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The pharynx 2011

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The pharynx 2011

  1. 1. The Pharynx
  2. 2. The Pharynx A funnel-shaped muscular tube Extends from the base of the skull to C6 Lies behind  Nasal cavities - Nasopharynx  Oral cavity - Oropharynx  Larynx - Laryngopharynx Inferiorly continues with esophagus
  3. 3. Nasopharynx Oropharynx LaryngopharynxLarynx
  4. 4. Nasal Choanae Oropharyngeal IsthmusLaryngeal Inlet
  5. 5. Adenoid(Pharyngeal tonsil) Auditory tubeSoft palate
  6. 6. Auditory tube
  7. 7. Wall of the Pharynx Consists of three layers  Mucosal layer (mucous membrane)  Submucous layer  Muscular layer
  8. 8. Mucosal layer Lined by  Nasopharynx – Ciliated columnar epithelium  Oropharynx – Stratified squamous epithelium  Laryngopharynx - Stratified squamous epithelium
  9. 9. Submucous layer Fibrous layer Thick in the upper part where the muscular layer is deficient
  10. 10. Muscular layer Consists of  3 Circular muscles  3 Longitudinal muscles Constrictors Longitudinal Superior Stylopharyngeus Middle Palatopharyngeus Inferior Salpingopharyngeus
  11. 11. SalpingopharyngeusPalatopharyngeus
  12. 12. SalpingopharyngeusSuperior Constrictor Middle Constrictor Stylopharyngeus Inferior Constrictor Esophagus
  13. 13. Blood Supply Branches from  Arterial supply:  Ascending pharyngeal a.  Superior thyroid a.  Ascending palatine from the Facial a.  Greater palatine and pharyngeal Maxillary a.  Venous drainage  Pharyngeal venous plexus which drains into the internal jugular vein
  14. 14. Nerve Supply Sensory  Nasopharynx - V2  Oropharynx – Glossopharyngeal nerve  Laryngopharynx – Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves (Internal and recurrent laryngeal nerves) Motor  Allthe muscles are innervated by the vagus EXCEPT stylopharyngeus muscle which is supplied by the IX CN.
  15. 15. Nerve Supply Pharyngeal nerve plexus  Formed by the pharyngeal branches of the  Glossopharyngeal nerve  Vagus nerve  Sympathetic chain
  16. 16. Lymphatic drainage Retropharyngeal LN To the retropharyngeal LN and then to deep cervical LN Deep Cervical LN Directly to the deep cervical LN
  17. 17. Tonsils Four groups of submucous lymphoid collections.  Pharyngeal Tonsil  Palatine tonsil  Tubal Tonsil  Lingual Tonsil
  18. 18. Tonsils Adenoid (Pharyngeal tonsil) Tubal Tonsil Palatine tonsil Lingual tonsil

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