. then the resulting generated electricity is sent to the user through power lines. All Generated electricity in a power plant is alternating current (AC). but home electric current is direct current (DC). There are two major types of electrical generators: non-renewable and renewable energy generators. 3.1.NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATORS Generators of Non-renewable energy sources include: Fossil fuel (coal, natural gas or diesel.), maintaining nuclear reactions, and Hydroelectricity (from river-dams). In power plants that use non-renewable sources, the burning of fuel generates heat. the heat is used to create high-pressure, heated steam. A steam turbine pumps the steam into the shaft to push a series of blades to rotate within a generator. 3.2.RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATORS Continuously being replaced by nature, there are several different kinds of renewable energy sources, including wind, wave, and hydroelectric power. Solar radiation can also be used; no turbine or generator is involved in this type of power generation.
  7. 7. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 6 | P a g e 4. TRANSFORMERS Transformers (Figure 2) are electrical circuit devices used to change the voltage flow through the circuit. Transformers can either be used to increase or decrease the voltage. Energy is lost in the process of transmitting electricity long distances, such as during the journey from a power plant to your home. power loss is inversely proportional to voltage, so electrical utilities use high voltage in long-distance transmission wires. This high voltage is too dangerous to be used at home. Electrical utilities use transformers to change the voltage of electricity as it travels from the power plant to homes. The power plant voltage is stepped up using the transformers for long-distance transmission at the appropriate level. The voltage will be lowered later before it enters home with transformers once again. The voltages need to be increased before power is transmitted for great distances over power lines to the electrical power distribution network to work. One big issue is power loss between the power plant and users, because currents heat transmission lines with power. The transmitted power on the line = voltage x current. The higher the voltage the lower the flow, which is necessary to deliver the power within the transmission lines. Lower currents cause significantly less heating and much less loss of power. Figure 3: Transformer Figure 2: Transformer Diagram
  8. 8. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 7 | P a g e 5. DISTRIBUTION the distribution station is placed near or within the city/town/industrial area. It receives power from a transformer. The high voltage is decreased to the primary distribution level voltage from the transmission line. The typically primary distribution volt is 11 kV but depending on the area or the consumer this can vary from 2.4 to 33 kV. There is a standard distribution system consists of: 5.1.Distribution Substation 5.2.Distribution Transformers The distribution transformer provides final transformation in the electric power distribution system. It is a 3-phase step-down transformer. Distribution transformer steps down to 400V/230V. 5.3.Feeders A feeder is a conductor connecting the local sub-station to the area of power distribution. normally the current stays the same in the feeder because the feeder does not take tappings. 5.4.Distributor Conductors 5.5.Service Mains Conductors It is a short cable links the distributor conductor to the consumer end at the nearest pole. Figure 4: Distribution Power System
  9. 9. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 8 | P a g e 6. SUBSTATIONS An electric substation is a subsidiary station for generation, transmission, and distribution electrical systems where the voltage is transformed from high to low, vice versa. power may be transmitted between the generator and the user by several substations, and voltage is changed several times. A substation that has a step-up transformer which increases voltage and decreases current while a step-down transformer decreases voltage and increases the current for personal and commercial usage. substations are required for all the power system operation. substations are electrical equipment congregation through which customers receive electrical power from Generation plants. The required electrical quantity can be changed in substations, to offer quality power to consumers, by changing the voltage, frequency, or other elements. substations are classified into: Generation, Indoor, Outdoor, Pole-mounted, Switching, Transmission, Converter, and Distribution substations. Substations usually have one or more transformers with protection switching, and control devices. The circuit breakers are used in a large substation to interrupt any short circuit or overload currents that may happen on the system. For distribution circuits protection, smaller distribution stations are using re-closer fuses or circuit breakers. Substations do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. The substation consists of the following major electrical devices: Electrical Power Transformers, Instrument transformers, Conductors & Insulators, Isolators, Bus bars, Lightning arresters, Circuit breakers, Relays, Capacitor banks and miscellaneous equipment, power factor correction capacitor, voltage regulators.
  10. 10. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 9 | P a g e Figure 5: Insulators Figure 6: Circuit Breaker Figure 7: Lightning Arresters Figure 8: Substation
  11. 11. Benha University Faculty of Engineering - Shoubra Academic year 2019-2020 10 | P a g e References Blume, Steven Warren. Electric Power System Basics for the Nonelectrical Professional. IEEE Press, Wiley, 2017. El-Hawary, M. E. Introduction to Electrical Power Systems. Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. “Electric Power Delivery System.” Windows to the Universe, windows2universe.org/physical_science/physics/electricity/power_system_generator_to_homes.h tml. “Electrical Power System Components.” Electrical Academia, 7 July 2018, electricalacademia.com/electric-power/electrical-power-system-components/. Meier, Alexandra Von. Electric Power Systems: a Conceptual Introduction. Hoboken, N.J. : IEEE Press : Wiley-Interscience, 2006. Moursalou, et al. “What Is Power System? Definition & Structure of Power System.” Circuit Globe, 13 Dec. 2016, circuitglobe.com/power-system.html. Schavemaker, Pieter, and Lou Van der Sluis. Electrical Power System Essentials. Wiley Blackwell, 2017.

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