Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.


  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. “War is peace” this phrase from a book which was written by George Orwell (Orwell, p, 34,) and it shows how can wars create peace. Obviously, countries may live in peace after having a massive conflict with another nation. Iraq is that Arabian country which is located in the north of the Arab peninsula as well as neighbouring Syria, Turkey, and Iran surrounding it from West, North, and East respectively. In fact, this Middle Eastern country went through unpleasant, tremendous, and aggressive problems within the last five decades. During the past fifty years, Iraq had several conflicts with its neighbours that made the Iraqi authority to use deferent tactics just to protect their people from an expected invasion. Of course, Iraq has a great influence on the politic of Middle East region especially on politic, power and in deterrence. First, Iraq is one of the strongest players in the Middle East due to its location. Iraq has different parties, which has influenced all countries that neighbouring Iraq. In fact, Saddam Husain, who belongs to Ba’athist party, ruled Iraq for more than two decades with strong control over Iraqi foreign policy. For example, Iraq engaged with destructive and aggressive war against Iran for eight years of fighting which had influenced on the political relationship between Gulf States, and Iran because Arab supported Iraq during that war (Hunt, C, p. 90). The Arabian governments, especially Kuwait and Saudi regimes were threatening by Iraqi government power that persuaded them to finance Saddam Hussain against Iran. Obviously, that was a clear apply for soft power due to the Iraqi population and armed army, so that affected on political decisions in Gulf’s countries. Moreover, invasion of this southern peaceful country was a tremendous issue, which affected on the political matter in the Middle East, and even on the international failed. After Iraqi army, invaded Kuwait shocked the Arabian countries as well developing countries such as the U.S and United Kingdom. Indeed, this cruel action gathered thirty states under the low of the United Nation with one aim which is overthrow Saddam Hussain from Kuwait( Fattah, p . 229-231). The invention of Kuwait had changed and affected on the political issue of the region and the rest of the world as well.
  2. 2. Second, Iraq has much power compared to its neighbours, and the reason for that is the number of the Iraqi army that formed the perception and decisions of the former Iraqi government. Thus, Iraq and Iran had fought for eight years during 1980s over the Shatt Al-Arab waterway, and both sides relied of their hard power. According to Fattah, “Armies, air forces, and navies, the bombing of the important oil-refining towns of the Shatt al-Arab […] poison gas attack,” (Fattah. pp 223, 224). What we can infer from that quote is that Iraq and Iran took their decision to protect their proprieties by using all available weapons they had. On the other hand, there were able to meet and negotiate the best solution for that conflict by using soft power, but Saddam and his regime made the same mistake when they used hard power again as a failure solution to solve their conflict with Kuwait. The main reason for invade Kuwait was the oil prices, and Iraq was in debt because they spent a huge amount of money during the Iraq-Iran war (Hunt, 94.) This led to debt to Kuwait for about 13 billion dollar. Saddam wanted the Kuwaiti government to reschedule the Iraqi debt, but they refused which was a source of Iraqi-Kuwaiti conflict (Hunt. 96-97). As a sequence for Kuwait invasion, the allies of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were ready to operate the war against Saddam; this war is called Desert Storm that lasted for almost one month and half. To sum up, hard power seemed as the first choice for Saddam regime. Finally, Iraqi government used deterrence during the war against Iran as well as against Iraqi people by the U.S. The regime in Iraq was really smart because they had threaten their neighboring countries by announcing misleading information that they have mass destruction weapons which gave them more advantages to be on the head of Middle East countries. The truth is that, Iraq had no nuclear weapons, but this information was announced by the U.S. as a part of propaganda the U.S. used against Saddam’s regime. According to Butler, “Saddam is back in the business of developing nuclear weapons. (Iraqi defectors say he already has them.) This quote shows how the U.S revealed invalid information about Iraq’s army ability, which made other countries in the U.N, supported the invasion of Iraq as it happened in 2003. Furthermore,
  3. 3. the Iraq’s army started again building factors, which would help them to develop their chemical and biological bombs (Butler, p. vii). Moreover, Iraqi Government announced information that supported them when American army invade Iraq in 2003, and all of that information was announced by the minister of information whose name is Mohammed Saeed Al-Sahhaf. (Demers. P 169.) Propaganda was an effective tactic during when the Iraq was invaded by the U.S. in 2003. The information minister AL-Sahhaf tried his best to serve his country against the American army. For example, AL-Sahhaf announced that the Iraqi army was killing the invaders outside Baghdad, and the U.S solders were trapped in different areas such in Saddam’s airport. However, the truth was that Iraq was collapsing because the Iraq army was suffering fighting against the U.S due to the lack of fighting equipments, and shiiah and Kurds took their chance to rise against Saddam’s regime. Iraq lost its position on the political stage of diplomacy, especially in the Middle East as they lost their effective influence on the international stage for different factors that are related to American invasion, and due to civil war that started after the Iraqi governments collapse. Additionally, lack of control over different parties has created many problems for the government such as creating appropriate environment for terrorists to have basis in Iraq. Over all, Iraqi people have been practicing war for fifty years without finding any solution for their crises during that period; they have seen the sequences of conflicts that they had against their neighbors, yet against each other inside Iraq. Obviously, the right solutions to stabilize Iraq are agreeing to negotiate the issue by allowing wise people to practice using soft power when it is affective beside of using hard power when it is necessary which will give them the power to defer whoever has an aim to take over their country.